زیارت در لغت یعنی دیدار کردن با قصد، و در معنای مذهبی عزیمتی است (ظاهری یا باطنی) به اماکن مذهبی که از سوی پیروان یک دین برای به پا داشتن یک آیین یا فریضه دینی انجام میگیرد.
پدیدهٔ زیارت کمابیش در بیشتر دینهای جهان وجود دارد. به شخصی که به زیارت میرود زائر گفته میشود و جمع آن زُوّار است.
زیارت آنچنانکه در کتابهای لغت آمده، به معنای دیدار کردن و قصد و آهنگ چیزی کردن است. در کتاب مفردات راغب اصفهانی آمدهاست:
«زور: الزوار اعلی الصدر و زرت فلاناً تلقیته بزوری اَو قَصدت زوره نحو وجهته».
یعنی، زور (ریشهٔ کلمهٔ زیارت) به بالای سینه گویند و فلانی را زیارت کردم، یعنی با بالای سینهام او را ملاقات کردم، یا اینکه قصد نمودم بالای سینه او را؛ (یعنی او را ببینم، چرا که انسان همیشه سر و بالای سینهٔ مخاطب و زائر را زیارت میکند و به پای شخص کاری ندارد) هنگامی که به سویش توجه نمودم.
احمد بن فارس میگوید: «زائر را از آن جهت زائر میگویند که وقتی به زیارت تو میآید، از غیر تو عدول میگرداند».
آندسته از زائران که قادر به سفر به اماکن مذهبی نیستند معمولاً کسانی را به عنوان نایب در نظر میگیرند تا به جا و به یادشان زیارت کند؛ این کار زیارت به نیابت (زیارت نیابتی) نام دارد و به شخصی که آن را بر عهده میگیرد نائبالزیاره میگویند. در سالهای اخیر با نفوذ اینترنت میان مردم، ارائهٔ خدمات مذهبی در فضای مجازی گسترش یافته و در حوزه زیارت نیز سرویسهایی مانند زیارت آنلاین (پخش زنده از اماکن متبرکه) و زیارت مجازی ارائه میشود. در زیارت مجازی اماکن متبرکه مانند تور مجازی شبیهسازی شده تا بازدیدکننده بتواند به قسمتهای مختلف آن مراجعه و ارتباط قلبی برقرار کند.
A pilgrimage is a journey, often into an unknown or foreign place, where a person goes in search of new or expanded meaning about the self, others, nature, or a higher good, through the experience. It can lead to a personal transformation, after which the pilgrim returns to their daily life.
Pilgrimages frequently involve a journey or search of moral or spiritual significance. Typically, it is a journey to a shrine or other location of importance to a person's beliefs and faith, although sometimes it can be a metaphorical journey into someone's own beliefs.
Many religions attach spiritual importance to particular places: the place of birth or death of founders or saints, or to the place of their "calling" or spiritual awakening, or of their connection (visual or verbal) with the divine, to locations where miracles were performed or witnessed, or locations where a deity is said to live or be "housed", or any site that is seen to have special spiritual powers. Such sites may be commemorated with shrines or temples that devotees are encouraged to visit for their own spiritual benefit: to be healed or have questions answered or to achieve some other spiritual benefit.
The Christian priest Frank Fahey writes that a pilgrim is "always in danger of becoming a tourist", and vice versa since travel always in his view upsets the fixed order of life at home, and identifies eight differences between the two:
Distinguishing pilgrimage from tourism, according to Frank Fahey
Christian pilgrimage was first made to sites connected with the birth, life, crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus. Aside from the early example of Origen in the third century, surviving descriptions of Christian pilgrimages to the Holy Land date from the 4th century, when pilgrimage was encouraged by church fathers including Saint Jerome, and established by Saint Helena, the mother of Constantine the Great.
To go on pilgrimage is not simply to visit a place to admire its treasures of nature, art or history. To go on pilgrimage really means to step out of ourselves in order to encounter God where he has revealed himself, where his grace has shone with particular splendour and produced rich fruits of conversion and holiness among those who believe. Above all, Christians go on pilgrimage to the Holy Land, to the places associated with the Lord’s passion, death and resurrection. They go to Rome, the city of the martyrdom of Peter and Paul, and also to Compostela, which, associated with the memory of Saint James, has welcomed pilgrims from throughout the world who desire to strengthen their spirit with the Apostle’s witness of faith and love.
According to Karel Werner's Popular Dictionary of Hinduism, "most Hindu places of pilgrimage are associated with legendary events from the lives of various gods.... Almost any place can become a focus for pilgrimage, but in most cases they are sacred cities, rivers, lakes, and mountains." Hindus are encouraged to undertake pilgrimages during their lifetime, though this practice is not considered absolutely mandatory. Most Hindus visit sites within their region or locale.
The Ḥajj (Arabic: حَـجّ, main pilgrimage to Mecca) is one of the five pillars of Islam and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence. The gathering during the Hajj is considered the largest annual gathering of people in the world.
