سماق

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به: ناوبری، جستجو
فارسیEnglish
سماق
SumacFruit.JPG
میوه سماق در پائیز (مینه‌سوتا)
طبقه‌بندی علمی
فرمانرو: گیاهان
(طبقه‌بندی‌نشده): گیاهان گلدار
(طبقه‌بندی‌نشده): دولپه‌ای‌های نو
(طبقه‌بندی‌نشده): رزیدها
راسته: افراسانان
تیره: پسته‌ایان
سرده: سماق‌ها
کارل لینه
گونه شاخص
Rhus coriaria
گونه‌ها

حدود ۲۵۰ گونه

سُماق معرب سماک پارسی (نام علمی: Rhus) درختچه‌ایست کوهستانی که میوه‌های خوشه‌ای دارد و میوهٔ آن پس از کوبیده شدن به عنوان چاشنی، همراه با غذاهایی همچون کباب استفاده می‌شود. طعم آن گرایش به ترشی دارد.

گیاه سماق از راسته افراسانان (Sapindales)، تیرهٔ پسته‌ایان (Anacardiaceae) است.

سماق در قدیم سماک نیز تلفظ می‌شده[۱] و ریشهٔ واژه، ܣܘܡܩ سُمّاق سریانی است. درختچه سماق در شمیران، تفرش، خراسان، قم، محلات، شیراز، رودبار، تبریز، و باغات اقلید و بعضی از کشورهای خاورمیانه می‌روید. سماق برای دندان درد مفید است و اشتها را تحریک می‌کند. لثه را تقویت و از خون‌ریزی معده جلوگیری می‌کند. به دلیل داشتن تانن فراوان قابض و پاک‌کننده معده می‌باشد. خوردن سماق تازه ایجاد مسمومیت می‌کند. همچنین سماق برای بیماران دیابتی بسیار مفید است. یکی از اجزای سفره هفت سین ایرانیان است. در یونان باستان از چوب سماق به جهت رنگ‌آمیزی پارچه‌های پشمی استفاده می‌شده است و در کشور ایتالیا از این گیاه برای رنگ دادن به چرم نیز استفاده شده‌است.[۲]

خواص و کاربرد

کاربردهای سماق بیشتر در تولید و چاشنی غذایی می­ باشد. همچنین از خواص دارویی بی‌نظیر آن در طب سنتی استفاده می­شود. از نظرترکیبات شیمیایی در میوه و در برگ­های سماق تانن فراوانی موجود است. در برگ­های خشک آن بین 30-15 درصد تانن وجود دارد و به علاوه یک ماده رنگین زرد به نام میریستین یافت می­شود. در میوه آن علاوه بر تانن مقدار قابل توجهی سیتریک اسید، وینیک اسید، مالیک اسید موجود است. که مزه ترش و قابض را به آن می­دهد. سماق قابض است و بنده آورنده خون‌ریزی می­ باشد و به عنوان مقوی، مدر، برای رفع اسهال خونی و جلوگیری از خون‌ریزی و اخلاط خونی از ریه همراه با سرفه مفید است.(3)

ترکیبات

ترکیبات میوه: در آنالیزی که بر روی میوه سماق انجام گرفت، مشخص شد که شامل: 6/9 درصد رطوبت، 4/7درصد روغن، 6/2پروتئین، 6/14درصد فیبر، 8/1درصد خاکستر و8 /63 درصد عصاره محلول در آب می‌باشد.

