سکستان

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فارسیEnglish
سکستان
سیستان
استان ساسانیان
حوالی ۲۴۰–۶۵۰٫۱
مرکززرنگ
Historical eraدوران باستان متأخر
• تأسیس
حوالی ۲۴۰
• خلفای راشدین آن را به قلمرو خود ملحق کردند
۶۵۰٫۱
بعدی
خلفای راشدین
امروزه بخشی از افغانستان
 ایران

سکستان (که به صورت ، سیستان، سجستان هم نوشته‌اند) یکی از استان‌های ساسانیان در دوران باستان متأخر بود که در کوست نیمروز قرار داشت. این استان در غرب با کرمان، در شمال غرب با سپهان، در شمال شرق با کوشان‌شهر* و در جنوب شرق با توران هم‌مرز بود. فرمان‌دار این استان را مرزبان می‌نامیدند، و اعضای خاندان شاهی در آنجا را «سکان‌شاه» می‌گفتند.

ریشه‌شناسی[ویرایش]

واژه «سکستان» به معنی «سرزمین مردم سکا» است، که گروهی از سکاها بودند که از قرن سوم پیش از میلاد تا یکم میلادی به فلات ایران و هند مهاجرت کردند و پادشاهی را بنیان نهادند که با نام پادشاهی هندی-سکایی شناخته می‌شود. در دوران هخامنشیان، سکستان با نام زرنگ شناخته می‌شود و جمعیت آن را ایرانیانی تشکیل می‌دادند که به آنها «زرنگیان» می‌گفتند.

تاریخ[ویرایش]

سیستان، بعد از ناپدید شدن سکاها، جزئی از امپراتوری ساسانیان شد. در زمان شاپور یکم، این منطقه، با نام کاملش، سَکِستان، و هند، تا کناره‌های دریا، استان (به فارسی میانه: شَهر) امپراتوری بود و گاهی به فرزند شاهنشاه واگذار می‌شد. در یک‌چهارم (کوست) شرقی، این استان، اداره هر دو منطقه Zranka/Dragiana و Haraxwat/Arachosia را به پایخت اداری خود در Zarangas دربرداشت. آتشکده ایالتی زرتشتیان، طبق معمول، وجود داشت و در آنجا پابرجا بود. هنگامی که پای اعراب در قرن اول هجری / هفتم میلادی بدانجا رسید، مهاجمان با موبد موبدان و رئیس هیربد مواجه شدند. آتشکده کرکویه بعد حمله اعراب دست‌نخورده باقی ماند. با این حال، در گزارش‌های تاریخی، وجود کلیسای نسطوری با اسقف آن، مکتوب شده‌است.[۱]

فرمان‌داران[ویرایش]

پانویس[ویرایش]

منابع[ویرایش]

  • BOSWORTH, C.E (1997). "SlSTAN". THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF ISLAM. ۹ (2nd ed.). p. ۶۸۱–۶۸۵.
Sakastan
Sagistān
Province of the Sasanian Empire
c. 240–650/1
Sakastan Sasanian era.png
Map of Sakastan and its surroundings
CapitalZrang
Historical eraLate Antiquity
• Established
c. 240
650/1
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Indo-Parthians
Rashidun Caliphate
Today part of Afghanistan
 Iran
 Pakistan

Sakastan (also known as Sagestān, Sagistan, Seyanish, Segistan, Sistan, and Sijistan) was a Sasanian province in Late Antiquity, that lay within the kust of Nemroz. The province bordered Kirman in the west, Spahan in the north west, Kushanshahr in the north east, and Turan in the south east. The governor of the province held the title of marzban. The governor also held the title of "Sakanshah" (king of the Saka) until the title was abolished in ca. 459/60.

