شارل دو مونتسکیو

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به ناوبری پرش به جستجو
فارسیEnglish
شارل دو مونتسکیو
Montesquieu 1.png
نقاشی چهره مونتسکیو
زاده۱۸ ژانویه ۱۶۸۹
ناحیه آکیتن، فرانسه
درگذشته۱۰ فوریهٔ ۱۷۵۵ (۶۶ سال)
پاریس، فرانسه فرانسه
دورهعصر روشنگری
منطقهفلسفه غرب
مکتبعصر روشنگری
مهمترین علایقفلسفه سیاسی
ایده‌های اصلیجدایی قوا: قوه مجریه، قوه مقننه، قوه قضائیه; تقسیم‌بندی سیستم حاکمیت بر اساس مسئولیتهایشان

شارل-لوئی دو سکوندا (به فرانسوی: Charles-Louis de Secondat) یا بارون دو مونتسکیو (به فرانسوی: Baron de Montesquieu)، یکی از متفکران سیاسی فرانسه در عصر روشنگری که در سال ۱۶۸۹ در بوردو از شهرهای فرانسه زاده شد. همه قبیله او از نژادگان و اشراف و در زمره حقوق دانان بودند. حقوق خواند و در سال ۱۷۰۸ به دادستانی پرداخت و سر آخر وکیل دادگستری شد. در سال ۱۷۱۳ پس از مرگ پدر به رایزنی حقوقی مجلس برگزیده شد.

دو مونتسکیو به پژوهش‌های علمی، تاریخی و حقوقی توجه ویژه داشت و چون از وضع آن زمان کشور نا خرسند بود با نام مستعار کتابی زیر عنوان نامه‌های ایرانی منتشر ساخت و چون مورد توجه واقع گشت به عضویت فرهنگستان فرانسه برگزیده شد (سال ۱۷۲۷). رفته رفته دست از دادستانی کشید و به تدوین اثر نام‌آور خویش، روح القوانین پرداخت، این کتاب با اقبال عمومی روبرو شد و بعدها نیز از مضامین آن در اداره کشورها و دولت‌ها بهره بسیاری گرفته شد. مونتسکیو بر این باور بود که انقلاب و شورش و خون‌ریزی کاری از پیش نمی‌برد و آنچه یک جامعه نیاز دارد قانون است. میانه‌روی در سیاست از ویژگی‌های برجسته مونتسکیو بود و چون روحانیان «روح‌القوانین» او را بی‌ارزش دانستند نوشتاری بر دفاع از کتاب خویش نوشت.

مونتسکیو در سال ۱۷۵۵ پس از سفرهای بسیار به کشورهای گوناگون جهان در پاریس درگذشت.

دیدگاه سیاسی[ویرایش]

مونتسکیو حکومت دموکراسی به سبک باستان را مرجع دانسته و اضمحلال حکومت‌های خودکامه را آرزو می‌کند. دیدگاه سیاسی منتسکیو مجذوب مشروطه سلطنتی به سبک بریتانیای کبیر است و در عین حال تشکیل حکومت را بر اساس خصوصیت‌های ملی تجویز می‌نماید. تجزیه قوای سه‌گانه (مجریه- قضائیه- مقننه)، مبین آگاهی وسیع حقوقی-سیاسی و بینش عدالت‌خواهی منتسکیو است که در قانون اساسی بسیاری از دولت‌ها به تحقق پیوسته‌است. از آنجائی که بریتانیا فاقد یک قانون اساسی مدون بود و مجموعه قوانین موجود در آن کشور به‌طور پراکنده و ناهمگون وضع شده بود، منتسکیو به عنوان بهترین مرجع برای رده‌بندی و روشمند نمودن متن قانون اساسی نوین بریتانیا انتخاب شد. افسران جوان فرانسوی که در جنگ‌های استقلال آمریکا در کنار آمریکایی‌ها مبارزه کرده بودند پس از بازگشت به فرانسه استبدادی ناقل قانون اساسی بودند که منتسکیو در بریتانیا تدوین کرده بود. این قانون اساسی مورد قبول آمریکاییان واقع شد و سرانجام در آستانه انقلاب فرانسه به دست فرانسویان رسید.

