سنت مارتین فرانسه
سنت مارتین فرانسوی: Saint-Martin که نام رسمیاش قلمرو سنت مارتین (به فرانسوی: Collectivité de Saint-Martin) است. این مستعمره در تاریخ ۱۵ ژوئیه ۲۰۰۷ به عنوان یکی از قلمروهای آن سوی دریاها (مستعمرههای فرانسه) در دریای کارائیب اعلام شد که در بخش شمالی جزیره سن مارتن و جزیره جزیره خرد قرار دارد. بخش جنوبی جزیره سنت مارتن تحت مالکیت پادشاهی هلند قرار داد.
The Collectivity of Saint Martin (French: Collectivité de Saint-Martin), commonly known as simply Saint Martin (Saint-Martin), is an overseas collectivity of France in the West Indies in the Caribbean. With a population of 36,286 as of January 2011 (with more recent estimates putting the population at 32,300) on an area of 53.2 square kilometres (20.5 sq mi), it encompasses the northern 60% of the divided island of Saint Martin, and some neighbouring islets, the largest of which is Île Tintamarre. The southern 40% of the island of Saint Martin constitutes Sint Maarten, which has been a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands since 2010. This marks the only place in the world where France borders the Netherlands.
Before 2007, the French region of Saint Martin formed a part of the French overseas région and département of Guadeloupe. Saint Martin is separated from the island of Anguilla by the Anguilla Channel. Its capital is Marigot.
Saint Martin was inhabited by Amerindian peoples for many centuries, with archaeological evidence pointing to a human presence on the island as early as 2000 BC. These people most likely migrated from South America. The earliest known people were the Arawak who settled there between 800 and 300 BC. Circa 1300-1400 AD, they began to be displaced by hostile groups of Carib people.
Arrival of Europeans
Christopher Columbus was the first European to see St Martin on 11 November 1493 during his second voyage to the Americas. Nominally now Spanish territory, the island became the focus of the competing interest of the European powers, notably France, Britain and the Netherlands. Meanwhile, the Amerindian population began to decline precipitously, dying from diseases brought by the Europeans.
In 1631, the Dutch built Fort Amsterdam on Saint Martin and the Dutch West India Company began mining salt there. Tensions between the Netherlands and Spain were already high due to the ongoing Eighty Years' War, and in 1633 the Spanish captured St Martin and drove off the Dutch colonists. The Dutch, under Peter Stuyvesant, attempted to regain control in 1644 but were unsuccessful. However in 1648 the Eighty Years’ War ended and the island lost its strategic and economic value to Spain. The Spanish abandoned it and the Dutch returned. The French also began settling, and rather than fight for control of the entire island the two powers agreed to divide it in two with the Treaty of Concordia. The first governor of French Saint Martin was Robert de Longvilliers. Various adjustments to the precise alignment of the border occurred, with the boundary settling at its current position by 1817.
To work the new cotton, tobacco and sugar plantations the French and Dutch began importing large numbers of African slaves, who soon came to outnumber the Europeans. The French eventually abolished slavery in 1848, followed by Dutch in 1863 (though prior to this slavery was scarcely enforceable as slaves could simply move from the Dutch to the French side of the island). Meanwhile, in 1763, Saint Martin was merged into France's Guadeloupe colony.
By the first decades of the 20th century Saint Martin's economy was in a poor state, prompting many to emigrate. Things improved during the Second World War as the Americans built an airstrip on the Dutch side of the island.
In 1946 Saint Martin (along with Saint Barthélemy) was formally subsumed as an arrondissement into the Guadeloupe département. Tourism starting expanding from the 1960s-70s onward, eventually becoming the dominant sector of Saint Martin's economy.
In 2007 Saint Martin was detached from Guadeloupe and became a territorial collectivity with its own Prefect and Territorial Council.
The Collectivity of Saint Martin occupies the northern half of the island of Saint Martin in the Leeward Islands; the southern half forms the Dutch territory of Sint Maarten. To the north across the Anguilla Channel lies the British Oversea Territory of Anguilla, to the south-east of the island lies the French island of Saint Barthélemy and further south are the Dutch islands of Saba and Saint Eustatius.