Another important place for Muslims is the city of Medina, the second holiest site in Islam, in Saudi Arabia, the final resting place of Muhammad in Al-Masjid an-Nabawi (The Mosque of the Prophet). The third holiest site in Islam, Al-Masjid Al-Aqsa was a major site for pilgrimage where Muslims gather to pray and visit the structures of the holy mosque especially the footprint of Muhammad before he ascended to paradise to meet with deceased prophets. However, due to conflict and disputes between Israel and Palestine the site has been less popular amongst Muslims to go to pilgrimage to in recent years.
The Ihram (white robes of pilgrimage) is meant to show equality of all Muslim pilgrims in the eyes of God, that there is no difference between a prince and a pauper. Ihram is also symbolic for holy virtue and pardon from all past sins.
Al-Arba‘īn (Arabic: ٱلْأَرْبَـعِـيْـن, "The Forty"), Chehelom (Persian: چهلم, Urdu: چہلم, "the fortieth [day]") or Qirkhī, Imāmīn Qirkhī (Azerbaijani: İmamın qırxı (Arabic: إمامین قیرخی), "the fortieth of Imam") is a Shia Muslim religious observance that occurs forty days after the Day of Ashura. It commemorates the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad, which falls on the 20th or 21st day of the month of Safar. Imam Husayn ibn Ali and 72 companions were killed by Yazid I's army in the Battle of Karbala in 61 AH (680 CE). Arba'een or forty days is also the usual length of mourning after the death of a family member or loved one in many Muslim traditions. Arba'een is one of the largest pilgrimage gatherings on Earth, in which up to 31 million people go to the city of Karbala in Iraq.
The second largest holy city in the world, Mashhad attracts more than 20 million tourists and pilgrims every year, many of whom come to pay homage to Imam Reza (the eighth Shi'ite Imam). It has been a magnet for travelers since medieval times.
While Solomon's Temple stood, Jerusalem was the centre of the Jewish religious life and the site of the Three Pilgrimage Festivals of Passover, Shavuot and Sukkot, and all adult men who were able were required to visit and offer sacrifices (korbanot) at the Temple. After the destruction of the Temple, the obligation to visit Jerusalem and to make sacrifices no longer applied. The obligation was restored with the rebuilding of the Temple, but following its destruction in 70 CE, the obligation to make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem and offer sacrifices again went into abeyance.
The Sikh religion does not place great importance on pilgrimage. Guru Nanak Dev was asked "Should I go and bathe at pilgrimage places?" and he replied:
"God's name is the real pilgrimage place which consists of contemplation of the word of God, and the cultivation of inner knowledge."
The Panj Takht (Punjabi: ਪੰਜ ਤਖ਼ਤ) are the five revered gurdwaras in India that are considered the thrones or seats of authority of Sikhism and are traditionally considered a pilgrimage.
Baishatun Pilgrimage: Mazu and her palanquin
Mazu, also spelled as Matsu, is the most famous sea goddess in the Chinese southeastern sea area, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan.
Mazu Pilgrimage is more likely as an event (or temple fair), pilgrims are called as "Xiang Deng Jiao" (pinyin: xiāng dēng jiǎo, it means "lantern feet" in Chinese), they would follow the Goddess's (Mazu) palanquin from her own temple to another Mazu temple. By tradition, when the village Mazu palanquin passes, the residents would offer free water and food to those pilgrims along the way.
There are 2 main Mazu pilgrimages in Taiwan, it usually hold between lunar January and April, depends on Mazu's will.
In Iran, there are pilgrimage destinations called pirs in several provinces, although the most familiar ones are in the province of Yazd. In addition to the traditional Yazdi shrines, new sites may be in the process of becoming pilgrimage destinations. The ruins are the ruins of ancient fire temples. One such site is the ruin of the Sassanian era Azargoshnasp Fire Temple in Iran's Azarbaijan Province. Other sites are the ruins of fire temples at Rey, south of the capital Tehran, and the Firouzabad ruins sixty kilometres south of Shiraz in the province of Pars.
Atash Behram ("Fire of victory") is the highest grade of fire temple in Zoroastrianism. It has 16 different "kinds of fire", that is, fires gathered from 16 different sources. Currently there are 9 Atash Behram, one in Yazd, Iran and the rest in Western India. They have become a pilgrimage destination.
The main pilgrimage sites associated with the spiritual teacher Meher Baba are Meherabad, India, where Baba completed the "major portion" of his work and where his tomb is now located, and Meherazad, India, where Baba resided later in his life.
^Reader, Ian; Walter, Tony, eds. (2014). Pilgrimage in popular culture. [Place of publication not identified]: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN978-1349126392. OCLC935188979.
^Reframing pilgrimage : cultures in motion. Coleman, Simon, 1963-, Eade, John, 1946-, European Association of Social Anthropologists. London: Routledge. 2004. ISBN9780203643693. OCLC56559960.CS1 maint: others (link)