سیارهٔ زهره، بدون ماه است و در مدار تقریباً دایرهواری بهدور خورشید میگردد. این سیاره از بسیاری دیدگاهها ازجمله اندازه، جرم، گرانش و ترکیبات ساختاری به زمین همانندی دارد و به خاطر همین نزدیکیها آن را سیاره «خواهر زمین» نیز خواندهاند. زهره از نظر جرم و حجم، هفتمین جسم بزرگ و پرجرم در منظومهٔ شمسی است.
زهره گرمترین سیاره در منظومهٔ شمسی است. این سیاره دارای هواکره است. هواکره ضخیم و غلیظ آن موجب میشود که دیدن سطح آن با چشم غیرمسلح، دشوار باشد. بیشتر هواکره آن را کربن دیاکسید تشکیل داده و در ابرهای بالایی آن قطرههای ریز سولفوریک اسید وجود دارند. وجود کربن دیاکسید در هواکره این سیاره که گرما را در سیاره نگه میدارد دمای آن را به مقدار بسیار چشمگیری (۴۸۰ درجه سلسیوس نزدیک سطح سیاره) افزایش دادهاست.
آغاز شب و سیارهٔ زهره در هنگام غروب
این سیاره یکی از سیارههای سنگی و فشرده و دارای آتشفشانهای فعال، زمینلرزه و رشتهکوه است. زمان لازم برای یکبار گردش این سیاره به دور خورشید ۲۲۵ روز زمینی است.
زهره در سنجش با بیشتر سیارهها در منظومهٔ شمسی از جمله زمین، کرویتر است و به علت چرخش بسیار آهسته دور محوری آن، پدیده تورفتگی یا مسطح شدن قطبها و برآمدگی یا تورم نواحی استوایی در آن، کمتر از دیگر سیارهها رخ میدهد. طول یک شبانهروز در سیارهٔ زهره از یک سال این سیاره کمی بلندتر است.
سیاره زهره بدون ماه است ولی از بسیاری دیدگاهها مانند اندازه، جرم، گرانش و ترکیبات ساختاری به زمین همانندی دارد و به خاطر همین نزدیکیها آن را سیاره خواهر زمین نیز خواندهاند.
قطر زهره کمی کوچکتر از قطر زمین و نزدیک به ۱۲٬۰۹۲ کیلومتر (۷٬۵۱۴ مایل) است. در حالی که قطر زمین ۱۲٬۷۵۶ کیلومتر (۷٬۹۲۶ مایل) است.
گرانش سیارهٔ زهره نزدیک به ۹۱ درصد گرانش زمین، جرم آن نیز نزدیک به ۸۱ درصد جرم زمین، و چگالی آن نزدیک به ۹۵ درصد چگالی زمین است. با این حال این سیاره در سنجش با بیشتر سیارهها در منظومهٔ شمسی از جمله زمین، کرویتر است و به علت چرخش بسیار آهسته دور محوری آن، پدیده تورفتگی یا مسطح شدن قطبها و برآمدگی یا تورم نواحی استوایی در آن، کمتر از دیگر سیارهها رخ میدهد.
ساختار درونی زهره پوسته بیرونی و گوشته و هسته به رنگ زرد
بیشتر سطح زهره از صفحات گدازههای آتشفشانی پدید آمدهاست. از هنگام پیدایش زهره و مدتها پس از آن، کنشهای آتشفشانی چنان زیاد بوده که سطح سیاره، چندین بار بازسازی شده و هرگونه نشانه برخورد شهابسنگ را از بین بردهاست. آخرین بازسازی سطحی که بین ۳۰۰ تا ۵۰۰ میلیون سال پیش در این سیاره رخ داده هر گونه کنش زمینساختی بَعدی در زهره را آرام کرده و سطحی یکپارچه و صُلب به آن دادهاست.
دو منطقه بزرگ یا قاره در زهره، قابل جداسازی هستند: قاره Ishtar Terra در شمال با بزرگی به اندازه استرالیا و قاره Aphrodite Terra با بزرگی به اندازه آفریقا که از استوا تا قطب جنوب زهره کشیده شدهاست. Ishtar Terra دارای کوههایی بلند است که بلندترین کوه آن به نام «ماکسول» به ۱۰ کیلومتر میرسد. بلندی مهمترین فلات در نیمکره شمالی زهره «آتالانتا» ۱۴۰۰ متر و مساحت آن به اندازه خلیج مکزیک است. فلات Beta Regio در نیمکره شمالی از جنس مواد آتشفشانی با درازای نزدیک به ۲۵۰۰ کیلومتر است. در این فلات دو آتشفشان سپری به نامهای Rhea Mons و Theia Mons با بلندی ۴ کیلومتر وجود دارند. بقیه بخشهای نیمکره شمالی از دشت پوشیده شدهاست. Leda Terra در عرض جغرافیایی ۵۰ درجه و در شمال آن فلات Alpha Regio قرار دارد.
