سن پدرو د آتاکاما

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به: ناوبری، جستجو
فارسیEnglish
سن پدرو د آتاکاما
Town و شهرستان‌های شیلی
San Pedro de Atacama at the edge of the Salar de Atacama
San Pedro de Atacama at the edge of the Salar de Atacama
Coat of arms
نشان رسمی
Map of San Pedro de Atacama commune in منطقه آنتوفاگاستا
موقعیت سن پدرو د آتاکاما در نقشه
Location in Chile
Location in Chile
سن پدرو د آتاکاما
Location in Chile
مختصات: ۲۲°۵۵′ جنوبی ۶۸°۱۲′ غربی / ۲۲.۹۱۷°جنوبی ۶۸.۲۰۰°غربی / -22.917; -68.200مختصات: ۲۲°۵۵′ جنوبی ۶۸°۱۲′ غربی / ۲۲.۹۱۷°جنوبی ۶۸.۲۰۰°غربی / -22.917; -68.200
کشور  شیلی
منطقه‌های شیلی الگو:Country data Antofagasta
استان ال لوآ
تأسیس‌شده approx. 1450
حکومت
 • نوع شهرداری
 • Alcalde Sandra Berna Martínez (DC)
مساحت[۱]
 • کل ۲۳٬۴۳۸٫۸ کیلومتر مربع (۹٬۰۰۰ مایل مربع)
ارتفاع ۲٬۴۰۷ متر (۷٬۹۰۰ پا)
جمعیت (سرشماری ۲۰۱۲)[۱]
 • جمعیت ۳۸۹۹
 • تراکم ۰٫۱۷/کیلومتر مربع (۰٫۴۳/پا)
 • منطقه شهری ۱۹۳۸
 • محدوده روستایی ۳۰۳۱
Gender[۱]
 • نر ۲٬۹۲۸
 • ماده (جنس) ۲٬۰۴۱
منطقهٔ زمانی CLST[۲] (یوتی‌سی -۳)
پیش‌شماره(های) تلفن (+۵۶) ۵
وب‌گاه Municipalidad San Pedro de Atacama

سن پدرو د آتاکاما (به اسپانیایی: San Pedro de Atacama) یک شهرستان در شیلی است که پس از استقلال در بولیوی واقع شده‌است.[۳] سن پدرو د آتاکاما ۲۳٬۴۳۸٫۸ کیلومترمربع مساحت و ۳٬۸۹۹ نفر جمعیت دارد و ۲٬۴۰۷ متر بالاتر از سطح دریا واقع شده.

خواهرخوانده[ویرایش]

شهرهای یقنعم و Magdalena خواهرخوانده‌های سن پدرو د آتاکاما هستند.

نگارخانه[ویرایش]

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

منابع[ویرایش]

  1. ۱٫۰ ۱٫۱ ۱٫۲ "National Statistics Institute" (in Spanish). Retrieved 3 November 2010. 
  2. Acuña, Patricia (January 28, 2015). ""Horario de verano" se mantendrá durante todo el año en Chile". biobiochile.cl. 
  3. مشارکت کنندگان ویکی‌پدیای انگلیسی. «San Pedro de Atacama». 

پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]

San Pedro de Atacama
Town and Commune
San Pedro de Atacama at the edge of the Salar de Atacama
San Pedro de Atacama at the edge of the Salar de Atacama
Coat of arms
Coat of arms
Map of San Pedro de Atacama commune in Antofagasta Region
Map of San Pedro de Atacama commune in Antofagasta Region
Location in Chile
Location in Chile
San Pedro de Atacama
Location in Chile
Coordinates: 22°55′S 68°12′W / 22.917°S 68.200°W / -22.917; -68.200Coordinates: 22°55′S 68°12′W / 22.917°S 68.200°W / -22.917; -68.200
Country  Chile
Region  Antofagasta
Province El Loa
Founded approx. 1450
Government
 • Type Municipality
 • Alcalde Sandra Berna Martínez (DC)
Area[1]
 • Total 23,438.8 km2 (9,049.8 sq mi)
Elevation 2,407 m (7,900 ft)
Population (2012 Census)[1]
 • Total 3,899
 • Density 0.17/km2 (0.43/sq mi)
 • Urban 1,938
 • Rural 3,031
Gender[1]
 • Male 2,928
 • Female 2,041
Time zone CLST[2] (UTC-3)
Area code(s) (+56) 5
Website Municipalidad San Pedro de Atacama

San Pedro de Atacama is a Chilean town and commune in El Loa Province, Antofagasta Region. It is located east of Antofagasta, some 106 km (60 mi) southeast of Calama and the Chuquicamata copper mine, overlooking the Licancabur volcano. It features a significant archeological museum, the R. P. Gustavo Le Paige Archaeological Museum, with a large collection of relics and artifacts from the region. Native ruins nearby now attract increasing numbers of tourists interested in learning about pre-Columbian cultures.

History

San Pedro de Atacama grew, over centuries, around an oasis in the Puna de Atacama, an arid high plateau. Its first inhabitants were the Atacameños, who developed basketworks and ceramic pottery crafts that can be now be appreciated by tourists in the several souvenir shops as typical products of San Pedro de Atacama.[3]

It was part of Bolivia since independence until Chile claimed ownership during the War of the Pacific.

