سوسیالیسم دمکراتیک

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به: ناوبری، جستجو


سوسیالیسم دمکراتیک (انگلیسی: Democratic socialism) ایدئولوژی سیاسی مدافع یک نظام سیاسی دمکراتیک در کنار یک نظام اقتصادی سوسیالیستی است، که شامل ترکیبی از دمکراسی سیاسی (معمولاً دمکراسی چند حزبی) با مالکیت اجتماعی ابزارهای تولید است. صفت «دمکراتیک» گرچه گاهی به عنوان مترادف «سوسیالیسم» به کار می‌رود، گاهی به منظور متمایز کردن آن از شیوه‌های غیر دمکراتیک سوسیالیسم نظیر برند مارکسیسم-لنینیسم سوسیالیسم به کار می‌رود.[۱]

احزاب سوسیالیست دمکراتیک پارلمانتری[ویرایش]

  •   از احزاب حاکم (از جمله شرکای دولت‌های ائتلافی)
حزب کشور تاریخ تأسیس  % آرای مردمی
در آخرین انتخابات
کرسی‌ها در مجلس سفلی
(در صورت دو مجلسی بودن)
ائتلاف پاییس  اکوادور
2006
52.3% (۲۰۱۳)
۱۰۰ از ۱۳۷
جبهه آزادی‌بخش ملی ساندینیستا  نیکاراگوئه
1961
60.9% (۲۰۱۱)
۶۳ از ۹۲
جنبش سوسیالیسم  بولیوی
1998
61.4% (۲۰۱۴)
۸۸ از ۱۳۰
حزب متحد سوسیالیست  ونزوئلا
2007
48.2% (۲۰۱۰)
۹۶ از ۱۶۵
سیریزا  یونان
2012
36.3% (۹/۲۰۱۵)
۱۴۵ از ۳۰۰
پرو می‌برد  پرو
2010
25.3% (۲۰۱۱)
۴۷ از ۱۳۰
شن‌فن[۲][۳]  جمهوری ایرلند
 ایرلند شمالی
1905
13.8% (2016)
27.9% (۲۰۱۷)
۲۳ از ۱۵۸
۲۷ از ۹۰
Party of Socialists  مولداوی
1997
20.5% (۲۰۱۴)
۲۵ از ۱۰۱
حزب دموکراتیک خلق‌ها (HDP)[۴][۵]  ترکیه
2012
10.8% (۱۱/۲۰۱۵)
۵۹ از ۵۵۰
حزب کارگران  برزیل
1980
53% (۲۰۱۴)
۷۰ از ۵۱۳
Left-Green Movement[۶]  ایسلند
1999
10.8% (۲۰۱۳)
۷ از ۶۳
حزب سوسیالیست  صربستان
1990
13.5% (۲۰۱۴)
۲۵ از ۲۵۰
حزب سوسیالیست[۷]  هلند
1971
9.7% (۲۰۱۲)
۱۵ از ۱۵۰
حزب چپ[۸]  آلمان
2007
8.6% (۲۰۱۳)
۶۴ از ۶۳۱
Red–Green Alliance  دانمارک
1989
7.8% (۲۰۱۵)
۱۴ از ۱۷۹
United Left[۹]  اسلوونی
2014
6% (۲۰۱۴)
۶ از ۹۰
ائتلاف چپ[۱۰]  فنلاند
1990
7.1% (۲۰۱۵)
۱۲ از ۲۰۰
حزب چپ  سوئد
1917
5.7% (۲۰۱۴)
۲۱ از ۳۴۹
Left Ecology Freedom[۱۱]  ایتالیا
2010
3.2% (۲۰۱۳)
۳۷ از ۶۳۰
Labourists – Labour Party[۱۲]  کرواسی
2010
5.1% (۲۰۱۱)
۶ از ۱۵۱
Socialist Left[۱۳]  نروژ
1975
4.1% (۲۰۱۳)
۷ از ۱۶۹
فدراسیون انقلابی ارمنی[۱۴][۱۵]  ارمنستان
1890
5.7% (انتخابات مجلس ارمنستان (۲۰۱۲))
۵ از ۱۳۱
United Left  اسپانیا
1986
6.9% (۲۰۱۱)
۱۱ از ۳۵۰
Left Bloc  پرتغال
1999
10.2% (۲۰۱۵)
۱۹ از ۲۳۰
The Left[۱۶]  لوکزامبورگ
1999
4.9% (۲۰۱۳)
۲ از ۶۰
جبهه چپ  فرانسه
2008
6.9% (انتخابات مجلس فرانسه (۲۰۱۲ میلادی))
۱۰ از ۵۷۷

