سوگیری یا سوگرایی، تمایل به جانبداری از یک نظریه یا قضیه بدون بررسیِ درستی یا نادرستی آن است و با خودداری و امتناع از در نظر گرفتن دیدگاههای جایگزین منطقی همراه است. سوگیری غالباً بهطور ناآگاهانه در داوری شخص اثر میگذارد و غالباً به سوءتفاهم و تعارض میانجامد. افراد میتوانند در دفاع یا در برابر یک فرد، قومیّت، ملّت، مذهب، طبقهٔ اجتماعی، حزب سیاسی و اُلگوهای نظری و ایدئولوژیک در حوزههای علمی دچار سوگیری شوند. سوگیری بهمعنی یک جانبهگرایی و فاقد دیدگاه بیطرفانه یا نداشتن یک ذهن باز است. سوگیری میتواند به شکلهای مختلف نمود یابد و با پیشداوری و شهود مربوط است.
سوگیریِ شناختی تکرار یا پافشاری اشتباه در اندیشیدن، ارزیابی، یادآوری یا دیگر فرایندهای شناختی و الگوی انحراف از استانداردها در قضاوت است و به موجب آن نتایج استنتاجی، ممکن است نامعقول باشند.سوگیریِ شناختی الگویی است که در قضاوت و استدلال، انحراف ایجاد کرده و به موجب آن، نتیجهگیریهایی که در مورد سایر افراد و موقعیتها انجام میگیرد ممکن است به شکلی غیرمنطقی صورت گیرند. افراد، «واقعیت اجتماعی ذهنی» شان را از طریق مشاهدهٔ ورودیها شکل میدهند. شکلگیری «واقعیت اجتماعی» یک فرد، رفتار وی در جامعه را دیکته میکند و نه ورودیهای عینی او؛ بنابراین سوگیری شناختی، در نهایت ممکن است به تحریف ادراکی، قضاوت نادرست، تفسیر غیرمنطقی یا آنچه که بهطور گسترده، بیخردی نامیده میشود، منجر شود.
بر پایهٔ «اثر لنگر انداختن»، معمولاً اولین گزینههای ارائه شده، تأثیر به سزایی در انتخاب افراد بین گزینههای موجود دارند. زمانی که «سوزن فکر» و تصمیمگیری فرد بر روی مورد خاصی «گیر» کند، تصمیمگیریها و قضاوتهای آتی وی در طی مقایسهٔ موارد موجود با مورد یا موارد اولیه شکل میگیرند. یک طراح سؤال میتواند از جهتگیریهای شناختی مغز افراد، در به دام انداختن آنها و کسب نتیجهٔ دلخواه، کمال استفاده را ببرد.
آپوفنیا همچنین شناخته شده با عنوان اُلگوگرایی، یا عاملگرایی، تمایل انسان به درک الگوهای معنادار از دادههای اعداد تصادفی است. پاریدولیا نیز یک پدیدهٔ روانشناختی است که در آن فرد، علایم یا صداهایی را که ادراک میکند به صورت معنادار میشناسد. از مثالهای معمولی که در این باره زده میشود میتوان به این موارد اشاره کرد: دیدن چهره در ابرها، دیدن چهره در ماه، شنیدن پیامهای ناشناخته وقتی نوار یا صدای ضبطشده بهصورت برعکس پخش میشود. چنین سوگیریها و پیشداوریهایی میتوانند ناخواسته، ذهن قضاوتگر بیننده را دچار انحراف و خطا در «برداشت خردمندانه» کنند.
جهتگیری تأییدی گرایش به جستجو در اطلاعات یا تعبیر کردن آن به گونهای است که باورها یا فرضیههای خودِ شخص را تأیید کند. افراد هنگام جمعآوری یا «یادآوری گزینشی اطلاعات» یا هنگامی که آن را به نحوی جهتگیرانه تعبیر میکنند، این سوگیری را از خود نشان میدهند. این اثر در خصوص موضوعات هیجانبرانگیز و برای باورهای بسیار عمیق، شدیدتر است. افراد تمایل دارند «شواهد مبهم» را به عنوان تأییدی بر موضع موجود خود، تعبیر کنند.