با در دست نبودن دادههای لرزشسنجی، گشتاور لختی و جزئیات زمینشیمی از ساختار درونی سیاره ناهید، آگاهی کمی از ساختار داخلی و ژئوشیمی این سیاره در دست است.
دو دیدگاه دربارهٔ ساختار درونی سیارهٔ زهره وجود دارد. به نظر میرسد به خاطر نزدیکی اندازه، جرم، چگالی زهره و زمین، لایههای درونی زهره مانند زمین، از پوسته، گوشتهٔ احتمالاً جامد و هستهٔ مذاب تشکیل شده باشد و هستهٔ این سیاره نیز مانند زمین ترکیبی از آهن و نیکل باشد.
بر پایه یافتههای ونرا-۴ در ۱۹۶۷ (میلادی) سیاره زهره دارای میدان مغناطیسی بسیار ضعیفی است. به نظر میرسد به دلیل چرخش بسیار کند زهره، هسته مذاب آن (خاستگاه پیدایش میدان مغناطیسی) حرکت زیادی نداشته و میدان مغناطیسی آن ضعیف باشد. اما گرمایی که در میلیونها سال در درون سیاره حبس شده، به شکل ناگهانی و مانند فعالیتهای آتشفشانی بسیار بزرگ آزاد شده و شکل سطحی سیاره را دگرگون میکند.
تفاوت بزرگ زهره با زمین، هواکره آن است که ۹۶٫۵٪ آن را کربن دیاکسید و ۳٫۵٪ آن را نیتروژن تشکیل داده و در ابرهای فوقانی آن قطرات ریز سولفوریک اسید وجود دارد. وجود کربن دیاکسید در هواکره این سیاره دمای آن را به مقدار بسیار چشمگیری افزایش دادهاست (تا ۴۸۰ درجه سلسیوس در سطح سیاره).
زهره گرمترین سیاره در منظومهٔ شمسی است. نور آفتاب پس از نفوذ در هواکره این سیاره و جذب شدن توسط سطح آن، بهصورت گرما از سطح بازتابیده میشود. اما انبوه کربن دیاکسید هواکره زهره، این گرمای بازتابیده را به دام انداخته و از رها شدن آن در فضای بیرونی جلوگیری میکند. این جذب اضافی گرما که به اثر گلخانهای شناخته میشود میانگین گرمای زهره را بیش از هر سیاره دیگری (حتی سیاره تیر) در منظومهٔ شمسی بالا بردهاست. بطوریکه این حرارت برای ذوب کردن فلز سرب کافیست. از اینرو پیدایش زندگی شبه انسان خاکی، در این سیاره، غیرممکن است.
از دید اندازه ذرات و غلظت، سه لایه جداگانه ترپوسفر (در بلندی ۱۰۰ تا ۷۵ کیلومتر و ۹۳ درجه سلسیوس تا ۲۷ درجه سلسیوس)، اکسپوسفر (در بلندی ۷۰ تا ۵۰ کیلومتری و ۲۷ درجه سلسیوس تا ۹۳ درجه سلسیوس)، ترموسفر (۵۰ کیلومتر تا سطح و ۹۳ درجه سلسیوس تا ۴۷۰ درجه سلسیوس) وجود دارد. اکسپوسفر در بخش تاریک سیاره از میان میرود. در لایه ترپوسفر در قطرههای سولفوریک اسید مواد اصلی ابرهای سیاره هستند که از واکنش مولکولهای آب و گوگرد دیاکسید در بخشهای بالایی هواکره با انرژی فرابنفش پرتو خورشید پدید میآیند. دمای ابرهای بالایی ترپوسفر ۲۷ درجه سلسیوس و در سطح سیاره به ۴۷۰ سلسیوس افزایش پیدا میکند. دمای سیاره از این مقدار کنونی بیشتر نمیشود چون هواکره سیاره و سطح آن در موازنه شیمیایی هستند.
برخلاف چرخش کند سیاره به دور خود، ابرهای آن هر ۴ روز یکبار به دور سیاره میچرخند. در بلندی بالای هواکره زهره طوفانهایی با سرعت ۳۶۰ کیلومتر بر ساعت میوزند. دلیل این سرع زیاد، انتقال تکانه از حرکت کند سیاره و لایههای پایینی هواکره به لایههای بالایی آن (که غلظت بسیار کمتری دارند) است. در بلندی ۱۰ کیلومتری، سرعت باد به حدود ۱۸ کیلومتر در ساعت و به دلیل غلطت بالای هواکره در نزدیکی سطح سیاره سرعت باد تنها ۳ کیلومتر بر ساعت است. همچنین به دلیل غلظت بالای هواکره، نور شدید آذرخشهای عظیم به سطح زهره نمیرسد.