کارها[ویرایش]

منتسکیو دارای دو اثر بسیار شناخته شده‌است که عبارتند از:

معروفیت سریع منتسکیو با نوشتن «نامه‌های ایرانی»[۱] در سال ۱۷۲۱ میلادی به اوج خود رسید. این نامه‌ها مکاتبات دو نفر ایرانی را که در فرانسه به گشت و گذار مشغولند منعکس کرده و نظرات آن‌ها را در مورد فرانسه و به‌طور کلی اروپا، به سبکی طنزآمیز مطرح می‌نماید. این کتاب یکی از نمونه‌های اولیه دیالوگ فرهنگ‌ها محسوب می‌شود. منتسکیو در کتاب «بازنگری علل عظمت و سقوط روم»[۲] که در سال ۱۷۳۴ میلادی منتشر کرد، مانند نیکلای ماکیاولی وسعت مرزهای حکومت را یکی از دلایل سقوط آن بررسی نموده‌است. منتسکیو با انتشار کتاب «روح القوانین»[۳] در سال ۱۷۴۸ میلادی، علوم سیاسی را در ردیف فرهنگ فلسفی قرار داد. علاوه بر نظرات دوران باستان پیرامون اشکال مختلف حکومت (دموکراسی- سلطنتی- تحمیلی)، به تحقیق و تحلیل در ارتباط با اتکای آن‌ها به طبیعت، به ویژه مرزهای جغرافیائی و شرایط آب و هوا، پرداخته‌است. هنر وی در تشریح دولت به این مهم بازمی‌گردد که نه تنها به عنوان یک دستگاه سیاسی بلکه در رابطه‌ای تنگاتنگ با خصلت‌های اجتماعی، حقوقی، اقتصادی و اخلاقی آن ملت همچنین ارتباط میان مردمی و ساختار عمومی متأثر از عوامل طبیعی، مورد مداقه قرار داده‌است. روح القوانین یکی از مهم‌ترین آثار منتسکیو در جنبش روشنگری فرانسه محسوب می‌شود. این کتاب در تدوین اساسنامه ایالات متحده آمریکا و اساسنامه شورای انقلاب فرانسه در سال ۱۷۹۱ مؤثر بوده‌است.

آثار منتشر شده[ویرایش]

از جمله آثار طنز- فلسفی منتسکیو رمان معروف «مقبرهٔ گنیده»[۴] در سال ۱۷۲۵ میلادی و «تاریخ حقیقی»[۴] می‌باشد. کلمات قصار و جملات برجسته و پندآمیز وی که از نوشته‌های پراکنده و دفتری خاطرات گونه باقی مانده‌است، به نام «اندیشه‌های ناشناخته»[۵] نیز منتشر شده‌است.

سال‌شمار زندگی[ویرایش]

Lettres familieres a divers amis d'Italie, 1767
  • ۱۸ ژانویه سال ۱۶۸۹: تولد شارل-لوییدوسگواندا در قصر لابرد نزدیک شهر بوردو.
  • سال‌های ۱۷۰۵–۱۷۰۰: تحصیلات متوسطه در نزد پیروان کلسیای اراتو آر، درژویی.
  • سال‌های ۱۷۹۰ – ۱۷۰۸: تحصیلات حقوق در بوردو و سپس در پاریس.
  • سال ۱۷۱۴: پذیرفته شدن مونتسکیو به عنوان مشاور در پارلمان بوردو.
  • سال ۱۷۱۵: ازدواج با ژان دولارتیگ.
  • سال ۱۷۱۶: انتخاب مونتسکیو به عنوان عضو فرهنگستان بوردو: در این تاریخ وی منصب عمویش را که ریاست دادگاه استیناف بود همراه با اموال و لقب «مونتسکیو» از او به ارث می‌برد.
  • سال‌های ۱۷۲۱–۱۷۱۷: مونتسکیو به مطالعهٔ علوم می‌پردازد و رسالاتی در بارهٔ انعکاس صوت، غدد میانگانی، شفافیت، سنگینی اجسام و از این دست می‌نویسد.
  • سال ۱۷۲۱: انتشار کتاب نامه‌های ایرانی بدون ذکر نام نویسنده. این کتاب بیدرنگ مشهور خاص و عام می‌شود.
  • سال‌های ۱۷۲۳ –۱۷۲۲: اقامت در پاریس و معاشرت با طبقهٔ اشراف. مونتسکیو در این تاریخ با اطرافیان دوک دو بو ربون هه نو، مورخ و شاعر فرانسوی و رئیس پارلمان، مارکیزدوپری، و در مجمع ادبی مادام لامبر، و باشگاه آنترسول رفت‌وآمد دارد و اثر خویش موسوم به گفتگوی سیلا و اوکرات را در همین باشگاه می‌خواند.
  • سال ۱۷۲۵: انتشار معبد گنید بدون نام نویسنده. بازگشت مونتسکیو به بوردو و کناره‌گیری از سمت ریاست دادگاه و مراجعت به پاریس.