بر پایه این نظریه افراد رفتار را میبینند و آنگاه علتها را به آن اسناد میکنند. هنگام نگرش رفتار یک شخص میخواهیم تا مشخص کنیم که آیا این رفتار علت درونی دارد یا علت بیرونی. برای نمونه، اگر یکی از کارکنان کارش را خوب انجام ندهد، امکان دارد که مدیر او عملکرد ضعیف وی را به حساب عدم توانایی و انگیزش او بگذارد. این یک نمونه از اسناد درونی است. اما اگر مدیر عملکرد ضعیف او را به حساب مسایل مدیریتی و فرهنگ سازمانی بگذارد، یک نمونه از اسناد بیرونی است.
تورشها و سوگیریهای اسنادی: خطای بنیادین در ادراک[ویرایش]
در زمینهٔ اِسناد، سوگیریهایی وجود دارد که موجب خطا در اِسناد میشوند. به این سوگیریها «خطای بنیادین در ادراک» میگویند که عبارتند از خطای بنیادی اسناد، اثر عامل–ناظر و سوگیری خدمت به خود که هر یک از آنها به دلایل مختلفی ایجاد میشود. گرایش ما به اسناد دادنِ شکستهای دیگران به عوامل درونی آنان و نسبت دادن موفقیتهای آنان به عوامل بیرونی را خطای بنیادی اسناد میگویند. در اثر عامل–ناظر اسناد، ما در تعیین علل درونی یا بیرونی به عامل یا ناظر بودن ما بستگی دارد.
اگر ببینیم دیگری به زمین خوردهاست، حادثه را به علتی درونی (دستوپاچلفتی بودن او) نسبت میدهیم؛ اما اگر خودمان زمین بخوریم، آن را به علتی بیرونی (لغزنده بودن زمین یا صاف بودن ته کفش) نسبت میدهیم. سوگیری خدمت به خود، یعنی شخص با بزرگ کردن سهم خود در مورد رفتارهای مثبت، عزت نفس خود را افزایش میدهد.
خطای بنیادی برچسبزدن یک سوگیری و گرایش متداول است که افراد در توصیف و تبیین علل رفتار اجتماعی یک نفر، نقش عوامل شخصیتی یا ویژگیهای پایدار او را مهمتر از صرف واکنش او به موقعیتهای محیطیاش برآورد میکند.
علت وجود خطای بنیادی این است که اغلب افراد، به عنوان مشاهدهگر، این واقعیت را نادیده میگیرند که هر فرد، بسته به موقعیت پیشرو، نقشهای اجتماعی متعددی را ایفا میکند که دیگری ممکن است تنها شاهد یکی از آنها باشد. بدین سان اهمیت موقعیتهای اجتماعی در تبیین رفتار یک فرد به سادگی نادیده گرفته میشود.
↑Haselton, M. G.; Nettle, D. & Andrews, P. W. (2005). The evolution of cognitive bias. In D. M. Buss (Ed.), The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology: Hoboken, NJ, US: John Wiley & Sons Inc. pp. 724–746.
Bias is disproportionate weight in favor of or against an idea or thing, usually in a way that is closed-minded, prejudicial, or unfair. Biases can be innate or learned. People may develop biases for or against an individual, a group, or a belief. In science and engineering, a bias is a systematic error. Statistical bias results from an unfair sampling of a population, or from an estimation process that does not give accurate results on average.
The word probably derives from Old Provençal into Old Frenchbiais, "sideways, askance, against the grain". Whence comes Frenchbiais, "a slant, a slope, an oblique".
It seems to have entered English via the game of bowls, where it referred to balls made with a greater weight on one side. Which expanded to the figurative use, "a one-sided tendency of the mind", and, at first especially in law, "undue propensity or prejudice".