زهره در مدار تقریباً دایرهواری با میانگین فاصله ۱۰۸ میلیون کیلومتر از خورشید، به دور آن میگردد. هنگامی که در نزدیکترین وضعیت نسبت به زمین قرار میگیرد، فاصلهٔ آن دو با هم تنها ۴۱ میلیون کیلومتر است و در دورترین حالت این دوری به ۲۵۷ میلیون کیلومتر میرسد. سیارهٔ زهره از نظر مداری، نزدیکترین فاصله به زمین را دارد. اما در حین گردش مداری به دور خورشید، سیارهٔ عطارد به مدت بیشتری در نزدیکترین فاصله از زمین باقی میماند.
زمان لازم برای یکبار گردش این سیاره به دور خودش ۲۴۳ روز زمین است. در واقع زهره آنقدر کند و آهسته دوران میکند که یک شبانهروز آن ۲۴۳ روز و یک سال خورشیدی در زهره هم کمی کمتر از این اندازه و ۲۲۵ روز است. این چرخش معکوس در سال ۱۹۶۴ (میلادی) و با استفاده از اثر دوپلر کشف شد.
در اوایل دهه ۱۹۶۰ (میلادی)کاوشگر ماژلان را به سوی زهره نشانهروی کردند که سیگنالهای آن از ابرهای این سیاره عبور کرده و پس از برخورد با سطح جامد سیاره، منعکس شد. برای نخستین بار دانشمندان اطلاع جالبی را دربارهٔ سطح زهره بهدست آوردند که نشان میداد زهره دارای حرکت چرخشی در جهت معکوس است. چرخش آن از خاور به باختر است و آفتاب از باختر طلوع و در خاور غروب میکند.
فضاپیمایمارینر ۲، ساخت ناسا که در اوت ۱۹۶۲ پرتاب شد، در دسامبر ۱۹۶۲ از ۳۵۰۰۰ کیلومتری زهره گذشت. مشاهدات این سفینه نشان داد که زهره را ابرهای سفید رنگ مایل به زردی، کاملاً پوشاندهاست و شکافی در این ابرها نیست که از راه آن بتوان نظری به سطح جامد این سیاره افکند.
فضاپیمای مارینر ۱۰ در فوریه ۱۹۷۴ از بلندی کمتر از ۶۵۰۰ کیلومتری، زهره را مورد پژوهش قرار داد و معلوم شد که این ابرها حرکت منطقهای دارند و با سرعتی بیش از ۲۴۰ کیلومتر در ساعت سیاره را دور میزنند و در مناطقی از زهره که رو به خورشید است، برهمکنشی میان جریانهای بزرگ مقیاس همرفتی با این حرکت منطقهای وجود دارد.
سه روز پس از آن وسیله مشابهی از سفینه ونرا-۱۰ در ۲۲۰۰ کیلومتری محل فرود وسیله ونرا ۹ به زهره نشست و یافتههای خود را به مدت ۶۵ دقیقه فرستاد. این نگارهها، نخستین نگارههایی بودند که تا آن زمان از سطح سیارهای دیگر گرفته شده بود.
نگارهای که کاوشگر ونرا ۱۰ از دهانه ماژلان، محل فرود خود فرستاد.
ابن سینا در سده یازده میلادی گذر زهره از مقابل قرص خورشید را مشاهده کردهاست.ابن باجه اخترشناسی اندلسی در سده دوازدهم میلادی از رصد دو سیاره به شکل دو نقطه سیاه بر سیمای خورشید خبر داد که یک قرن پس از او قطبالدین شیرازی، ستارهشناس ایرانی در رصدخانه مراغه آن را بهدرستی با عنوان گذر زهره و تیر از جلوی خورشید شناسایی کرد.
سیاره زهره در ادبیات فارسی از اهمیت بالایی برخوردار است. این سیاره نماد عشق و دلدادگی و نیز معروف به سیارهٔ نوازنده است و صاحب آن خداوند عشق است. از داستانهای آن میتوان به داستان نظامی گنجوی یا داستان ایرج میرزا اشاره کرد.
در عجایبالمخلوقاتزکریای قزوینی چنین آمده که: عاشق چون نظر در ناهید کند، حرارت عشق بر وی سنگینتر شود و الفت آورد میان مردان و زنان و گویند وقت نکاح اگر که ناهید ناظر باشد و نیکوحال، میان زن و مرد محبتی عجب افتد.
↑ ۴٫۰۴٫۱Seidelmann, P. Kenneth; Archinal, B. A.; A’hearn, M. F.; Conrad, A.; Consolmagno, G. J.; Hestroffer, D.; Hilton, J. L.; Krasinsky, G. A.; Neumann, G.; Oberst, J.; Stooke, P.; Tedesco, E. F.; Tholen, D. J.; Thomas, P. C.; Williams, I. P. (2007). "Report of the IAU/IAG Working Group on cartographic coordinates and rotational elements: 2006". Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy. 98 (3): 155–180. doi:10.1007/s10569-007-9072-y. ISSN0923-2958.