سماق محتوای طیف گسترده­ای از ترکیبات فعال  دارویی از قبیل: اسیدهای ارگانیک، فنولیک اسید، فلاونوئیدها، آنتوسیانینها، تانن­های هیدرولیزکننده و ترپنوئیدها می­ باشد.(4)

تکثیر

تکثیر سماق از طریق قلمه، پاجوش و بذر صورت می­گیرد. که رایج‌ترین روش آن از طریق کشت پاجوش می‌باشد. بذرهای سماق دارای رکود فیزیولوژیکی و فیزیکی می‌باشد.(5)

منابع[ویرایش]

3.زرگری، علی، 1393، گیاهان دارویی، چاپ هشتم، انتشارات دانشگاه تهران

4. Morshedi M R . et al –sumac(Rhus coriaria L.)fruit: essential oil varia bility in Iranian populations

5.Olmaz z. Et al- Effect of cold stratification treatments on germination of drought tolerant shrubs seeds

Sumac
SumacFruit.JPG
Sumac fruit in the autumn season
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Sapindales
Family: Anacardiaceae
Subfamily: Anacardioideae
Genus: Rhus
L.[1]
Type species
Rhus coriaria
L.[2]
Species

About 35 species; see text

Sumac (/ˈsjmæk/, /ˈʃmæk/ or /ˈsmæk/; also spelled sumach, sumaq) (Assyrian Neo-Aramaic: ܣܘܼܡܵܩܵܐ‎, translit. summāqāʾ, lit. 'red, red shift, turning red', Arabic: سُمّاق‎, translit. summāq) is any one of about 35 species of flowering plants in the genus Rhus and related genera, in the family Anacardiaceae. The dried and powdered fruits of Rhus coriaria are used as a spice in Middle Eastern and South Asian cuisine. Sumacs grow in subtropical and temperate regions throughout the world, especially in East Asia, Africa, and North America.[3][4]

Description

Sumacs are shrubs and small trees that can reach a height of 1–10 m (3.3–32.8 ft). The leaves are spirally arranged; they are usually pinnately compound, though some species have trifoliate or simple leaves. The flowers are in dense panicles or spikes 5–30 cm (2.0–11.8 in) long, each flower very small, greenish, creamy white or red, with five petals. The fruits form dense clusters of reddish drupes called sumac bobs. The dried drupes of some species are ground to produce a tangy, crimson spice.[5][6]

Sumacs propagate both by seed (spread by birds and other animals through their droppings), and by new shoots from rhizomes, forming large clonal colonies.

Taxonomy

Drupes of a staghorn sumac in Coudersport, PA
A young branch of staghorn sumac
Rhus lancea fruit
Staghorn sumac bob, Hamilton, Ontario
Winged sumac leaves and flowers
Rhus malloryi fossil - about 49.5 million years old, Early Ypresian, Klondike Mountain Formation, Washington

The taxonomy of Rhus has a long history, with de Candolle proposing a subgeneric classification in 1825, with five sections. At its largest circumscription, Rhus, with over 250 species, has been the largest genus in the family Anacardiaceae.

Other authors used subgenera and placed some species in separate genera, hence the use of Rhus sensu lato and Rhus sensu stricto (s.s.). One classification uses two subgenera, Rhus (about 10 spp.) and Lobadium (about 25 spp.), while at the same time Cotinus, Duckera, Malosma, Metopium, Searsia and Toxicodendron segregated to create Rhus s.s.. Other genera that have been segregated include Actinocheita and Baronia. As defined, Rhus s.s. appears monophyletic by molecular phylogeny research. However the subgenera do not appear to be monophyletic. The larger subgenus, Lobadium, has been divided further into sections, Lobadium, Terebinthifolia. and Styphonia (two subsections).[7][8][9]

Selected species

Africa (all of these species have been transferred to the genus Searsia)
Asia
Australia, Pacific
Mediterranean Basin
Middle East (all of these species have been transferred to the genus Searsia)
Eastern North America
Western North America

Etymology

The word 'sumac' traces its etymology from Old French sumac (13th century), from Mediaeval Latin sumach, from Arabic summāq (سماق), from Syriac summāq (ܣܡܘܩ)- meaning "red".[11][12][13]

Cultivation and uses

Sumac spice

Species including the fragrant sumac (R. aromatica), the littleleaf sumac (R. microphylla), the skunkbush sumac (R. trilobata), the smooth sumac, and the staghorn sumac are grown for ornament, either as the wild types or as cultivars.