A cognitive bias is a repeating or basic misstep in thinking, assessing, recollecting, or other cognitive processes. That is, a pattern of deviation from standards in judgment, whereby inferences may be created unreasonably. People create their own "subjective social reality" from their own perceptions, their view of the world may dictate their behaviour. Thus, cognitive biases may sometimes lead to perceptual distortion, inaccurate judgment, illogical interpretation, or what is broadly called irrationality. However some cognitive biases are taken to be adaptive, and thus may lead to success in the appropriate situation. Furthermore, cognitive biases may allow speedier choices when speed is more valuable than precision. Other cognitive biases are a "by-product" of human processing limitations, coming about because of an absence of appropriate mental mechanisms, or just from human limitations in information processing.
Anchoring is a psychological heuristic that describes the propensity to rely on the first piece of information encountered when making decisions. According to this heuristic, individuals begin with an implicitly suggested reference point (the "anchor") and make adjustments to it to reach their estimate. For example, the initial price offered for a used car sets the standard for the rest of the negotiations, so that prices lower than the initial price seem more reasonable even if they are still higher than what the car is worth.
Pareidolia is the visual or auditory form of apophenia. It has been suggested that pareidolia combined with hierophany may have helped ancient societies organize chaos and make the world intelligible.
An attribution bias can happen when individuals assess or attempt to discover explanations behind their own and others' behaviors. People make attributions about the causes of their own and others' behaviors; but these attributions don't necessarily precisely reflect reality. Rather than operating as objective perceivers, individuals are inclined to perceptual slips that prompt biased understandings of their social world. When judging others we tend to assume their actions are the result of internal factors such as personality, whereas we tend to assume our own actions arise because of the necessity of external circumstances. There are a wide range of sorts of attribution biases, such as the ultimate attribution error, fundamental attribution error, actor-observer bias, and self-serving bias.
Confirmation bias is the tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall information in a way that confirms one's beliefs or hypotheses while giving disproportionately less attention to information that contradicts it. The effect is stronger for emotionally charged issues and for deeply entrenched beliefs. People also tend to interpret ambiguous evidence as supporting their existing position. Biased search, interpretation and memory have been invoked to explain attitude polarization (when a disagreement becomes more extreme even though the different parties are exposed to the same evidence), belief perseverance (when beliefs persist after the evidence for them is shown to be false), the irrational primacy effect (a greater reliance on information encountered early in a series) and illusory correlation (when people falsely perceive an association between two events or situations). Confirmation biases contribute to overconfidence in personal beliefs and can maintain or strengthen beliefs in the face of contrary evidence. Poor decisions due to these biases have been found in political and organizational contexts.
Framing involves the social construction of social phenomena by mass media sources, political or social movements, political leaders, and so on. It is an influence over how people organize, perceive, and communicate about reality. It can be positive or negative, depending on the audience and what kind of information is being presented. For political purposes, framing often presents facts in such a way that implicates a problem that is in need of a solution. Members of political parties attempt to frame issues in a way that makes a solution favoring their own political leaning appear as the most appropriate course of action for the situation at hand. As understood in social theory, framing is a schema of interpretation, a collection of anecdotes and stereotypes, that individuals rely on to understand and respond to events. People use filters to make sense of the world, the choices they then make are influenced by their creation of a frame.
Cultural bias is the related phenomenon of interpreting and judging phenomena by standards inherent to one's own culture. Numerous such biases exist, concerning cultural norms for color, location of body parts, mate selection, concepts of justice, linguistic and logical validity, acceptability of evidence, and taboos. Ordinary people may tend to imagine other people as basically the same, not significantly more or less valuable, probably attached emotionally to different groups and different land.
The opposite of the halo is the horn effect, when "individuals believe (that negative) traits are inter-connected." The term horn effect refers to Devil's horns. It works in a negative direction: if the observer dislikes one aspect of something, they will have a negative predisposition towards other aspects.
Both of these bias effects often clash with phrases such as "words mean something" and "Your words have a history."
Status quo bias is an emotional bias; a preference for the current state of affairs. The current baseline (or status quo) is taken as a reference point, and any change from that baseline is perceived as a loss.