↑Goettel, K. A.; Shields, J. A.; Decker, D. A. (16–20 March 1981). "Density constraints on the composition of Venus". Proceedings of the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Houston, TX: Pergamon Press. pp. 1507–1516. Bibcode:1982LPSC...12.1507G.
↑Dolginov, Sh.; Eroshenko, E. G.; Lewis, L. (September 1969). "Nature of the Magnetic Field in the Neighborhood of Venus". Cosmic Research. 7: 675. Bibcode:1969CosRe...7..675D.
↑Kivelson G. M.; Russell, C. T. (1995). "Introduction to Space Physics". Cambridge University Press. ISBN978-0-521-45714-9.
↑S. M. Razaullah Ansari (2002). History of Oriental Astronomy: Proceedings of the Joint Discussion-17 at the 23rd General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union, Organised by the Commission 41 (History of Astronomy), Held in Kyoto, August 25–26, 1997. اشپرینگر ساینس+بیزینس مدیا. p. 137. ISBN978-1-4020-0657-9.
↑Defining the rotation as retrograde, as done by NASA space missions and the USGS, puts Ishtar Terra in the northern hemisphere and makes the axial tilt 2.64°. Following the right-hand rule for prograde rotation puts Ishtar Terra in the southern hemisphere and makes the axial tilt 177.36°.
^Defining the rotation as retrograde, as done by NASA space missions and the USGS, puts Ishtar Terra in the northern hemisphere and makes the axial tilt 2.64°. Following the right-hand rule for prograde rotation puts Ishtar Terra in the southern hemisphere and makes the axial tilt 177.36°.
Venus is a terrestrial planet and is sometimes called Earth's "sister planet" because of their similar size, mass, proximity to the Sun, and bulk composition. It is radically different from Earth in other respects. It has the densest atmosphere of the four terrestrial planets, consisting of more than 96% carbon dioxide. The atmospheric pressure at the planet's surface is 92 times that of Earth, or roughly the pressure found 900 m (3,000 ft) underwater on Earth. Venus is by far the hottest planet in the Solar System, with a mean surface temperature of 735 K (462 °C; 863 °F), even though Mercury is closer to the Sun. Venus is shrouded by an opaque layer of highly reflective clouds of sulfuric acid, preventing its surface from being seen from space in visible light. It may have had water oceans in the past, but these would have vaporized as the temperature rose due to a runaway greenhouse effect. The water has probably photodissociated, and the free hydrogen has been swept into interplanetary space by the solar wind because of the lack of a planetary magnetic field. Venus's surface is a dry desertscape interspersed with slab-like rocks and is periodically resurfaced by volcanism.
As one of the brightest objects in the sky, Venus has been a major fixture in human culture for as long as records have existed. It has been made sacred to gods of many cultures, and has been a prime inspiration for writers and poets as the morning star and evening star. Venus was the first planet to have its motions plotted across the sky, as early as the second millennium BC.
As the planet with the closest approach to Earth, Venus has been a prime target for early interplanetary exploration. It was the first planet beyond Earth visited by a spacecraft (Mariner 2 in 1962), and the first to be successfully landed on (by Venera 7 in 1970). Venus's thick clouds render observation of its surface impossible in visible light, and the first detailed maps did not emerge until the arrival of the Magellan orbiter in 1991. Plans have been proposed for rovers or more complex missions, but they are hindered by Venus's hostile surface conditions.
Since 1963, claims have been made that tiny objects discovered in Venus’ atmospheric clouds are a sort of living bacteria. This was first suggested in a Nature article by Carl Sagan and Harold J. Morowitz. The article wrote that "While the surface conditions of Venus make the hypothesis of life there implausible, the clouds of Venus are a different story altogether. As was pointed out some years ago, water, carbon dioxide and sunlight—the prerequisites for photosynthesis—are plentiful in the vicinity of the clouds." Recent research also suggests that the light absorbance of these objects is almost identical to that of organisms in earth's clouds.
Size comparison showing a representation of Venus (using a false-colour, radar-based image of the surface) compared to Earth
Venus is one of the four terrestrial planets in the Solar System, meaning that it is a rocky body like Earth. It is similar to Earth in size and mass, and is often described as Earth's "sister" or "twin". The diameter of Venus is 12,103.6 km (7,520.8 mi)—only 638.4 km (396.7 mi) less than Earth's—and its mass is 81.5% of Earth's. Conditions on the Venusian surface differ radically from those on Earth because its dense atmosphere is 96.5% carbon dioxide, with most of the remaining 3.5% being nitrogen.
The Venusian surface was a subject of speculation until some of its secrets were revealed by planetary science in the 20th century. Venera landers in 1975 and 1982 returned images of a surface covered in sediment and relatively angular rocks. The surface was mapped in detail by Magellan in 1990–91. The ground shows evidence of extensive volcanism, and the sulfur in the atmosphere may indicate that there have been recent eruptions.