سوسیالیست‌های دمکراتیک سرشناس[ویرایش]

سیاستمداران[ویرایش]

رؤسای کشور/دولت
دیگران

روشنفکران و فعالان[ویرایش]

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

منابع[ویرایش]

  1. Busky, Donald F. (July 20, 2000). Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey. Praeger. pp. 7–8. ISBN 978-0-275-96886-1. Democratic socialism is the wing of the socialist movement that combines a belief in a socially owned economy with that of political democracy. Sometimes simply called socialism, more often than not, the adjective democratic is added by democratic socialists to distinguish themselves from Communists who also call themselves socialists...democratic socialists wish to emphasize by their name that they disagree strongly with the Marxist-Leninist brand of socialism. 
  2. "What Sinn Féin stands for". sinnfein.ie. Sinn Féin. Sinn Féin is a 32-County party striving for an end to partition on the island of Ireland and the establishment of a democratic socialist republic. 
  3. Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved on 30 December 2015.
  4. Ozcelik, Burcu (11 June 2015). "What the HDP Success Means for Turkey". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. The pro-Kurdish democratic socialist Peoples’ Democratic Party (HDP)... 
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  8. Evans, Alex (16 September 2013). "Your Guide - The Left Party (Die Linke)". The Local. Die Linke describe themselves as the party of democratic socialism... 
  9. Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved on 30 December 2015.
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  14. Armenian Revolutionary Federation Program. The Armenian Revolutionary Federation in its world outlook and traditions is essentially a socialist, democratic, and revolutionary party. 
  15. "Դաշնակցության սոցիալիզմի մոդելը [The Socialist Model of Dashnaktsutyun]". parliamentarf.am (in Armenian). Armenian Revolutionary Federation faction in the National Assembly of the Republic of Armenia. 9 July 2011. 
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  17. Patsouras, Louis (2005). Marx in Context. iUniverse. p. 265. In Chile, where a large democratic socialist movement was in place for decades, a democratic socialist, Salvadore Allende, led a popular front electoral coalition, including Communists, to victory in 1970. 
  18. Medina, Eden (2014). Cybernetic Revolutionaries: Technology and Politics in Allende's Chile. MIT Press. p. 39. ...in Allende's democratic socialism. 
  19. Winn, Peter (2004). Victims of the Chilean Miracle: Workers and Neoliberalism in the Pinochet Era, 1973–2002. Duke University Press. p. 16. The Allende government that Pinochet overthrew in 1973 had been elected in 1970 on a platform of pioneering a democratic road to a democratic socialism. 
  20. Stephen Schlesinger (June 3, 2011). Ghosts of Guatemala’s Past. The New York Times. Retrieved July 21, 2014.
  21. Morgan, Kenneth O. (2001). Britain Since 1945: The People's Peace. Oxford University Press. p. 111. The last years of Attlee's democratic socialist regime... 
  22. Beech, Matt (2012). "The British Welfare State and its Discontents". In Connelly, James; Hayward, Jack. The Withering of the Welfare State: Regression. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 90. Attlee's goal was a democratic socialist society... 
  23. Livingston Hall, Anthony (2007). The Ipinions Journal: Commentaries on Current Events, Volume 2. iUniverse. p. 18. Chileans elected Michelle Bachelet as their new president … Because her advocacy of democratic socialism 
  24. Gal, Allon (1991). David Ben-Gurion and the American Alignment for a Jewish State. Indiana University Press. p. 216. Ben-Gurion, Zionist and socialist-democrat... 
  25. Jones, Clive A. (2013). Soviet Jewish Aliyah, 1989-92: Impact and Implications for Israel and the Middle East. Routledge. p. 61. ...Mapai, the democratic socialist party of David Ben Gurion. 