Status quo bias should be distinguished from a rational preference for the status quo ante, as when the current state of affairs is objectively superior to the available alternatives, or when imperfect information is a significant problem. A large body of evidence, however, shows that status quo bias frequently affects human decision-making.
A conflict of interest is when a person or association has intersecting interests (financial, personal, etc.) which could potentially corrupt. The potential conflict is autonomous of actual improper actions, it can be found and intentionally defused before corruption, or the appearance of corruption, happens. "A conflict of interest is a set of circumstances that creates a risk that professional judgement or actions regarding a primary interest will be unduly influenced by a secondary interest." It exists if the circumstances are sensibly accepted to present a hazard that choices made may be unduly affected by auxiliary interests.
Lobbying is the attempt to influence choices made by administrators, frequently lawmakers or individuals from administrative agencies. Lobbyists may be among a legislator's constituencies, or not; they may engage in lobbying as a business, or not. Lobbying is often spoken of with contempt, the implication is that people with inordinate socioeconomic power are corrupting the law in order to serve their own interests. When people who have a duty to act on behalf of others, such as elected officials with a duty to serve their constituents' interests or more broadly the common good, stand to benefit by shaping the law to serve the interests of some private parties, there is a conflict of interest. This can lead to all sides in a debate looking to sway the issue by means of lobbyists.
Self-regulation is the process whereby an organization monitors its own adherence to legal, ethical, or safety standards, rather than have an outside, independent agency such as a third party entity monitor and enforce those standards. Self-regulation of any group can create a conflict of interest. If any organization, such as a corporation or government bureaucracy, is asked to eliminate unethical behavior within their own group, it may be in their interest in the short run to eliminate the appearance of unethical behavior, rather than the behavior itself.
Regulatory capture is a form of political corruption that can occur when a regulatory agency, created to act in the public interest, instead advances the commercial or political concerns of special interest groups that dominate the industry or sector it is charged with regulating. Regulatory capture occurs because groups or individuals with a high-stakes interest in the outcome of policy or regulatory decisions can be expected to focus their resources and energies in attempting to gain the policy outcomes they prefer, while members of the public, each with only a tiny individual stake in the outcome, will ignore it altogether. Regulatory capture is a risk to which a regulatory agency is exposed by its very nature.
Shilling is deliberately giving spectators the feeling that one is an energetic autonomous client of a vendor for whom one is working. The effectiveness of shilling relies on crowd psychology to encourage other onlookers or audience members to purchase the goods or services (or accept the ideas being marketed). Shilling is illegal in some places, but legal in others. An example of shilling is paid reviews that give the impression of being autonomous opinions.
Statistical bias is a systematic tendency in the process of data collection, which results in lopsided, misleading results. This can occur in any of a number of ways, in the way the sample is selected, or in the way data are collected. It is a property of a statistical technique or of its results whereby the expected value of the results differs from the true underlying quantitative parameter being estimated.
The observer-expectancy effect is when a researcher's expectations cause them to subconsciously influence the people participating in an experiment. It is usually controlled using a double-blind system, and was an important reason for the development of double-blind experiments.
In epidemiology and empirical research, reporting bias is defined as "selective revealing or suppression of information" of undesirable behavior by subjects or researchers.
It refers to a tendency to under-report unexpected or undesirable experimental results, while being more trusting of expected or desirable results. This can propagate, as each instance reinforces the status quo, and later experimenters justify their own reporting bias by observing that previous experimenters reported different results.
Social desirability bias is a bias within social science research where survey respondents can tend to answer questions in a manner that will be viewed positively by others. It can take the form of over-reporting laudable behavior, or under-reporting undesirable behavior. This bias interferes with the interpretation of average tendencies as well as individual differences. The inclination represents a major issue with self-report questionnaires; of special concern are self-reports of abilities, personalities, sexual behavior, and drug use.
Selection bias is the, conscious or unconscious, bias introduced into a study by the way individuals, groups or data are selected for analysis, if such a way means that true randomization is not achieved, thereby ensuring that the sample obtained is not representative of the population intended to be analyzed. This results in a sample that may be significantly different from the overall population.
