سیارک ۲۰۹۹

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سیارک ۲۰۹۹ (به انگلیسی: 2099 Opik، نامگذاری:1977VB) دو هزار و نود و نهمین سیارک کشف شده‌است[۱] که در ۸ نوامبر ۱۹۷۷ کشف شد.[۲]

قدر مطلق سیارک برابر ۱۵٫۱۸ است.[۳]

منابع[ویرایش]

  1. طبق اینجا شماره سیارک معرف شماره کشف شدن آنهاست.
  2. «فهرست سیارک‌های شماره‌دار». دانشگاه هاروارد. دریافت‌شده در ۲۸ سپتامبر ۲۰۰۹.
  3. «فهرست داده‌های سیارک‌ها». ناسا. بایگانی‌شده از روی نسخه اصلی در ۱۳ مه ۲۰۱۹. دریافت‌شده در ۱۴ مه ۲۰۱۹.

پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]


2099 Öpik
Discovery [1]
Discovered byE. F. Helin
Discovery sitePalomar Obs.
Discovery date8 November 1977
Designations
MPC designation(2099) Opik
Named after
Ernst Öpik
(Estonian astronomer)[2]
1977 VB · 1977 UL2
Mars-crosser[1][3]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc60.26 yr (22,009 days)
Aphelion3.1370 AU
Perihelion1.4710 AU
2.3040 AU
Eccentricity0.3616
3.50 yr (1,277 days)
148.76°
0° 16m 54.48s / day
Inclination26.966°
218.84°
159.18°
Earth MOID0.4926 AU
Physical characteristics
Dimensions5.12 km (calculated)[4]
5.17±1.35 km[5]
6.4430±0.0002 h[6]
9.3 h[7]
0.05±0.06[5]
0.057 (assumed)[4]
S (Tholen)[1]
Ch (SMASS)[1]
C (CALL)[4]
B–V = 0.690[1]
U–B = 0.350[1]
15.18[1][4] · 15.22[5]

2099 Öpik, provisional designation 1977 VB, is a dark and eccentric asteroid and Mars-crosser from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 5.1 kilometers in diameter.

The asteroid was discovered on 8 November 1977, by American astronomer Eleanor Helin at the Palomar Observatory in California, and named after Estonian astronomer Ernst Öpik.[3]

Orbit and classification

Öpik orbits the Sun in the inner main-belt at a distance of 1.5–3.1 AU once every 3 years and 6 months (1,277 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.36 and an inclination of 27° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] The first used precovery was taken at the discovering observatory in 1970, extending the asteroid's observation arc by 7 years prior to its discovery.[3]

Physical characteristics

Originally, the asteroid's spectral type was that of a bright S-type asteroid in the Tholen classification. More recently, it has been characterized as a dark Ch-type, a hydrated subtype of the carbonaceous C-type asteroids in the SMASS classification, which is in agreement with its low albedo (below).[1]

Diameter and albedo

According to the survey carried out by NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with its subsequent NEOWISE mission, Öpik measures 5.17 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo of 0.05.[5] The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link assumes a standard albedo for carbonaceous asteroids of 0.057 and calculates a diameter of 5.12 kilometers with an absolute magnitude of 15.18.[4]

Rotation period

In 2005, a photometric lightcurve analysis by several astronomers including Pierre Antonini, rendered a rotation period of 6.4430±0.0002 hours and with a brightness amplitude of 0.21 in magnitude (U=2),[6] superseding the results of an observation from the 1990s that gave a longer period of 9.3 hours (U=2).[7]

Naming

This minor planet was named after Estonian astronomer and astrophysicist, Ernst Öpik (1893–1985), who has influenced many fields of astronomy during his 60-year long career. He is noted for developing the discipline of statistical celestial mechanics and for methods to estimate the lifetimes of planet-crossing asteroids. In the early 1950s, he calculated the impact probability of Mars-crossing asteroids with Mars, and concluded that a search for impact craters on Mars would be a fruitful. Fourteen years later, Martian craters were discovered by Mariner 4.[2] The official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center before November 1977 (M.P.C. 4548).[8]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 2099 Opik (1977 VB)" (2017-03-05 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
  2. ^ a b Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(2099) Öpik". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (2099) Öpik. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 170. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_2100. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
  3. ^ a b c "2099 Opik (1977 VB)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
  4. ^ a b c d e "LCDB Data for (2099) Öpik". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 7 December 2016.
  5. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Kramer, E. A.; Grav, T.; et al. (September 2016). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Two: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astronomical Journal. 152 (3): 12. arXiv:1606.08923. Bibcode:2016AJ....152...63N. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/3/63. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
  6. ^ a b Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (2099) Öpik". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
  7. ^ a b Goretti, V. (December 2000). "CCD Photometry of the Mars-crosser Asteroid 2099 Opik". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 27: 46. Bibcode:2000MPBu...27...46G. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  8. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 7 December 2016.

External links