وی بعدها در اندیشه‌هایش چنین نوشت: «آنچه باعث شده که من همواره نسبت به خودم عقیدهٔ بدی داشته باشم این است که خیلی کم از امور جمهوری وجود دارد که من حقیقتاً استعدادی برای آن در خود ببینم. در شغل ریاست دادگاه باید بگویم که قلبم بسیار پاک بود. خود مسائل را به حد کافی می‌فهمیدم اما از تشریفات دادگاهی سردر نمی‌آوردم. مع‌ذلک خودم را با این‌گونه امور وفق داده بودم ولی آنچه بیش از همه موجب دلزدگی من می‌گردید این بود که حیواناتی را می‌دیدم که همان استعدادی را که من فاقد آن بودم به حد کافی دارا بودند».

  • سال ۱۷۲۸: انتخاب مونتسکیو به عضویت فرهنگستان فرانسه. عزیمت او به کشورهای آلمان، اتریش، سوئیس، ایتالیا، و هلند. در طی همین دوره لرد چسترفیلد وی را به بریتانیا می‌خواند.
  • سال‌های ۱۷۳۰–۱۷۲۹: اقامت در بریتانیا.
  • سال ۱۷۳۱: بازگشت به قصر لابرد و اقامت در آنجا برای نگارش روح القوانین.
  • سال ۱۷۳۴: انتشار ملاحظاتی در بارهٔ علل عظمت و انحطاط رومیان.
  • سال ۱۷۴۸: انتشار روح القوانین که در ژنو و بدون نام نویسنده چاپ شده بود. کتاب با استقبال بزرگ روبرو شد.
  • سال ۱۷۵۰: دفاع مونتسکیو از روح القوانین در پاسخ حملات آباء یسوع و ژانسنیست‌ها.
  • سال ۱۷۵۴: تدوین جستاری در بارهٔ ذوق برای دانشنامه به تقاضای دالامبر (انتشار در ۱۷۵۶).
  • ۱۰ فوریه سال ۱۷۵۵: مرگ مونتسکیو در پاریس.

پانویس و مراجع[ویرایش]

  1. Lettres Persanes
  2. Considérations sur les causes de la grandeur des Romains et de leur décadence
  3. De l'esprit des lois
  4. ۴٫۰ ۴٫۱ Le temple de Gnide
  5. Pensées et fragments inédits

پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]

Montesquieu
Charles Montesquieu.jpg
Portrait by an anonymous artist, 1728
Born18 January 1689
Died10 February 1755(1755-02-10) (aged 66)
Paris, France
Era18th-century philosophy
RegionWestern philosophy
SchoolEnlightenment
Classical liberalism
Main interests
Political philosophy
Notable ideas
Separation of state powers: executive, legislative, judicial; classification of systems of government based on their principles

Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (/ˈmɒntəskj/;[2] French: [mɔ̃tɛskjø]; 18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of letters, and political philosopher.