Bias and prejudice are usually considered to be closely related. Prejudice is prejudgment, or forming an opinion before becoming aware of the relevant facts of a case. The word is often used to refer to preconceived, usually unfavorable, judgments toward people or a person because of gender, political opinion, social class, age, disability, religion, sexuality, race/ethnicity, language, nationality, or other personal characteristics. Prejudice can also refer to unfounded beliefs and may include "any unreasonable attitude that is unusually resistant to rational influence".
Racism consists of ideologies based on a desire to dominate or a belief in the inferiority of another race. It may also hold that members of different races should be treated differently.
Full text on net (or FUTON) bias is a tendency of scholars to cite academic journals with open access—that is, journals that make their full text available on the internet without charge—in their own writing as compared with toll access publications. Scholars can more easily discover and access articles that have their full text on the internet, which increases authors' likelihood of reading, quoting, and citing these articles, this may increase the impact factor of open access journals relative to journals without open access.
The related bias, no abstract available bias (NAA bias) is scholars' tendency to cite journal articles that have an abstract available online more readily than articles that do not.
Publication bias is a type of bias with regard to what academic research is likely to be published because of a tendency of researchers, and journal editors, to prefer some outcomes rather than others e.g. results showing a significant finding, leads to a problematic bias in the published literature. This can propagate further as literature reviews of claims about support for a hypothesis will themselves be biased if the original literature is contaminated by publication bias.Studies with significant results often do not appear to be superior to studies with a null result with respect to quality of design. However, statistically significant results have been shown to be three times more likely to be published compared to papers with null results.
Racial profiling, or ethnic profiling, is the act of suspecting or targeting a person of a certain race on the basis of racially observed characteristics or behavior, rather than on individual suspicion. Racial profiling is commonly referred to regarding its use by law enforcement, and its leading to discrimination against minorities.
Media bias is the bias or perceived bias of journalists and news producers within the mass media in the selection of events, the stories that are reported, and how they are covered. The term generally implies a pervasive or widespread bias violating the standards of journalism, rather than the perspective of an individual journalist or article. The level of media bias in different nations is debated. There are also watchdog groups that report on media bias.
Bias has been a feature of the mass media since its birth with the invention of the printing press. The expense of early printing equipment restricted media production to a limited number of people. Historians have found that publishers often served the interests of powerful social groups.
Agenda setting describes the capacity of the media to focus on particular stories, if a news item is covered frequently and prominently, the audience will regard the issue as more important. That is, its salience will increase.
Gatekeeping is the way in which information and news are filtered to the public, by each person or corporation along the way. It is the "process of culling and crafting countless bits of information into the limited number of messages that reach people every day, and it is the center of the media's role in modern public life. [...] This process determines not only which information is selected, but also what the content and nature of the messages, such as news, will be."
Sensationalism is when events and topics in news stories and pieces are overhyped to present skewed impressions of events, which may cause a misrepresentation of the truth of a story. Sensationalism may involve reporting about insignificant matters and events, or the presentation of newsworthy topics in a trivial or tabloid manner contrary to the standards of professional journalism.
Bias in education refers to real or perceived bias in the educational system. The content of school textbooks is often the issue of debate, as their target audience is young people, and the term "whitewashing" is used to refer to selective removal of critical or damaging evidence or comment. Religious bias in textbooks is observed in countries where religion plays a dominant role. There can be many forms of educational bias. Some overlooked aspects, occurring especially with the pedagogical circles of public and private schools—sources that are unrelated to fiduciary or mercantile impoverishment which may be unduly magnified—include teacher bias as well as a general bias against women who are going into STEM research.
Inductive bias occurs within the field of machine learning. In machine learning one seeks to develop algorithms that are able to learn to anticipate a particular output. To accomplish this, the learning algorithm is given training cases that show the expected connection. Then the learner is tested with new examples. Without further assumptions, this problem cannot be solved exactly as unknown situations may not be predictable. The inductive bias of the learning algorithm is the set of assumptions that the learner uses to predict outputs given inputs that it has not encountered. It may bias the learner towards the correct solution, the incorrect, or be correct some of the time. A classical example of an inductive bias is Occam's Razor, which assumes that the simplest consistent hypothesis is the best.