Spice and beverage flavoring

The fruits (drupes) of Rhus coriaria are ground into a reddish-purple powder used as a spice in Middle Eastern cuisine to add a tart, lemony taste to salads or meat.[5] In Arab cuisine, it is used as a garnish on meze dishes such as hummus and tashi, and is added to salads in the Levant, as well as being one of the main ingredients in Palestine's national dish, Musakhan. In Armenian, Iranian, Afghan, Kurdish, Pakistani, Indian, and Bangladeshi cuisines, sumac is added to rice or kebab. In Jordanian, Azerbaijani, Central Asian, and Turkish cuisines, it is added to salad and kebab and lahmajoun. Rhus coriaria is used in the spice mixture za'atar.[14][15]

In North America, the smooth sumac (R. glabra) and the staghorn sumac (R. typhina) are sometimes used to make a beverage termed "sumac-ade", "Indian lemonade", or "rhus juice". This drink is made by soaking the drupes in cool water, rubbing them to extract the essence, straining the liquid through a cotton cloth, and sweetening it. Native Americans also use the leaves and drupes of the smooth and staghorn sumacs combined with tobacco in traditional smoking mixtures.

Dye and tanning agent

The leaves of certain sumacs yield tannin (mostly pyrogallol-type), a substance used in vegetable tanning. Notable sources include the leaves of R. coriaria, Chinese gall on R. chinensis, and wood and roots of R. pentaphylla. Leather tanned with sumac is flexible, light in weight, and light in color. One type of leather made with sumac tannins is morocco leather.[16]

The dyeing property of sumac needed to be considered when it was shipped as a fine floury substance in sacks as a light cargo accompanying heavy cargoes such as marble. Sumac was "especially dangerous" to marble. "When sumac dust settles on white marble, the result is not immediately apparent, but if it once becomes wet, or even damp, it becomes a powerful purple dye, which penetrates the marble to an extraordinary depth."[17]

Medicinal use

Sumac was used as a treatment for several different ailments in medieval medicine, primarily in Middle Eastern and South Asian countries (where sumac was more readily available than in Europe). An 11th-century shipwreck off the coast of Rhodes, excavated by archeologists in the 1970s, contained commercial quantities of sumac drupes. These could have been intended for use as medicine, as a culinary spice, or as a dye.[18] Staghorn sumac is a powerful antioxidant, with ORAC rating over 1500 μmol TE/g.[19] Also, the anti hypertension effect of sumac has been investigated and a clinical trial study showed significant effects of R. coriaria on decrease the blood pressure in hypertensive patients[20]

Other uses

Some beekeepers use dried sumac bobs as a source of fuel for their smokers.[21]

Sumac stems also have a soft pith in the center that is easily removed to make them useful in traditional Native American pipemaking. They were commonly used as pipe stems in the northern United States.[22]

Dried sumac wood fluoresces under long-wave ultraviolet radiation.[23]

Toxicity and control

Some species formerly recognized in Rhus, such as poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans, syn. Rhus toxicodendron), poison oak (Toxicodendron diversilobum, syn. Rhus diversiloba), and poison sumac (Toxicodendron vernix, syn. Rhus vernix), produce the allergen urushiol and can cause severe allergic reactions. Poison sumac may be identified by its white drupes, which are quite different from the red drupes of true Rhus species.

