یکی از تفاوتهای اصلی این سیاهچاله چگالی کمتر آنهاست. چگالی سیاهچالهها جرم آن تقسیم بر حجم ناشی از شعاع شوارتزشیلد است. این مقدار میتواند کمتر از چگالی آب باشد. علت آن این است که شعاع شوارتزشیلد سیاهچاله به طور خطی با جرم افزایش مییابد پس میتوان آن را به صورت زیر نوشت:
که در آن R، شعاع سیاهچاله، M، جرم آن و k ضریب تناسب است.
و بنابرین داریم:
و به همین دلیل هرچه سیاهچاله پرجرمتر باشد چگالی آن کمتر است و همچنین به علت بزرگ بودن افق رویداد، نیروی تیدال سیاهچالههای کلانجرم به طرز قابل ملاحظهای کمتر است.
جرم این سیاهچالهها به خاطر بلعیدن اجرام دور خود همواره افزایش مییابد و این بلعیدن موجب فعال شدن ظاهر مرکز سیاهچاله در طیف الکترومغناطیسی و مخصوصا انرژی بالا میشود به همین دلیل تصور میرود این سیاهچاله مسئول فعالیت قوی اختروشها باشند. درخشندگی سیاهچالههای کلانجرم در اختروشها بین ده تا صدبرابر درخشندگی بقیه اختروش است. همچنین تصور بر این است که هسته کهکشانی فعال (AGN) نیز سیاهچاله باشد.
از محاسبه روی مدار این ستاره جرم مرکز گردش ۴٫۱ میلیون جرم خورشید به دست میآید.
اندازه این جرم مرکزی وضوحاًً باید کمتر از ۱۷ ساعت نوری باشد و گرنه ستاره اس۲ با آن برخورد میکند یا به خاطر نیروی تیدال تکهتکه میشد. در واقع در مشاهدات جدید نشان میدهد که این شعاع نباید بیشتر ۶٫۲۵ ساعت نوری یعنی به اندازه قطر مدار اورانوس باشد.
فقط یک سیاهچاله میتواند در چنین حجمی چنین جرمی را جا دهد.
"This artist’s impression shows the surroundings of a supermassive black hole, typical of that found at the heart of many galaxies. The black hole itself is surrounded by a brilliant accretion disc of very hot, infalling material and, further out, a dusty torus. There are also often high-speed jets of material ejected at the black hole’s poles that can extend huge distances into space."
Supermassive black holes have properties that distinguish them from lower-mass classifications. First, the average density of a SMBH (defined as the mass of the black hole divided by the volume within its Schwarzschild radius) can be less than the density of water in the case of some SMBHs. This is because the Schwarzschild radius is directly proportional to mass, while density is inversely proportional to the volume. Since the volume of a spherical object (such as the event horizon of a non-rotating black hole) is directly proportional to the cube of the radius, the density of a black hole is inversely proportional to the square of the mass, and thus higher mass black holes have lower average density. In addition, the tidal forces in the vicinity of the event horizon are significantly weaker for massive black holes. As with density, the tidal force on a body at the event horizon is inversely proportional to the square of the mass: a person on the surface of the Earth and one at the event horizon of a 10 million M☉ black hole experience about the same tidal force between their head and feet. Unlike with stellar mass black holes, one would not experience significant tidal force until very deep into the black hole.
History of research
Donald Lynden-Bell and Martin Rees hypothesized in 1971 that the center of the Milky Way galaxy would contain a supermassive black hole. Sagittarius A* was discovered and named on February 13 and 15, 1974, by astronomers Bruce Balick and Robert Brown using the Green Bank Interferometer of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. They discovered a radio source that emits synchrotron radiation; it was found to be dense and immobile because of its gravitation. This was, therefore, the first indication that a supermassive black hole exists in the center of the Milky Way.
An artist's conception of a supermassive black hole and accretion disk
The origin of supermassive black holes remains an open field of research. Astrophysicists agree that once a black hole is in place in the center of a galaxy, it can grow by accretion of matter and by merging with other black holes. There are, however, several hypotheses for the formation mechanisms and initial masses of the progenitors, or "seeds", of supermassive black holes.
One hypothesis is that the seeds are black holes of tens or perhaps hundreds of solar masses that are left behind by the explosions of massive stars and grow by accretion of matter. Another model hypothesizes that before the first stars, large gas clouds could collapse into a "quasi-star", which would in turn collapse into a black hole of around 20 M☉. The "quasi-star" becomes unstable to radial perturbations because of electron-positron pair production in its core and could collapse directly into a black hole without a supernova explosion (which would eject most of its mass, preventing the black hole from growing as fast). Given sufficient mass nearby, the black hole could accrete to become intermediate-mass black hole and possibly a SMBH if the accretion rate persists.