About 80% of the Venusian surface is covered by smooth, volcanic plains, consisting of 70% plains with wrinkle ridges and 10% smooth or lobate plains. Two highland "continents" make up the rest of its surface area, one lying in the planet's northern hemisphere and the other just south of the equator. The northern continent is called Ishtar Terra after Ishtar, the Babylonian goddess of love, and is about the size of Australia. Maxwell Montes, the highest mountain on Venus, lies on Ishtar Terra. Its peak is 11 km (7 mi) above the Venusian average surface elevation. The southern continent is called Aphrodite Terra, after the Greek goddess of love, and is the larger of the two highland regions at roughly the size of South America. A network of fractures and faults covers much of this area.
The absence of evidence of lava flow accompanying any of the visible calderas remains an enigma. The planet has few impact craters, demonstrating that the surface is relatively young, approximately 300–600 million years old. Venus has some unique surface features in addition to the impact craters, mountains, and valleys commonly found on rocky planets. Among these are flat-topped volcanic features called "farra", which look somewhat like pancakes and range in size from 20 to 50 km (12 to 31 mi) across, and from 100 to 1,000 m (330 to 3,280 ft) high; radial, star-like fracture systems called "novae"; features with both radial and concentric fractures resembling spider webs, known as "arachnoids"; and "coronae", circular rings of fractures sometimes surrounded by a depression. These features are volcanic in origin.
The longitude of physical features on Venus are expressed relative to its prime meridian. The original prime meridian passed through the radar-bright spot at the centre of the oval feature Eve, located south of Alpha Regio. After the Venera missions were completed, the prime meridian was redefined to pass through the central peak in the crater Ariadne.
False-colour radar map of Maat Mons with a vertical exaggeration of 22.5
Much of the Venusian surface appears to have been shaped by volcanic activity. Venus has several times as many volcanoes as Earth, and it has 167 large volcanoes that are over 100 km (62 mi) across. The only volcanic complex of this size on Earth is the Big Island of Hawaii.:154 This is not because Venus is more volcanically active than Earth, but because its crust is older. Earth's oceanic crust is continually recycled by subduction at the boundaries of tectonic plates, and has an average age of about 100 million years, whereas the Venusian surface is estimated to be 300–600 million years old.
Several lines of evidence point to ongoing volcanic activity on Venus. During the Soviet Venera program, the Venera 9 orbiter obtained spectroscopic evidence of lightning on Venus, and the Venera 12 descent probe obtained additional evidence of lightning and thunder. The European Space Agency's Venus Express in 2007 detected whistler waves further confirming the occurrence of lightning on Venus. One possibility is that ash from a volcanic eruption was generating the lightning. Another piece of evidence comes from measurements of sulfur dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere, which dropped by a factor of 10 between 1978 and 1986, jumped in 2006, and again declined 10-fold. This may mean that levels had been boosted several times by large volcanic eruptions.
In 2008 and 2009, the first direct evidence for ongoing volcanism was observed by Venus Express, in the form of four transient localized infrared hot spots within the rift zone Ganis Chasma,[n 1] near the shield volcano Maat Mons. Three of the spots were observed in more than one successive orbit. These spots are thought to represent lava freshly released by volcanic eruptions. The actual temperatures are not known, because the size of the hot spots could not be measured, but are likely to have been in the 800–1,100 K (527–827 °C; 980–1,520 °F) range, relative to a normal temperature of 740 K (467 °C; 872 °F).
Impact craters on the surface of Venus (false-colour image reconstructed from radar data)
Almost a thousand impact craters on Venus are evenly distributed across its surface. On other cratered bodies, such as Earth and the Moon, craters show a range of states of degradation. On the Moon, degradation is caused by subsequent impacts, whereas on Earth it is caused by wind and rain erosion. On Venus, about 85% of the craters are in pristine condition. The number of craters, together with their well-preserved condition, indicates the planet underwent a global resurfacing event about 300–600 million years ago, followed by a decay in volcanism. Whereas Earth's crust is in continuous motion, Venus is thought to be unable to sustain such a process. Without plate tectonics to dissipate heat from its mantle, Venus instead undergoes a cyclical process in which mantle temperatures rise until they reach a critical level that weakens the crust. Then, over a period of about 100 million years, subduction occurs on an enormous scale, completely recycling the crust.
Venusian craters range from 3 to 280 km (2 to 174 mi) in diameter. No craters are smaller than 3 km, because of the effects of the dense atmosphere on incoming objects. Objects with less than a certain kinetic energy are slowed down so much by the atmosphere that they do not create an impact crater. Incoming projectiles less than 50 m (160 ft) in diameter will fragment and burn up in the atmosphere before reaching the ground.
The internal structure of Venus – the crust (outer layer), the mantle (middle layer) and the core (yellow inner layer)
Without seismic data or knowledge of its moment of inertia, little direct information is available about the internal structure and geochemistry of Venus. The similarity in size and density between Venus and Earth suggests they share a similar internal structure: a core, mantle, and crust. Like that of Earth, the Venusian core is at least partially liquid because the two planets have been cooling at about the same rate. The slightly smaller size of Venus means pressures are 24% lower in its deep interior than Earth's. The principal difference between the two planets is the lack of evidence for plate tectonics on Venus, possibly because its crust is too strong to subduct without water to make it less viscous. This results in reduced heat loss from the planet, preventing it from cooling and providing a likely explanation for its lack of an internally generated magnetic field.