Saint Martin is 54.4 sq km. The terrain is generally hilly, with the highest peak being Pic Paradis at 424m, which is also the highest peak on the island as a whole. The Terres Basses region lying west of the capital Marigot, which contains the French half of the Simpson Bay Lagoon, is flatter. There are a few small lakes on Saint Martin, such as Chevrise Pond, Great Pond and Red Pond.
Numerous small islands lie off the coast, most notably Rock of the Cove Marcel, Creole Rock, Little Key, Pinel Island, Green Cay Grand Islet (within the Simpson Bay Lagoon) and the largest Tintamarre Island.
Hurricane Irma hit Saint Martin on 6 September 2017; 95% of the structures on the French side were damaged or destroyed. Looting or "pillaging" was a problem initially; France subsequently sent 240 gendarmes to help control the situation.
On 11 September President Emmanuel Macron visited St Martin to view the damage and to assure residents of support for relief efforts. At that time, only tourists and visitors from France (mainlanders) had been evacuated from St. Martin, leading to complaints by black and mixed-race residents that whites were being given priority. Macron pledged 50 million euros of aid for the French islands and said the rebuilding will be done quickly but very well. By March 2018 much of the territory's infrastructure was back up and running.
Politics and government
Saint Martin was for many years a French commune, forming part of Guadeloupe, which is an overseas région and département of France. In 2003 the population of the French part of the island voted in favour of secession from Guadeloupe in order to form a separate overseas collectivity (COM) of France. On 9 February 2007, the French Parliament passed a bill granting COM status to both the French part of Saint Martin and (separately) the neighbouring Saint Barthélemy. The new status took effect on 15 July 2007, once the local assemblies were elected, with the second leg of the vote ultimately occurring on 15 July 2007. Saint Martin remains part of the European Union.
The new governance structure befitting an overseas collectivity took effect on 15 July 2007 with the first session of the Territorial Council (French: Conseil territorial). This is a unicameral body of 23 members, with elections held every five years. The first President of the Territorial Council was Louis-Constant Fleming, however on 25 July 2008 Fleming resigned after being sanctioned by the Conseil d'État for one year over problems with his 2007 election campaign. On 7 August, Frantz Gumbs was elected as President of the Territorial Council. However, his election was declared invalid on 10 April 2009 and Daniel Gibbs appointed as Acting President of the Territorial Council on 14 April 2009. Gumbs was reelected on 5 May 2009.
The Chief of State is the President of France (currently Emmanuel Macron), who is represented locally by a Prefect appointed by him/her on the advice of the Minister of the Interior (France). Saint Martin elects one member to the French Senate, and one to the French National Assembly (note that the latter post is shared with Saint Berthélemy).
Saint Martin has a population of 32,300 (July 2018 est.). At the January 2011 French census the population was 36,286 (up from only 8,072 inhabitants at the 1982 census), which means a population density of 682 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,770/sq mi) in 2011. Most residents live on the coastal region in the towns of Marigot (the capital), Grand-Case and Quartier-d'Orleans. Most residents are of black or mixed Creole ancestry, with smaller numbers of Europeans and Indians.
French is the official language of the territory. Other languages spoken include English, Dutch, Papiamento and Spanish. A local English-based dialect is spoken in informal situations on both the French and Dutch sides of the island. The sizable Haitian community (7,000 in 2000) also use Haitian Creole.
As a part of France, the official currency of Saint Martin is the euro, though the US dollar is also widely accepted. Tourism is the main economic activity - with over one million visitors annually some 85% of the population is employed in this sector. The other major sector is the financial services industry. Though limited, agriculture and fishing are also practiced, though these sectors are very small and most food is imported.
INSEE estimated that the total GDP of Saint Martin amounted to 421 million euros in 1999 (US$449 million at 1999 exchanges rates; US$599 million at Oct. 2007 exchange rates). In that same year the GDP per capita of Saint Martin was 14,500 euros (US$15,500 at 1999 exchanges rates; US$20,600 at Oct. 2007 exchange rates), which was 39% lower than the average GDP per capita of metropolitan France in 1999. In comparison, the GDP per capita on the Dutch side of the island, Sint Maarten, was 14,430 euros in 2004.
The collectivity has the following public preschool, primary, and elementary schools:
There are three junior high schools (collège) and one senior high school:
Saint Martin has one airport - Grand Case-Espérance Airport which provides flights to Guadeloupe, Martinique and Saint Barthélemy. For international tourists Saint Martin relies on Princess Juliana International Airport on the Dutch side of the island.