He is famous for his articulation of the theory of separation of powers, which is implemented in many constitutions throughout the world. He is also known for doing more than any other author to secure the place of the word "despotism" in the political lexicon.[3] His anonymously published The Spirit of the Laws in 1748, which was received well in both Great Britain and the American colonies, influenced the Founding Fathers in drafting the United States Constitution.

Biography

Château de la Brède

Montesquieu was born at the Château de la Brède in southwest France, 25 kilometres (16 mi) south of Bordeaux.[4] His father, Jacques de Secondat, was a soldier with a long noble ancestry. His mother, Marie Françoise de Pesnel, who died when Charles was seven, was an heiress who brought the title of Barony of La Brède to the Secondat family.[5] After the death of his mother he was sent to the Catholic College of Juilly, a prominent school for the children of French nobility, where he remained from 1700 to 1711.[6] His father died in 1713 and he became a ward of his uncle, the Baron de Montesquieu.[7] He became a counselor of the Bordeaux Parliament in 1714. The next year, he married the Protestant Jeanne de Lartigue, who eventually bore him three children.[8] The Baron died in 1716, leaving him his fortune as well as his title, and the office of président à mortier in the Bordeaux Parliament.[9]

Montesquieu's early life occurred at a time of significant governmental change. England had declared itself a constitutional monarchy in the wake of its Glorious Revolution (1688–89), and had joined with Scotland in the Union of 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. In France, the long-reigning Louis XIV died in 1715 and was succeeded by the five-year-old Louis XV. These national transformations had a great impact on Montesquieu; he would refer to them repeatedly in his work.

The title page of the first volume of Montesquieu's De l'Esprit des loix (1st ed., 1748)

Montesquieu withdrew from the practice of law to devote himself to study and writing. He achieved literary success with the publication of his 1721 Persian Letters, a satire representing society as seen through the eyes of two imaginary Persian visitors to Paris and Europe, cleverly criticizing the absurdities of contemporary French society. He next published Considerations on the Causes of the Greatness of the Romans and their Decline (1734), considered by some scholars, among his three best known books, as a transition from The Persian Letters to his master work. The Spirit of the Laws was originally published anonymously in 1748. The book quickly rose to influence political thought profoundly in Europe and America. In France, the book met with an unfriendly reception from both supporters and opponents of the regime. The Catholic Church banned The Spirit – along with many of Montesquieu's other works – in 1751 and included it on the Index of Prohibited Books. It received the highest praise from the rest of Europe, especially Britain.

Montesquieu was also highly regarded in the British colonies in North America as a champion of liberty (though not of American independence). According to one political scientist, he was the most frequently quoted authority on government and politics in colonial pre-revolutionary British America, cited more by the American founders than any source except for the Bible.[10] Following the American Revolution, Montesquieu's work remained a powerful influence on many of the American founders, most notably James Madison of Virginia, the "Father of the Constitution". Montesquieu's philosophy that "government should be set up so that no man need be afraid of another"[11] reminded Madison and others that a free and stable foundation for their new national government required a clearly defined and balanced separation of powers.

Lettres familières à divers amis d'Italie, 1767

Besides composing additional works on society and politics, Montesquieu traveled for a number of years through Europe including Austria and Hungary, spending a year in Italy and 18 months in England, where he became a freemason, admitted to the Horn Tavern Lodge in Westminster,[12] before resettling in France. He was troubled by poor eyesight, and was completely blind by the time he died from a high fever in 1755. He was buried in the Église Saint-Sulpice, Paris.

Philosophy of history

Montesquieu's philosophy of history minimized the role of individual persons and events. He expounded the view in Considérations sur les causes de la grandeur des Romains et de leur décadence that each historical event was driven by a principal movement:

It is not chance that rules the world. Ask the Romans, who had a continuous sequence of successes when they were guided by a certain plan, and an uninterrupted sequence of reverses when they followed another. There are general causes, moral and physical, which act in every monarchy, elevating it, maintaining it, or hurling it to the ground. All accidents are controlled by these causes. And if the chance of one battle—that is, a particular cause—has brought a state to ruin, some general cause made it necessary for that state to perish from a single battle. In a word, the main trend draws with it all particular accidents.[13]

In discussing the transition from the Republic to the Empire, he suggested that if Caesar and Pompey had not worked to usurp the government of the Republic, other men would have risen in their place. The cause was not the ambition of Caesar or Pompey, but the ambition of man.