Mowing of sumac is not a good control measure, since the wood is springy, resulting in jagged, sharp-pointed stumps when mown. The plant will quickly recover with new growth after mowing.[24] Goats have long been considered an efficient and quick removal method, as they eat the bark, which helps prevent new shoots. Sumac propagates by rhizome. Small shoots will be found growing near a more mature sumac tree via a shallow running root quite some distance from the primary tree. Thus, root pruning is a means of control without eliminating the species altogether.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Rhus L". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2009-11-23. Retrieved 2010-02-09. 
  2. ^ "Rhus L". TROPICOS. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2010-02-09. 
  3. ^ 12. Rhus Linnaeus, Flora of China
  4. ^ Rhus L., USDA PLANTS
  5. ^ a b Sumac is also used as a tisane or tea substitute by boiling the dried leaves.Sumac - Ingredients - Taste.com.au
  6. ^ Poison Sumach and Good Sumac Shrubs
  7. ^ Miller et al 2001.
  8. ^ Pell 2004.
  9. ^ Andrés-Hernández & Terrazas 2009.
  10. ^ Miller, A. 2004. Rhus sp. nov. A. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 23 August 2007.
  11. ^ Etymology of Sumac at Etymonline.com
  12. ^ Weekley, Ernest (1921). An etymological dictionary of modern English. Archived from the original on 3 June 2008. 
  13. ^ Quattrocchi, Umberto (2000). CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names: Common Names, Scientific Names, Eponyms, Synonyms, and Etymology. IV R-Z. Taylor & Francis US. p. 2306. ISBN 978-0-8493-2678-3. 
  14. ^ Christine Manfield, Charlie Trotter, Ashley Barber -Spice 2008 - Page 28 "Sumac This reddish ground spice is made from the berries of the sumac bush,"
  15. ^ Aliza Green Field Guide to Herbs & Spices: How to Identify, Select, and Use ... 2006 - Page 257 "In Lebanon, Syria, and Egypt, sumac is cooked with water to a thick sour paste, which is added to meat and vegetable dishes; this method was also common in Roman times. Sumac appears in the Jordanian spice mixture za'atar (page 288) ..."
  16. ^ Davis, Charles T. The Manufacture of Leather. Pub: Henry Carey Baird 1885. May be downloaded from: https://archive.org/details/manufactureoflea01davi
  17. ^ Lee, Arthur (1888). Marble and marble workers: a handbook for architects, artists, masons and students. London: Crosby Lockwood & Son. p. 19. 
  18. ^ Bass, George Fletcher; Allan, James W. (2003). Serçe Limanı: An Eleventh-century Shipwreck. Texas A&M University Press. p. 506. ISBN 978-0-89096-947-2. 
  19. ^ Wu, T; McCallum, JL; Wang, S; Liu, R; Zhu, H; Tsao, R. "Evaluation of antioxidant activities and chemical characterisation of staghorn sumac fruit (Rhus hirta L.)". Food Chem. 138: 1333–40. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.10.086. PMID 23411251. 
  20. ^ Ardalani, Hamidreza; Moghadam, Maryam Hassanpour; Rahimi, Roja; Soltani, Jalal; Mozayanimonfared, Azadeh; Moradi, Mehdi; Azizi, Ali (2016). "Sumac as a novel adjunctive treatment in hypertension: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial". RSC Advances. 6 (14): 11507–11512. doi:10.1039/C5RA22840A. ISSN 2046-2069. 
  21. ^ Avitabile, Alphonse. Sammataro, Diana. The Beekeeper's Handbook. Publisher: Comstock 1998. ISBN 978-0801485039
  22. ^ Lewis, Thomas H. The Medicine Men: Oglala Sioux Ceremony and Healing. Publisher: University of Nebraska Press. 1992. ISBN 978-0803279391
  23. ^ Hoadley, R. Bruce (2000). "Chapter 5: Other Properties of Wood". Understanding Wood: a Craftsman's Guide to Wood Technology (2 ed.). Taunton Press. pp. 105–107. ISBN 978-1-56158-358-4. 
  24. ^ Ortmann, John; Miles, Katherine L.; Stubbendieck, James H.; Schacht, Walter (1997). "Management of Smooth Sumac on Grasslands". University of Nebraska-Lincoln. 

Further reading

External links