Insider trading is the trading of a public company's stock or other securities (such as bonds or stock options) by individuals with access to non-public information about the company. In various countries, trading based on insider information is illegal because it is seen as unfair to other investors who do not have access to the information as the investor with insider information could potentially make far larger profits that a typical investor could make.
In organized sports, match fixing occurs when a match is played to a completely or partially pre-determined result, violating the rules of the game and often the law. There is a variety of reasons for this, but the most common is in exchange for a payoff from gamblers. Players might also intentionally perform poorly to get an advantage in the future (such as a better draft pick, or an easier opponent in a playoff), or to rig a handicap system. Match-fixing generally refers to fixing the final result of the game. Another form of match-fixing, known as spot-fixing, involves fixing small events within a match which can be gambled upon, but which are unlikely to prove decisive in determining the final result of the game.
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^Moon, Youngme (2003). "Don't Blame the Computer: When Self-Disclosure Moderates the Self-Serving Bias". Journal of Consumer Psychology. 13 (1): 125–137. doi:10.1207/153276603768344843.
^Hamilton, Alexander (2013), Small is beautiful, at least in high-income democracies: the distribution of policy-making responsibility, electoral accountability, and incentives for rent extraction "Archived copy"(PDF). Archived(PDF) from the original on 2013-10-05. Retrieved 2013-05-24.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link), World Bank.
^FTC v. Greeting Cards of America, Inc. et al - USA (S.D. Fla. 2004). Text
^Farrell, Warren (2005). Why Men Earn More: The Startling Truth About the Pay Gap -- And What Women Can Do About It. AMACOM, ISBN0814472109 p. 193
^Eagly, Alice; Ashmore, Richard; Makhijani, Mona G.; Longo, Laura C. (1991). "What is beautiful is good, but". Psychological Bulletin. 110: 109–128. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.110.1.109.
^Rhodes, Gillian; Simmons, Leigh; Peters, Marianne (2005). "Attractiveness and Sexual Behavior: Does Attractiveness Enhance Mating Success?". Evolution and Human Behavior. 26 (2): 186–201. doi:10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2004.08.014.
^"Oxford English Dictionary, Racism". Archived from the original on 2015-08-29. Retrieved 24 Aug 2015. Prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against someone of a different race based on the belief that one's own race is superior:
^"Racism" in R. Schefer. 2008 Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity and Society. SAGE. p. 1113
^Newman, D. M. (2012). Sociology : exploring the architecture of everyday life (9th ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE. p. 405. ISBN978-1-4129-8729-5. racism: Belief that humans are subdivided into distinct groups that are different in their social behavior and innate capacities and that can be ranked as superior or inferior.
^There is a clear and broad consensus among academic scholars in multiple fields that sexism refers primarily to discrimination against women, and primarily affects women. See, for example:
"Sexism". New Oxford American Dictionary (3 ed.). Oxford University Press. 2010. ISBN9780199891535. Defines sexism as "prejudice, stereotyping, or discrimination, typically against women, on the basis of sex."
"Sexism". Encyclopædia Britannica, Online Academic Edition. 2015. Defines sexism as "prejudice or discrimination based on sex or gender, especially against women and girls." Notes that "sexism in a society is most commonly applied against women and girls. It functions to maintain patriarchy, or male domination, through ideological and material practices of individuals, collectives, and institutions that oppress women and girls on the basis of sex or gender."
Cudd, Ann E.; Jones, Leslie E. (2005). "Sexism". A Companion to Applied Ethics. London: Blackwell. Notes that "'Sexism' refers to a historically and globally pervasive form of oppression against women."
Masequesmay, Gina (2008). "Sexism". In O'Brien, Jodi (ed.). Encyclopedia of Gender and Society. SAGE. Notes that "sexism usually refers to prejudice or discrimination based on sex or gender, especially against women and girls." Also states that "sexism is an ideology or practices that maintain patriarchy or male domination."