Political views

Montesquieu is credited as being among the progenitors, which include Herodotus and Tacitus, of anthropology, as being among the first to extend comparative methods of classification to the political forms in human societies. Indeed, the French political anthropologist Georges Balandier considered Montesquieu to be "the initiator of a scientific enterprise that for a time performed the role of cultural and social anthropology".[14] According to social anthropologist D. F. Pocock, Montesquieu's The Spirit of the Laws was "the first consistent attempt to survey the varieties of human society, to classify and compare them and, within society, to study the inter-functioning of institutions."[15] Montesquieu's political anthropology gave rise to his theories on government. When Catherine the Great wrote her Nakaz (Instruction) for the Legislative Assembly she had created to clarify the existing Russian law code, she avowed borrowing heavily from Montesquieu's Spirit of the Laws, although she discarded or altered portions that did not support Russia's absolutist bureaucratic monarchy.[16]

Montesquieu's most influential work divided French society into three classes (or trias politica, a term he coined): the monarchy, the aristocracy, and the commons. Montesquieu saw two types of governmental power existing: the sovereign and the administrative. The administrative powers were the executive, the legislative, and the judicial. These should be separate from and dependent upon each other so that the influence of any one power would not be able to exceed that of the other two, either singly or in combination. This was a radical idea because it completely eliminated the three Estates structure of the French Monarchy: the clergy, the aristocracy, and the people at large represented by the Estates-General, thereby erasing the last vestige of a feudalistic structure.

His famous articulation of the theory of the separation of powers is found in The Spirit of the Laws:

«IN every government there are three sorts of power: the legislative; the executive in respect to things dependent on the law of nations; and the executive in regard to matters that depend on the civil law.» «By virtue of the first, the prince or magistrate enacts temporary or perpetual laws, and amends or abrogates those that have been already enacted. By the second, he makes peace or war, sends or receives embassies, establishes the public security, and provides against invasions. By the third, he punishes criminals, or determines the disputes that arise between individuals. The latter we shall call the judiciary power, and the other, simply, the executive power of the state.»

Montesquieu argues that each Power should only exercise its own functions, it was quite explicit here:

«When the legislative and executive powers are united in the same person, or in the same body of magistrates, there can be no liberty; because apprehensions may arise, lest the same monarch or senate should enact tyrannical laws, to execute them in a tyrannical manner.»

«Again, there is no liberty if the judiciary power be not separated from the legislative and executive. Were it joined with the legislative, the life and liberty of the subject would be exposed to arbitrary controul; for the judge would be then the legislator. Were it joined to the executive power, the judge might behave with violence and oppression.»

«There would be an end of every thing, were the same man, or the same body, whether of the nobles or of the people, to exercise those three powers, that of enacting laws, that of executing the public resolutions, and of trying the causes of individuals.»

If the legislative branch appoints the executive and judicial powers, as Montesquieu indicated, there will be no separation or division of its powers, since the power to appoint carries with it the power to revoke.

«The executive power ought to be in the hands of a monarch, because this branch of government, having need of dispatch, is better administered by one than by many: on the other hand, whatever depends on the legislative power, is oftentimes better regulated by many than by a single person.» «But, if there were no monarch, and the executive power should be committed to a certain number of persons, selected from the legislative body, there would be an end of liberty, by reason the two powers would be united; as the same persons would sometimes possess, and would be always able to possess, a share in both.»