Instead, Venus may lose its internal heat in periodic major resurfacing events.
Venus has an extremely dense atmosphere composed of 96.5% carbon dioxide, 3.5% nitrogen, and traces of other gases, most notably sulfur dioxide. The mass of its atmosphere is 93 times that of Earth's, whereas the pressure at its surface is about 92 times that at Earth's—a pressure equivalent to that at a depth of nearly 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) under Earth's oceans. The density at the surface is 65 kg/m3, 6.5% that of water or 50 times as dense as Earth's atmosphere at 293 K (20 °C; 68 °F) at sea level. The CO 2-rich atmosphere generates the strongest greenhouse effect in the Solar System, creating surface temperatures of at least 735 K (462 °C; 864 °F). This makes Venus's surface hotter than Mercury's, which has a minimum surface temperature of 53 K (−220 °C; −364 °F) and maximum surface temperature of 700 K (427 °C; 801 °F), even though Venus is nearly twice Mercury's distance from the Sun and thus receives only 25% of Mercury's solar irradiance. This temperature is higher than that used for sterilization.
Studies have suggested that billions of years ago Venus's atmosphere was much more like Earth's than it is now, and that there may have been substantial quantities of liquid water on the surface, but after a period of 600 million to several billion years, a runaway greenhouse effect was caused by the evaporation of that original water, which generated a critical level of greenhouse gases in its atmosphere. Although the surface conditions on Venus are no longer hospitable to any Earth-like life that may have formed before this event, there is speculation on the possibility that life exists in the upper cloud layers of Venus, 50 km (31 mi) up from the surface, where the temperature ranges between 303 and 353 K (30 and 80 °C; 86 and 176 °F) but the environment is acidic.
Thermal inertia and the transfer of heat by winds in the lower atmosphere mean that the temperature of Venus's surface does not vary significantly between the night and day sides, despite Venus's extremely slow rotation. Winds at the surface are slow, moving at a few kilometres per hour, but because of the high density of the atmosphere at the surface, they exert a significant amount of force against obstructions, and transport dust and small stones across the surface. This alone would make it difficult for a human to walk through, even if the heat, pressure, and lack of oxygen were not a problem.
Above the dense CO 2 layer are thick clouds consisting mainly of sulfuric acid, which is formed by sulfur dioxide and water through a chemical reaction resulting in sulfuric acid hydrate. Additionally, the atmosphere consists of approximately 1% ferric chloride. Other possible constituents of the cloud particles are ferric sulfate, aluminium chloride and phosphoric anhydride. Clouds at different levels have different compositions and particle size distributions. These clouds reflect and scatter about 90% of the sunlight that falls on them back into space, and prevent visual observation of Venus's surface. The permanent cloud cover means that although Venus is closer than Earth to the Sun, it receives less sunlight on the ground. Strong 300 km/h (185 mph) winds at the cloud tops go around Venus about every four to five Earth days. Winds on Venus move at up to 60 times the speed of its rotation, whereas Earth's fastest winds are only 10–20% rotation speed.
The surface of Venus is effectively isothermal; it retains a constant temperature not only between day and night sides but between the equator and the poles. Venus's minute axial tilt—less than 3°, compared to 23° on Earth—also minimises seasonal temperature variation. Altitude is one of the few factors that affect Venusian temperature. The highest point on Venus, Maxwell Montes, is therefore the coolest point on Venus, with a temperature of about 655 K (380 °C; 715 °F) and an atmospheric pressure of about 4.5 MPa (45 bar). In 1995, the Magellan spacecraft imaged a highly reflective substance at the tops of the highest mountain peaks that bore a strong resemblance to terrestrial snow. This substance likely formed from a similar process to snow, albeit at a far higher temperature. Too volatile to condense on the surface, it rose in gaseous form to higher elevations, where it is cooler and could precipitate. The identity of this substance is not known with certainty, but speculation has ranged from elemental tellurium to lead sulfide (galena).
Although Venus has no seasons to speak of, in 2019 astronomers identified a cyclical variation in sunlight absorption by the atmosphere, possibly caused by opaque, absorbing particles suspended in the upper clouds. The variation causes observed changes in the speed of Venus's zonal winds, and appears to rise and fall in time with the Sun's 11-year sunspot cycle.
The clouds of Venus may be capable of producing lightning. The existence of lightning in the atmosphere of Venus has been controversial since the first suspected bursts were detected by the Soviet Venera probes. In 2006–07, Venus Express clearly detected whistler mode waves, the signatures of lightning. Their intermittent appearance indicates a pattern associated with weather activity. According to these measurements, the lightning rate is at least half of that on Earth. In 2007, Venus Express discovered that a huge double atmospheric vortex exists at the south pole.