Artist's illustration of galaxy with jets from a supermassive black hole.
Another model involves a dense stellar cluster undergoing core-collapse as the negative heat capacity of the system drives the velocity dispersion in the core to relativistic speeds. Finally, primordial black holes could have been produced directly from external pressure in the first moments after the Big Bang. These primordial black holes would then have more time than any of the above models to accrete, allowing them sufficient time to reach supermassive sizes. Formation of black holes from the deaths of the first stars has been extensively studied and corroborated by observations. The other models for black hole formation listed above are theoretical.
The difficulty in forming a supermassive black hole resides in the need for enough matter to be in a small enough volume. This matter needs to have very little angular momentum in order for this to happen. Normally, the process of accretion involves transporting a large initial endowment of angular momentum outwards, and this appears to be the limiting factor in black hole growth. This is a major component of the theory of accretion disks. Gas accretion is the most efficient and also the most conspicuous way in which black holes grow. The majority of the mass growth of supermassive black holes is thought to occur through episodes of rapid gas accretion, which are observable as active galactic nuclei or quasars. Observations reveal that quasars were much more frequent when the Universe was younger, indicating that supermassive black holes formed and grew early. A major constraining factor for theories of supermassive black hole formation is the observation of distant luminous quasars, which indicate that supermassive black holes of billions of solar masses had already formed when the Universe was less than one billion years old. This suggests that supermassive black holes arose very early in the Universe, inside the first massive galaxies.
Artist’s impression of stars born in winds from supermassive black holes.
A vacancy exists in the observed mass distribution of black holes. Black holes that spawn from dying stars have masses 5–80 M☉. The minimal supermassive black hole is approximately a hundred thousand solar masses. Mass scales between these ranges are dubbed intermediate-mass black holes. Such a gap suggests a different formation process. However, some models suggest that ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) may be black holes from this missing group.
There is, however, an upper limit to how large supermassive black holes can grow. So-called ultramassive black holes (UMBHs), which are at least ten times the size of supermassive black holes, appear to have a theoretical upper limit of around 50 billion solar masses, as anything above this slows growth down to a crawl (the slowdown tends to start around 10 billion solar masses) and causes the unstable accretion disk surrounding the black hole to coalesce into stars that orbit it.
A small minority of sources argue that distant supermassive black holes whose large size is hard to explain so soon after the Big Bang, such as ULAS J1342+0928, may be evidence that our universe is the result of a Big Bounce, instead of a Big Bang, with these supermassive black holes being formed before the Big Bounce.
Side view of black hole with transparent toroidal ring of ionised matter according to a proposed model  for Sgr A*. This image shows the result of bending of light from behind the black hole, and it also shows the asymmetry arising by the Doppler effect from the extremely high orbital speed of the matter in the ring.
Some of the best evidence for the presence of black holes is provided by the Doppler effect whereby light from nearby orbiting matter is red-shifted when receding and blue-shifted when advancing. For matter very close to a black hole the orbital speed must be comparable with the speed of light, so receding matter will appear very faint compared with advancing matter, which means that systems with intrinsically symmetric discs and rings will acquire a highly asymmetric visual appearance. This effect has been allowed for in modern computer generated images such as the example presented here, based on a plausible model for the supermassive black hole in Sgr A* at the centre of our own galaxy. However the resolution provided by presently available telescope technology is still insufficient to confirm such predictions directly.
What already has been observed directly in many systems are the lower non-relativistic velocities of matter orbiting further out from what are presumed to be black holes. Direct Doppler measures of water masers surrounding the nuclei of nearby galaxies have revealed a very fast Keplerian motion, only possible with a high concentration of matter in the center. Currently, the only known objects that can pack enough matter in such a small space are black holes, or things that will evolve into black holes within astrophysically short timescales. For active galaxies farther away, the width of broad spectral lines can be used to probe the gas orbiting near the event horizon. The technique of reverberation mapping uses variability of these lines to measure the mass and perhaps the spin of the black hole that powers active galaxies.
From the motion of star S2, the object's mass can be estimated as 4.1 million M☉, or about 7036820000000000000♠8.2×1036 kg.