Likewise, there were three main forms of government, each supported by a social "principle": monarchies (free governments headed by a hereditary figure, e.g. king, queen, emperor), which rely on the principle of honor; republics (free governments headed by popularly elected leaders), which rely on the principle of virtue; and despotisms (enslaved governments headed by dictators), which rely on fear. The free governments are dependent on fragile constitutional arrangements. Montesquieu devotes four chapters of The Spirit of the Laws to a discussion of England, a contemporary free government, where liberty was sustained by a balance of powers. Montesquieu worried that in France the intermediate powers (i.e., the nobility) which moderated the power of the prince were being eroded. These ideas of the control of power were often used in the thinking of Maximilien Robespierre.

Montesquieu advocated reform of slavery in The Spirit of the Laws. As part of his advocacy he presented a satirical hypothetical list of arguments for slavery.

While addressing French readers of his General Theory, John Maynard Keynes described Montesquieu as "the real French equivalent of Adam Smith, the greatest of your economists, head and shoulders above the physiocrats in penetration, clear-headedness and good sense (which are the qualities an economist should have)."[19]

Meteorological climate theory

Another example of Montesquieu's anthropological thinking, outlined in The Spirit of the Laws and hinted at in Persian Letters, is his meteorological climate theory, which holds that climate may substantially influence the nature of man and his society. By placing an emphasis on environmental influences as a material condition of life, Montesquieu prefigured modern anthropology's concern with the impact of material conditions, such as available energy sources, organized production systems, and technologies, on the growth of complex socio-cultural systems.

He goes so far as to assert that certain climates are superior to others, the temperate climate of France being ideal. His view is that people living in very warm countries are "too hot-tempered", while those in northern countries are "icy" or "stiff". The climate of middle Europe is therefore optimal. On this point, Montesquieu may well have been influenced by a similar pronouncement in The Histories of Herodotus, where he makes a distinction between the "ideal" temperate climate of Greece as opposed to the overly cold climate of Scythia and the overly warm climate of Egypt. This was a common belief at the time, and can also be found within the medical writings of Herodotus' times, including the "On Airs, Waters, Places" of the Hippocratic corpus. One can find a similar statement in Germania by Tacitus, one of Montesquieu's favorite authors.

Philip M. Parker in his book Physioeconomics endorses Montesquieu's theory and argues that much of the economic variation between countries is explained by the physiological effect of different climates.

From a sociological perspective Louis Althusser, in his analysis of Montesquieu's revolution in method,[20] alluded to the seminal character of anthropology's inclusion of material factors, such as climate, in the explanation of social dynamics and political forms. Examples of certain climatic and geographical factors giving rise to increasingly complex social systems include those that were conducive to the rise of agriculture and the domestication of wild plants and animals.

List of principal works

  • Memoirs and discourses at the Academy of Bordeaux (1718–1721): including discourses on echoes, on the renal glands, on weight of bodies, on transparency of bodies and on natural history.
  • Spicilège (Gleanings, 1715 onward)
  • Système des idées (System of Ideas, 1716)
  • Lettres persanes (Persian Letters, 1721)
  • Le Temple de Gnide (The Temple of Gnidos, a prose poem; 1725)
  • Histoire véritable (True History, a reverie; c. 1723–c. 1738)
  • Considérations sur les causes de la grandeur des Romains et de leur décadence (Considerations on the Causes of the Greatness of the Romans and their Decline, 1734) at Gallica
  • Arsace et Isménie (Arsace and Isménie, a novel; 1742)
  • De l'esprit des lois ((On) The Spirit of the Laws, 1748) (volume 1 and volume 2 from Gallica)
  • La défense de «L'Esprit des lois» (In Defence of "The Spirit of the Laws", 1750)
  • Essai sur le goût (Essay on Taste, pub. 1757)
  • Mes Pensées (My Thoughts, 1720–1755)