Venus Express also discovered, in 2011, that an ozone layer exists high in the atmosphere of Venus. On 29 January 2013, ESA scientists reported that the ionosphere of Venus streams outwards in a manner similar to "the ion tail seen streaming from a comet under similar conditions."
In December 2015 and to a lesser extent in April and May 2016, researchers working on Japan's Akatsuki mission observed bow shapes in the atmosphere of Venus. This was considered direct evidence of the existence of perhaps the largest stationary gravity waves in the solar system.
The lack of an intrinsic magnetic field at Venus was surprising, given that it is similar to Earth in size and was expected also to contain a dynamo at its core. A dynamo requires three things: a conducting liquid, rotation, and convection. The core is thought to be electrically conductive and, although its rotation is often thought to be too slow, simulations show it is adequate to produce a dynamo. This implies that the dynamo is missing because of a lack of convection in Venus's core. On Earth, convection occurs in the liquid outer layer of the core because the bottom of the liquid layer is much hotter than the top. On Venus, a global resurfacing event may have shut down plate tectonics and led to a reduced heat flux through the crust. This caused the mantle temperature to increase, thereby reducing the heat flux out of the core. As a result, no internal geodynamo is available to drive a magnetic field. Instead, the heat from the core is being used to reheat the crust.
One possibility is that Venus has no solid inner core, or that its core is not cooling, so that the entire liquid part of the core is at approximately the same temperature. Another possibility is that its core has already completely solidified. The state of the core is highly dependent on the concentration of sulfur, which is unknown at present.
The weak magnetosphere around Venus means that the solar wind is interacting directly with its outer atmosphere. Here, ions of hydrogen and oxygen are being created by the dissociation of neutral molecules from ultraviolet radiation. The solar wind then supplies energy that gives some of these ions sufficient velocity to escape Venus's gravity field. This erosion process results in a steady loss of low-mass hydrogen, helium, and oxygen ions, whereas higher-mass molecules, such as carbon dioxide, are more likely to be retained. Atmospheric erosion by the solar wind probably led to the loss of most of Venus's water during the first billion years after it formed. The erosion has increased the ratio of higher-mass deuterium to lower-mass hydrogen in the atmosphere 100 times compared to the rest of the solar system.
Venus orbits the Sun at an average distance of about 108 million kilometres (about 0.7 AU) and completes an orbit every 224.7 days. Venus is the second planet from the Sun and orbits the Sun approximately 1.6 times (yellow trail) in Earth's 365 days (blue trail)
Venus orbits the Sun at an average distance of about 0.72 AU (108 million km; 67 million mi), and completes an orbit every 224.7 days. Although all planetary orbits are elliptical, Venus's orbit is the closest to circular, with an eccentricity of less than 0.01. When Venus lies between Earth and the Sun in inferior conjunction, it makes the closest approach to Earth of any planet at an average distance of 41 million km (25 million mi). However, it spends a large amount of its time away from Earth, meaning that it is the closest planet to Earth for only a minority of the time. This means that Mercury is actually the planet that is closest to Earth a plurality of the time. The planet reaches inferior conjunction every 584 days, on average. Because of the decreasing eccentricity of Earth's orbit, the minimum distances will become greater over tens of thousands of years. From the year 1 to 5383, there are 526 approaches less than 40 million km; then there are none for about 60,158 years.
All the planets in the Solar System orbit the Sun in an anticlockwise direction as viewed from above Earth's north pole. Most planets also rotate on their axes in an anti-clockwise direction, but Venus rotates clockwise in retrograde rotation once every 243 Earth days—the slowest rotation of any planet. Because its rotation is so slow, Venus is very close to spherical. A Venusian sidereal day thus lasts longer than a Venusian year (243 versus 224.7 Earth days). Venus's equator rotates at 6.52 km/h (4.05 mph), whereas Earth's rotates at 1,674.4 km/h (1,040.4 mph). Venus's rotation has slowed down in the 16 years between the Magellan spacecraft and Venus Express visits; each Venusian sidereal day has increased by 6.5 minutes in that time span. Because of the retrograde rotation, the length of a solar day on Venus is significantly shorter than the sidereal day, at 116.75 Earth days (making the Venusian solar day shorter than Mercury's 176 Earth days). One Venusian year is about 1.92 Venusian solar days. To an observer on the surface of Venus, the Sun would rise in the west and set in the east, although Venus's opaque clouds prevent observing the Sun from the planet's surface.
Venus may have formed from the solar nebula with a different rotation period and obliquity, reaching its current state because of chaotic spin changes caused by planetary perturbations and tidal effects on its dense atmosphere, a change that would have occurred over the course of billions of years. The rotation period of Venus may represent an equilibrium state between tidal locking to the Sun's gravitation, which tends to slow rotation, and an atmospheric tide created by solar heating of the thick Venusian atmosphere.