  26. Blair, Tony. "2: Labour Past, Present and Future". Let Us Face the Future (571). Fabian Society. p. 2. Retrieved 3 January 2016 – via London School of Economics Digital Library. 
  27. Cohen, Mitchell (12 June 2015). "‘Léon Blum: Prime Minister, Socialist, Zionist,’ by Pierre Birnbaum". New York Times. Blum declared that he was what Nazis “hated most, . . . a democratic socialist and a Jew. ” 
  28. Gress, David (1 July 1983). "Whatever Happened to Willy Brandt?". Commentary. 
  29. ۲۹٫۰ ۲۹٫۱ ۲۹٫۲ ۲۹٫۳ ۲۹٫۴ ۲۹٫۵ ۲۹٫۶ ۲۹٫۷ Sargent, Lyman (2008). Contemporary Political Ideologies: A Comparative Analysis. Cengage Learning. p. 118. 
  30. "Hugo Chavez". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. Campaigning as a democratic socialist, Chávez... 
  31. ۳۱٫۰ ۳۱٫۱ ۳۱٫۲ ۳۱٫۳ ۳۱٫۴ ۳۱٫۵ ۳۱٫۶ Navarro, Armando (2012). Global Capitalist Crisis and the Second Great Depression: Egalitarian Systemic Models for Change. Lexington Books. p. "democratic+socialist"+Evo+Morales&source=bl&ots=vkHKBiO9kU&sig=EbmfwtXhe1eoYb55LK06uknNXr0&hl=en&sa=X&ei=xjWjVdnAC4HSgwSQ7KMw&ved=0CFkQ6AEwDQ#v=onepage&q="democratic%20socialist"%20Evo%20Morales&f=false 299. 
  32. Munck, Ronaldo (2012). Contemporary Latin America. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 119. In a broad historical sense Chávez has undoubtedly played a progressive role but he is clearly not a democratic socialist... 
  33. ۳۳٫۰ ۳۳٫۱ Hanhimäki, Jussi M.; Westad, Odd Arne (2004). The Cold War: A History in Documents and Eyewitness Accounts. Oxford University Press. p. 441. Palme: Why I am a Democratic Socialist, 1982. 
  34. Sachs, Jeffrey (26 December 2011). "Gorbachev and the Struggle for Democracy". The Huffington Post. During his six years of rule, Gorbachev was intent on renovating Soviet socialism through peaceful and democratic means. 
  35. "Perestroika: New Thinking for Our Country and the World by Mikhail S. Gorbachev". stetson.edu. 1987. The more socialist democracy there is, the more socialism we will have. 
  36. Benson, Mary (1986). Nelson Mandela. Harmondsworth: Penguin. pp. 231–232. ISBN 978-0-14-008941-7. 
  37. Smith, David James (2010). Young Mandela. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 231. ISBN 978-0-297-85524-8. 
  38. Riemer, Neal; Simon, Douglas (1997). The New World of Politics: An Introduction to Political Science. Rowman & Littlefield. p. "democratic+socialist"+François+Mitterrand&source=bl&ots=hfL53-qLyJ&sig=7pznaU5EOqKS4-GvYZyxPpGFUP4&hl=en&sa=X&ei=xTSjVYySO8rCggTJ-YOwDw&ved=0CEgQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q="democratic%20socialist"%20François%20Mitterrand&f=false 147. 
  39. Borsody, Stephen (29 May 1981). "In the wake of Francois Mitterrand's victory". نیویورک تایمز. ...a democratic Socialist success, such as President Mitterrand's... 
  40. Moraes, Frank (2007). Jawaharlal Nehru. Jaico Publishing House. p. 187. 
  41. Powers, Roger S.; Vogele, William B.; Bond, Douglas; Kruegler, Christopher (1997). Protest, Power, and Change: An Encyclopedia of Nonviolent Action from Act-Up to Women's Suffrage. Taylor & Francis. p. "democratic+socialist"&source=bl&ots=ZbYL13Mlkk&sig=4JyDCDNVtqhKD01Yx8rArCTit-I&hl=en&sa=X&ei=tf6iVcOkH8mw-QHxk7KYAw&ved=0CDYQ6AEwBjgK#v=onepage&q=Jawaharlal%20Nehru%20"democratic%20socialist"&f=false 347. ISBN 978-1-136-76482-0. 
  42. Hoadley, J. Stephen (1975). The Future of Portuguese Timor. Institute of Southeast Asian. p. 25. Ramos Horta during his December 1974 trip to Australia was careful to distinguish between Fretilin and Frelimo, arguing that his own party was a democratic socialist party.... 
  43. Astikainen, Arto (20 January 2004). "Kalevi Sorsa (21.12.1930 - 16.1.2004)". Helsingin Sanomat. "We already are in democratic socialism. It will never be much different from this", Sorsa had said ten years earlier. 
  44. Stone, Jon (26 January 2015). "Syriza: Everything you need to know about Greece’s new Marxist governing party". ایندیپندنت. ...a democratic socialist group Synaspismós, which current Syriza leader Alexis Tsipras led. 