Demographics

According to the 2002 census of the National Statistics Institute, San Pedro de Atacama had 4,969 inhabitants (2,928 males and 2,041 females). Of these, 1,938 (39%) lived in urban areas and 3,031 (61%) in rural areas. The population grew by 75.6% (2,140 persons) between the 1992 and 2002 censuses.[1]

Administration

As a commune, San Pedro de Atacama is a third-level administrative division of Chile administered by a municipal council, headed by an alcalde who is directly elected every four years. The 2008-2012 alcalde is Sandra Berna Martínez.

Within the electoral divisions of Chile, San Pedro de Atacama is represented in the Chamber of Deputies by Marcos Espinosa (PRSD) and Felipe Ward (UDI) as part of the third electoral district, (together with Tocopilla, María Elena, Calama and Ollagüe). The commune is represented in the Senate by Alejandro Guillier Álvarez (PRSD) and Pedro Araya Guerrero (Ind.) as part of the second senatorial constituency (Antofagasta Region).

Climate

The town lies at an average of 7,000 feet (2,100 m), and visitors often experience mild altitude sickness such as dizziness, lethargy and headaches.[4] The local climate is extremely dry and mild, with daytime temperatures between 25–30 degrees Celsius (77–86 degrees Fahrenheit) in the summer (December to February) and 18–25 °C (64–77 °F) in the winter (June to August). Nighttime temperatures routinely drop below 0 °C (32 °F) and can reach as low as −10 °C (14 °F) in the winter.

Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as cold desert (BWk)[5] for an isotherm of the mean yearly temperature of lower than 18 °C (64 °F), or as a hot desert (BWh) for an isotherm of the coldest month's mean temperature of 0 °C (32 °F) or lower.

Climate data for San Pedro de Atacama
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 24.3
(75.7)
23.7
(74.7)
23
(73)
21.3
(70.3)
18.8
(65.8)
16.2
(61.2)
16.4
(61.5)
17.9
(64.2)
20.6
(69.1)
22
(72)
23.2
(73.8)
23.9
(75)
20.94
(69.69)
Daily mean °C (°F) 17.1
(62.8)
16.8
(62.2)
15.9
(60.6)
13.9
(57)
11
(52)
8.2
(46.8)
8.4
(47.1)
9.8
(49.6)
12.4
(54.3)
14.1
(57.4)
15.5
(59.9)
16.4
(61.5)
13.29
(55.93)
Average low °C (°F) 10
(50)
9.9
(49.8)
8.9
(48)
6.5
(43.7)
3.2
(37.8)
0.3
(32.5)
0.5
(32.9)
1.7
(35.1)
4.3
(39.7)
6.2
(43.2)
7.8
(46)
9
(48)
5.69
(42.23)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 22
(0.87)
5
(0.2)
2
(0.08)
2
(0.08)
1
(0.04)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
3
(0.12)
3
(0.12)
1
(0.04)
3
(0.12)
42
(1.67)
Average rainy days 11 11 8 3 0 0 0 1 1 3 5 10 53
Mean daily sunshine hours 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 8.4
Source #1: Climate-Data.org (altitude: 2435m)[5]
Source #2: Weather2Travel for rainy days and sunshine[6]

Transportation

San Pedro lies on the main paved road from Argentina over the Paso de Jama, 160 km from the town. The road is paved throughout. There are frequent bus services to Calama, several buses daily to Santiago and buses on 6 days a week to Salta across the Andes in Argentina. Nearby airports are San Pedro de Atacama Airport and Salar de Atacama Airport for private aircraft, and the larger El Loa Airport/Calama 100 km away for scheduled aircraft.

Tourism

San Pedro de Atacama is a popular tourist destination.[7] There are various activities for adventurers in the San Pedro de Atacama area: trekking, climbing, archaeological sightings, amateur astronomy, exploration tours in natural landscapes and even sand boarding in the desert. Because of its altitude, a brief period of acclimatization may be required.

Sights in town

In the town are some cultural sites:

Outlying sights

Holidays and festivals in San Pedro de Atacama

The festivals includes typical dances, masses in the street and a little parade through the main street of San Pedro de Atacama.[3]

  • June 28 - Saint Peter
  • June 29 - Saint Paul

Image gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d "National Statistics Institute" (in Spanish). Retrieved 3 November 2010. 
  2. ^ Acuña, Patricia (January 28, 2015). ""Horario de verano" se mantendrá durante todo el año en Chile". biobiochile.cl. 
  3. ^ a b "San Pedro de Atacama". Letsgochile.com. 
  4. ^ Cymerman, A; Rock, PB. "Medical Problems in High Mountain Environments. A Handbook for Medical Officers". USARIEM-TN94-2. US Army Research Inst. of Environmental Medicine Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division Technical Report. Retrieved 2009-03-05. 
  5. ^ a b "Climate: San Pedro de Atacama - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 2013-12-07. 
  6. ^ "San Pedro de Atacama Climate and Weather Averages, Chile". Weather2Travel. Retrieved 2013-12-07. 
  7. ^ Robinson, William I. (2013). "L’Amérique latine face au nouveau capitalisme mondialisé". Mouvements. 4 (76): 14–24. doi:10.3917/mouv.076.0013 – via Cairn.info. (Registration required (help)). 

External links