A definitive edition of Montesquieu's works is being published by the Société Montesquieu. It is planned to total 22 volumes, of which (at February 2018) half have appeared.[21]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Ousselin, Edward (2009). "French Political Thought from Montesquieu to Tocqueville: Liberty in a Levelled Society? (review)". French Studies: A Quarterly Review. 63 (2): 219.
  2. ^ "Montesquieu". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  3. ^ Boesche 1990, p. 1.
  4. ^ "Google Maps".
  5. ^ Sorel, A. Montesquieu. London, George Routledge & Sons, 1887 (Ulan Press reprint, 2011), p. 10. ASIN B00A5TMPHC
  6. ^ Sorel (1887), p. 11.
  7. ^ Sore (1887), p. 12.
  8. ^ Sorel (1887), pp. 11–12.
  9. ^ Sorel (1887), pp. 12–13.
  10. ^ Lutz 1984.
  11. ^ Montesquieu, The Spirit of the Laws, Book 11, Chapter 6, "Of the Constitution of England." Archived 28 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library, Retrieved 1 August 2012
  12. ^ Berman 2012, p. 150.
  13. ^ Montesquieu (1734), Considerations on the Causes of the Greatness of the Romans and their Decline, The Free Press, retrieved 30 November 2011 Ch. XVIII.
  14. ^ Balandier 1970, p. 3.
  15. ^ Pocock 1961, p. 9.
    Tomaselli 2006, p. 9, similarly describes it as "among the most intellectually challenging and inspired contributions to political theory in the eighteenth century. [... It] set the tone and form of modern social and political thought."
  16. ^ Ransel 1975, p. 179.
  17. ^ a b c "Montesquieu, Complete Works, vol. 1 (The Spirit of Laws)". oll.libertyfund.org. Retrieved 11 March 2018.
  18. ^ a b c "Esprit des lois (1777)/L11/C6 - Wikisource". fr.wikisource.org (in French). Retrieved 11 March 2018.
  19. ^ See the preface Archived 10 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine to the French edition of Keynes' General Theory.
    See also Devletoglou 1963.
  20. ^ Althusser 1972.
  21. ^ "Œuvres complètes". Institut d'histoire des représentations et des idées dans les modernités. Retrieved 28 February 2018.

Bibliography

Articles and chapters

Boesche, Roger (1990). "Fearing Monarchs and Merchants: Montesquieu's Two Theories of Despotism". The Western Political Quarterly. 43 (4): 741–61. doi:10.1177/106591299004300405. JSTOR 448734.
Devletoglou, Nicos E. (1963). "Montesquieu and the Wealth of Nations". The Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science. 29 (1): 1–25. JSTOR 139366.
Lutz, Donald S. (1984). "The Relative Influence of European Writers on Late Eighteenth-Century American Political Thought". American Political Science Review. 78 (1): 189–97. doi:10.2307/1961257. JSTOR 1961257.
Person, James Jr., ed., "Montesquieu" (excerpts from chap. 8). in Literature Criticism from 1400 to 1800 (Gale Publishing: 1988), vol. 7, pp. 350–52.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
Tomaselli, Sylvana. "The spirit of nations". In Mark Goldie and Robert Wokler, eds., The Cambridge History of Eighteenth-Century Political Thought (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006). pp. 9–39.

Books

Althusser, Louis, Politics and History: Montesquieu, Rousseau, Marx (London and New York, NY: New Left Books, 1972).
Auden, W. H.; Kronenberger, Louis, The Viking Book of Aphorisms (New York, NY: Viking Press, 1966).
Balandier, Georges, Political Anthropology (London: Allen Lane, 1970).
Berman, Ric (2012), The Foundations of Modern Freemasonry: The Grand Architects – Political Change and the Scientific Enlightenment, 1714–1740 (Eastbourne: Sussex Academic Press, 2012).
Pangle, Thomas, Montesquieu's Philosophy of Liberalism (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1973).
Pocock, D. F., Social Anthropology (London and New York, NY: Sheed and Ward, 1961).
Ransel, David L., The Politics of Catherinian Russia: The Panin Party (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1975).
Schaub, Diana J., Erotic Liberalism: Women and Revolution in Montesquieu's 'Persian Letters' (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1995).
Shackleton, Robert, Montesquieu; a Critical Biography (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1961).
Shklar, Judith, Montesquieu (Oxford Past Masters series). (Oxford and New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1989).
Spurlin, Paul M., Montesquieu in America, 1760–1801 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1941; reprint, New York: Octagon Books, 1961).

External links