  45. http://www.psuv.org.ve/
  46. Adams, Ian (1993). Political Ideology Today. Manchester University Press. p. 139. Tony Benn's socialism is distinctive in the importance he places in combining socialism with radical democracy. 
  47. "Tony Benn: Committed Democratic Socialist". Transnational Institute. 22 April 2014. 
  48. ۴۸٫۰ ۴۸٫۱ Ryan, Craig (17 August 2015). "I'm no Bennite. But I'm increasingly tempted by Jeremy Corbyn". New Statesman. Retrieved 29 December 2015. 
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  50. "HEALEY, Denis Winston (b.1917).". History of Parliament. Retrieved 30 December 2015. 
  51. Hill, Dave (2002). Marxism Against Postmodernism in Educational Theory. Lexington Books. p. 188. Tony Benn and Ken Livingstone can be depicted as two of the leaders of the democratic socialist (or 'hard') left... 
  52. Bierman, Noah (12 April 2014). "Bernie Sanders seeks to pull Democrats left in 2016 primary". The Boston Globe. The lawmaker, who is possibly the most liberal of all members of Congress — and the only one to call himself a democratic socialist... 
  53. Jamieson, Dave (6 May 2015). "Meet The Fist-Shaking Socialist Behind America's Highest Minimum Wage". هافینگتن پست. ...identifies as a member of Socialist Alternative, an anti-capitalist, democratic-socialist party. 
  54. Richard Heffernan; Mike Marqusee (1992). Defeat from the Jaws of Victory: Inside Kinnock's Labour Party. Verso. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-86091-561-4. 
  55. Munckton, Suart (2 November 2013). "Russell Brand is right, we need a revolution (but his sexism is wrong)". Green Left Weekly (987) (International Journal of Socialist Renewal). Archived from the original on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2015. 
  56. Alan Ryan (1981). Bertrand Russell: A Political Life. Macmillan. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-374-52820-1. None the less Russell joined the ILP [Independent Labour Party] and declared himself a democratic socialist, then and thereafter. 
  57. Isaacson, Walter (2007). Einstein: His Life and Universe. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-6474-7. For the rest of his life Einstein would expound a democratic socialism that had a liberal, anti—authoritarian underpinning. 
  58. Calaprice, Alice; Lipscombe, Trevor (2005). Albert Einstein: A Biography. Greenwood. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-313-33080-3. He committed himself to the democratic- socialist goals that became popular among intellectuals in Europe at the time. 
  59. Jones, Owen (OwenJones84). "Modern capitalism is a sham, and why democratic socialism is our only hope" 30 October 2015, 3:41 AM
  60. Sturm, Douglas (1990). "Martin Luther King, Jr. , as Democratic Socialist". The Journal of Religious Ethics 18 (2): 79–105. The essay argues that King was in fact a democratic socialist... 
  61. Osagyefo Uhuru Sekou (20 January 2014). "The radical gospel of Martin Luther King". Al Jazeera. King’s democratic socialism... 
  62. Hendricks, Obery M. (20 January 2014). "The Uncompromising Anti-Capitalism of Martin Luther King Jr.". The Huffington Post. For King the answer was democratic socialism. 
  63. Chris Nineham (2007). The Shock Doctrine Book Review. Socialist Review. Retrieved 11 August 2013.
  64. Orwell, George (1968) [1958]. Bott, George, ed. Selected Writings. London: Heinemann. p. 103. ISBN 0-435-13675-5. Every line of serious work that I have written since 1936 has been written, directly or indirectly, against totalitarianism and for democratic socialism, as I understand it. [italics from printed source] 
  65. "Andrei Sakharov". Spartacus Educational. He also advocated the integration of the communist and capitalist systems to form what he called democratic socialism. 
  66. "Young Democratic Socialists: Interview With Professor Richard Wolff". rdwolff.com. Retrieved on 30 December 2015.