The radius of the central object must be less than 17 light-hours, because otherwise, S2 would collide with it. In fact, recent observations of the star S14 indicate that the radius is no more than 6.25 light-hours, about the diameter of Uranus' orbit.
No known astronomical object other than a black hole can contain 4.1 million M☉ in this volume of space.
On January 5, 2015, NASA reported observing an X-ray flare 400 times brighter than usual, a record-breaker, from Sagittarius A*. The unusual event may have been caused by the breaking apart of an asteroid falling into the black hole or by the entanglement of magnetic field lines within gas flowing into Sagittarius A*, according to astronomers.
Artist's impression of a supermassive black hole tearing apart a star. Below: supermassive black hole devouring a star in galaxy RX J1242-11 – X-ray (left) and optical (right).
Unambiguous dynamical evidence for supermassive black holes exists only in a handful of galaxies; these include the Milky Way, the Local Group galaxies M31 and M32, and a few galaxies beyond the Local Group, e.g. NGC 4395. In these galaxies, the mean square (or rms) velocities of the stars or gas rises proportionally to 1/r near the center, indicating a central point mass. In all other galaxies observed to date, the rms velocities are flat, or even falling, toward the center, making it impossible to state with certainty that a supermassive black hole is present. Nevertheless, it is commonly accepted that the center of nearly every galaxy contains a supermassive black hole. The reason for this assumption is the M-sigma relation, a tight (low scatter) relation between the mass of the hole in the 10 or so galaxies with secure detections, and the velocity dispersion of the stars in the bulges of those galaxies. This correlation, although based on just a handful of galaxies, suggests to many astronomers a strong connection between the formation of the black hole and the galaxy itself.
The nearby Andromeda Galaxy, 2.5 million light-years away, contains a (1.1–7008229999999999999♠2.3)×108 (110–230 million) M☉ central black hole, significantly larger than the Milky Way's. The largest supermassive black hole in the Milky Way's vicinity appears to be that of M87, at a mass of 7009640000000000000♠(6.4±0.5)×109 (c. 6.4 billion) M☉ at a distance of 53.5 million light-years. On December 5, 2011, astronomers discovered the largest supermassive black hole in the nearby universe yet found, that of the supergiant elliptical galaxy NGC 4889, with a mass of 7010210000000000000♠2.1×1010 (21 billion) M☉ at a distance of 336 million light-years away in the Coma Berenices constellation. Black holes in distant, highly luminous quasars are much larger. The hyperluminous quasar APM 08279+5255 has a supermassive black hole with a mass of 7010230000000000000♠2.3×1010 (23 billion) M☉. Larger still is at another hyperluminous quasar S5 0014+81, one of the largest supermassive black holes yet found, which has a mass of 7010400000000000000♠4.0×1010 (40 billion) M☉, or 10,000 times the size of the black hole at the Milky Way Galactic Center. Both quasars are 12.1 billion light years away.
The most massive black hole ever discovered, TON 618, weighs in at 7010660000000000000♠6.6×1010 (66 billion) M☉. It is located 10.4 billion light years away from us.
Some galaxies, such as the galaxy 4C +37.11, appear to have two supermassive black holes at their centers, forming a binary system. If they collided, the event would create strong gravitational waves. Binary supermassive black holes are believed to be a common consequence of galactic mergers. The binary pair in OJ 287, 3.5 billion light-years away, contains the most massive black hole in a pair, with a mass estimated at 18 billion M☉.
In 2011, a super-massive black hole was discovered in the dwarf galaxy Henize 2-10, which has no bulge. The precise implications for this discovery on black hole formation are unknown, but may indicate that black holes formed before bulges.
On March 28, 2011, a supermassive black hole was seen tearing a mid-size star apart. That is the only likely explanation of the observations that day of sudden X-ray radiation and the follow-up broad-band observations. The source was previously an inactive galactic nucleus, and from study of the outburst the galactic nucleus is estimated to be a SMBH with mass of the order of a million solar masses. This rare event is assumed to be a relativistic outflow (material being emitted in a jet at a significant fraction of the speed of light) from a star tidally disrupted by the SMBH. A significant fraction of a solar mass of material is expected to have accreted onto the SMBH. Subsequent long-term observation will allow this assumption to be confirmed if the emission from the jet decays at the expected rate for mass accretion onto a SMBH.
A gas cloud with several times the mass of the Earth is accelerating towards a supermassive black hole at the centre of the Milky Way.