Hornsby, Jennifer (2005). "Sexism". In Honderich, Ted (ed.). The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.). Oxford. Defines sexism as "thought or practice which may permeate language and which assume's women's inferiority to men."
"Sexism". Collins Dictionary of Sociology. Harper Collins. 2006. Defines sexism as "any devaluation or denigration of women or men, but particularly women, which is embodied in institutions and social relationships."
"Sexism". Palgrave MacMillan Dictionary of Political Thought. Palgrave MacMillan. 2007. Notes that "either sex may be the object of sexist attitudes... however, it is commonly held that, in developed societies, women have been the usual victims."
"Sexism". The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Love, Courtship, and Sexuality through History, Volume 6: The Modern World. Greenwood. 2007. "Sexism is any act, attitude, or institutional configuration that systematically subordinates or devalues women. Built upon the belief that men and women are constitutionally different, sexism takes these differences as indications that men are inherently superior to women, which then is used to justify the nearly universal dominance of men in social and familial relationships, as well as politics, religion, language, law, and economics."
Foster, Carly Hayden (2011). "Sexism". In Kurlan, George Thomas (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Political Science. CQ Press. ISBN9781608712434. Notes that "both men and women can experience sexism, but sexism against women is more pervasive."
Johnson, Allan G. (2000). "Sexism". The Blackwell Dictionary of Sociology. Blackwell. Suggests that "the key test of whether something is sexist... lies in its consequences: if it supports male privilege, then it is by definition sexist. I specify 'male privilege' because in every known society where gender inequality exists, males are privileged over females."
Lorber, Judith (2011). Gender Inequality: Feminist Theories and Politics. Oxford University Press. p. 5. Notes that "although we speak of gender inequality, it is usually women who are disadvantaged relative to similarly situated men."
Wortman, Camille B.; Loftus, Elizabeth S.; Weaver, Charles A (1999). Psychology. McGraw-Hill. "As throughout history, today women are the primary victims of sexism, prejudice directed at one sex, even in the United States."
^ abAmes, Barry; Barker, David C; Bonneau, Chris W; Carman, Christopher J (2005), "Hide the Republicans, the Christians, and the Women: A Response to "Politics and Professional Advancement Among College Faculty"", The Forum, 3 (2), doi:10.2202/1540-8884.1075, ISSN1540-8884
^Boysen, Guy A; Vogel, David L; Cope, Marissa A; Hubbard, Asale (2009), "Incidents Of Bias in College Classrooms: Instructor and Student Perceptions", Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 2 (4): 219–231, doi:10.1037/a0017538, ISSN1938-8934
^Brady, K. L.; Eisler, R. M. (1995). "Gender Bias in the College Classroom: A Critical Review of the Literature and Implications for Future Research". Journal of Research and Development in Education. 29 (1): 9–19.
^Song, F.; Parekh, S.; Hooper, L.; Loke, Y. K.; Ryder, J.; Sutton, A. J.; Hing, C.; Kwok, C. S.; Pang, C.; Harvey, I. (2010). "Dissemination and publication of research findings: An updated review of related biases". Health Technology Assessment (Winchester, England). 14 (8): iii, iix–xi, iix–193. doi:10.3310/hta14080. PMID20181324.
^H. Rothstein, A. J. Sutton and M. Borenstein. (2005). Publication bias in meta-analysis: prevention, assessment and adjustments. Wiley. Chichester, England; Hoboken, NJ.
^Warren, Patricia Y.; Farrell, Amy (2009). "The Environmental Context of Racial Profiling". The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 623: 52–63. doi:10.1177/0002716208330485. JSTOR40375886.
^"Victim Blaming"(PDF). Canadian Resource Centre for Victims of Crime. Retrieved 2018-08-31.
^"Crisis Counseling with Children," Van Ornum and Murdock, 1990, NY: Crossroad/Continuum.
^ abMitchell, T. M. (1980). "The need for biases in learning generalizations". CBM-TR 5-110. New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA: Rutgers University. CiteSeerX10.1.1.19.5466. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)