Etymology

The word "Sakastan" means "the land of the Saka", a Scythian group which from the 2nd century BC to the 1st century migrated to the Iranian Plateau and India, where they carved a kingdom known as the Indo-Scythian Kingdom.[1][2] In the Bundahishn, a Zoroastrian scripture written in Pahlavi, the province is written as "Seyansih".[3] After the Arab conquest of Iran, the province became known as "Sijistan" and later as "Sistan", which still remains a province to this day in Iran (Sistan and Baluchestan Province).[2]

History

The province was formed in ca. 240, during the reign of Shapur I (r. 240–270), as part of his intention to centralise his empire - before that, the province was under the rule of the Parthian Suren Kingdom, whose ruler Ardashir Sakanshah became a Sasanian vassal during the reign of Shapur's father Ardashir I (r. 224–242), who also had the ancient city Zrang rebuilt, which became the capital of the province.[4] Shapur's son Narseh was the first to be appointed as the governor of the province, which he would govern until 271, when the Sasanian prince Hormizd was appointed as the new governor.

Later in ca. 281, Hormizd revolted against his cousin Bahram II (r. 274–293). During the revolt, the people of Sakastan was one of his supporters. Nevertheless, Bahram II managed to suppress the revolt in 283, and appointed his son Bahram III as the governor of the province. During the early reign of Shapur II (r. 309-379), he appointed his brother Shapur Sakanshah as the governor of Sakastan. Peroz I (r. 459–484), during his early reign, put an end to dynastic rule in province by appointing a Karenid as its governor. The reason behind the appointment was to avoid further family conflict in the province, and in order to gain more direct control of the province.[4]

Silver coin of Yazdegerd III, struck in Sakastan, dated 651

During the Muslim conquest of Persia, the last Sasanian king Yazdegerd III fled to Sakastan in the mid-640s, where its governor Aparviz (who was more or less independent), helped him. However, Yazdegerd III quickly ended this support when he demanded tax money that he had failed to pay.[5][6][7] In 650/1, Abd-Allah ibn Amir, who had recently conquered Kirman, sent Rabi ibn Ziyad Harithi to an expedition in Sakastan. After some time, he reached Zaliq, a border town between Kirman and Sakastan, where he forced the dehqan of the town to acknowledge Rashidun authority. He then did the same at the fortress of Karkuya, which had a famous fire temple, which is mentioned in the Tarikh-i Sistan.[7]

He then continued to seize more land in the province. He thereafter besieged Zrang, and after a heavy battle outside the city, Aparviz and his men surrendered. When Aparviz went to Rabi to discuss about the conditions of a treaty, he saw that he was using the bodies of two dead soldiers as a chair. This horrified Aparviz, who in order to spare the inhabitants of Sakastan from the Arabs, made peace with the Arabs in return for heavy tribute, which included a tribute of 1,000 slave boys bearing 1,000 golden vessels.[7][6] Sakastan was thus under the control of the Rashidun Caliphate.

Population and religion

During the Achaemenid period, Sakastan (then known as Drangiana), was populated by a Persianized east Iranian group known as the Drangians.[8][9] From the 2nd century BC to the 1st century, Sakastan saw a huge influx of Saka tribesmen and also some Parthians, which, in the words of Brunner, "reshaped the region's older population pattern".[10]

The inhabitants of Sakastan were mainly Zoroastrian, while a minority of them were Nestorian Christians.[2]

House of Suren

The House of Suren, a Parthian noble family that served the Parthian and later the Sasanian Empire, was part of the seven Parthian clans of the Sasanian Empire—each family owned land in different parts of the empire, the Surens owning land in parts of Sakastan.[11]

List of known governors

References

  1. ^ Frye 1984, p. 193.
  2. ^ a b c Bosworth 1997, pp. 681-685.
  3. ^ Brunner 1983, p. 750.
  4. ^ a b Christensen 1993, p. 229.
  5. ^ Pourshariati 2008, p. 222.
  6. ^ a b Morony 1986, pp. 203-210.
  7. ^ a b c Zarrinkub 1975, p. 24.
  8. ^ Schmitt 1995, pp. 534–537.
  9. ^ Brunner 2004, pp. 326-336, 337-344.
  10. ^ Brunner 1983, p. 773.
  11. ^ Brunner 1983, p. 705.

Sources