In 2012, astronomers reported an unusually large mass of approximately 17 billion M☉ for the black hole in the compact, lenticular galaxyNGC 1277, which lies 220 million light-years away in the constellation Perseus. The putative black hole has approximately 59 percent of the mass of the bulge of this lenticular galaxy (14 percent of the total stellar mass of the galaxy). Another study reached a very different conclusion: this black hole is not particularly overmassive, estimated at between 2 and 5 billion M☉ with 5 billion M☉ being the most likely value. On 28 February 2013 astronomers reported on the use of the NuSTAR satellite to accurately measure the spin of a supermassive black hole for the first time, in NGC 1365, reporting that the event horizon was spinning at almost the speed of light.
Hubble view of a supermassive black hole "burping".
In September 2014, data from different X-ray telescopes has shown that the extremely small, dense, ultracompact dwarf galaxyM60-UCD1 hosts a 20 million solar mass black hole at its center, accounting for more than 10% of the total mass of the galaxy. The discovery is quite surprising, since the black hole is five times more massive than the Milky Way's black hole despite the galaxy being less than five-thousandths the mass of the Milky Way.
Some galaxies, however, lack any supermassive black holes in their centers. Although most galaxies with no supermassive black holes are very small, dwarf galaxies, one discovery remains mysterious: The supergiant elliptical cD galaxy A2261-BCG has not been found to contain an active supermassive black hole, despite the galaxy being one of the largest galaxies known; ten times the size and one thousand times the mass of the Milky Way. Since a supermassive black hole will only be visible while it is accreting, a supermassive black hole can be nearly invisible, except in its effects on stellar orbits.
If black holes evaporate under Hawking radiation, a supermassive black hole with a mass of 1011 (100 billion) M☉ will evaporate in around 2×10100 years.
Some monster black holes in the universe are predicted to continue to grow up to perhaps 1014M☉ during the collapse of superclusters of galaxies. Even these would evaporate over a timescale of up to 10106 years
^Landau, Elizabeth; Bañados, Eduardo (6 December 2017). "Found: Most Distant Black Hole". NASA. Retrieved 6 December 2017. "This black hole grew far larger than we expected in only 690 million years after the Big Bang, which challenges our theories about how black holes form," said study co-author Daniel Stern of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.
^Jamie Seidel (7 December 2017). "Black hole at the dawn of time challenges our understanding of how the universe was formed". News Corp Australia. Retrieved 9 December 2017. It had reached its size just 690 million years after the point beyond which there is nothing. The most dominant scientific theory of recent years describes that point as the Big Bang—a spontaneous eruption of reality as we know it out of a quantum singularity. But another idea has recently been gaining weight: that the universe goes through periodic expansions and contractions—resulting in a 'Big Bounce'. And the existence of early black holes has been predicted to be a key telltale as to whether or not the idea may be valid. This one is very big. To get to its size—800 million times more mass than our Sun—it must have swallowed a lot of stuff. ... As far as we understand it, the universe simply wasn't old enough at that time to generate such a monster.
^Youmagazine staff (8 December 2017). "A Black Hole that is more ancient than the Universe" (in Greek). You Magazine (Greece). Retrieved 9 December 2017. This new theory that accepts that the Universe is going through periodic expansions and contractions is called "Big Bounce"
^ abO. Straub, F.H. Vincent, M.A. Abramowicz, E. Gourgoulhon, T. Paumard, "Modelling the black hole silhouette in Sgr A* with ion tori", Astron. Astroph. 543} (2012) A83.
^Remco C. E. van den Bosch, Karl Gebhardt, Kayhan Gültekin, Glenn van de Ven, Arjen van der Wel, Jonelle L. Walsh, An over-massive black hole in the compact lenticular galaxy NGC 1277, Nature 491, pp. 729–731 (29 November 2012) doi:10.1038/nature11592, published online 28 November 2012
^Particle emission rates from a black hole: Massless particles from an uncharged, nonrotating hole, Don N. Page, Physical Review D13 (1976), pp. 198–206. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.13.198. See in particular equation (27).
^Frautschi, S., 1982. Entropy in an expanding universe. Science, 217(4560), pp.593-599. See page 596: table 1 and section "black hole decay" and previous sentence on that page
"Since we have assumed a maximum scale of gravitational binding - for instance, superclusters of galaxies - black hole formation eventually comes to an end in our model, with masses of up to 1014M☉ ... the timescale for black holes to radiate away all their energy ranges ... to 10106 years for black holes of up to 1014M☉"
Fulvio Melia (2003). The Edge of Infinity. Supermassive Black Holes in the Universe. Cambridge University Press. ISBN978-0-521-81405-8.