The 584-day average interval between successive close approaches to Earth is almost exactly equal to 5 Venusian solar days, but the hypothesis of a spin–orbit resonance with Earth has been discounted.
Venus has no natural satellites. It has several trojan asteroids: the quasi-satellite2002 VE68 and two other temporary trojans, 2001 CK32 and 2012 XE133. In the 17th century, Giovanni Cassini reported a moon orbiting Venus, which was named Neith and numerous sightings were reported over the following 200 years, but most were determined to be stars in the vicinity. Alex Alemi's and David Stevenson's 2006 study of models of the early Solar System at the California Institute of Technology shows Venus likely had at least one moon created by a huge impact event billions of years ago. About 10 million years later, according to the study, another impact reversed the planet's spin direction and caused the Venusian moon gradually to spiral inward until it collided with Venus. If later impacts created moons, these were removed in the same way. An alternative explanation for the lack of satellites is the effect of strong solar tides, which can destabilize large satellites orbiting the inner terrestrial planets.
Venus is always brighter than all other planets or stars as seen from Earth. The second brightest object on the image is Jupiter.
To the naked eye, Venus appears as a white point of light brighter than any other planet or star (apart from the Sun). The planet's mean apparent magnitude is −4.14 with a standard deviation of 0.31. The brightest magnitude occurs during crescent phase about one month before or after inferior conjunction. Venus fades to about magnitude −3 when it is backlit by the Sun. The planet is bright enough to be seen in a clear midday sky and is more easily visible when the Sun is low on the horizon or setting. As an inferior planet, it always lies within about 47° of the Sun.
Venus "overtakes" Earth every 584 days as it orbits the Sun. As it does so, it changes from the "Evening Star", visible after sunset, to the "Morning Star", visible before sunrise. Although Mercury, the other inferior planet, reaches a maximum elongation of only 28° and is often difficult to discern in twilight, Venus is hard to miss when it is at its brightest. Its greater maximum elongation means it is visible in dark skies long after sunset. As the brightest point-like object in the sky, Venus is a commonly misreported "unidentified flying object".
The phases of Venus and evolution of its apparent diameter
As it orbits the Sun, Venus displays phases like those of the Moon in a telescopic view. The planet appears as a small and "full" disc when it is on the opposite side of the Sun (at superior conjunction). Venus shows a larger disc and "quarter phase" at its maximum elongations from the Sun, and appears its brightest in the night sky. The planet presents a much larger thin "crescent" in telescopic views as it passes along the near side between Earth and the Sun. Venus displays its largest size and "new phase" when it is between Earth and the Sun (at inferior conjunction). Its atmosphere is visible through telescopes by the halo of sunlight refracted around it.
The Venusian orbit is slightly inclined relative to Earth's orbit; thus, when the planet passes between Earth and the Sun, it usually does not cross the face of the Sun. Transits of Venus occur when the planet's inferior conjunction coincides with its presence in the plane of Earth's orbit. Transits of Venus occur in cycles of 243 years with the current pattern of transits being pairs of transits separated by eight years, at intervals of about 105.5 years or 121.5 years—a pattern first discovered in 1639 by the English astronomer Jeremiah Horrocks.
The latest pair was June 8, 2004 and June 5–6, 2012. The transit could be watched live from many online outlets or observed locally with the right equipment and conditions.
The pentagram of Venus. Earth is positioned at the centre of the diagram, and the curve represents the direction and distance of Venus as a function of time.
The pentagram of Venus is the path that Venus makes as observed from Earth. Successive inferior conjunctions of Venus repeat very near a 13:8 ratio (Earth orbits 8 times for every 13 orbits of Venus), shifting 144° upon sequential inferior conjunctions. The 13:8 ratio is approximate. 8/13 is approximately 0.61538 while Venus orbits the Sun in 0.61519 years.
Naked eye observations of Venus during daylight hours exist in several anecdotes and records. Astronomer Edmund Halley calculated its maximum naked eye brightness in 1716, when many Londoners were alarmed by its appearance in the daytime. French emperor Napoleon Bonaparte once witnessed a daytime apparition of the planet while at a reception in Luxembourg. Another historical daytime observation of the planet took place during the inauguration of the American president Abraham Lincoln in Washington, D.C., on 4 March 1865. Although naked eye visibility of Venus's phases is disputed, records exist of observations of its crescent.
A long-standing mystery of Venus observations is the so-called ashen light—an apparent weak illumination of its dark side, seen when the planet is in the crescent phase. The first claimed observation of ashen light was made in 1643, but the existence of the illumination has never been reliably confirmed. Observers have speculated it may result from electrical activity in the Venusian atmosphere, but it could be illusory, resulting from the physiological effect of observing a bright, crescent-shaped object.
Though some ancient civilizations referred to Venus both as the "morning star" and as the "evening star", names that reflect the assumption that these were two separate objects, the earliest recorded observations of Venus by the ancient Sumerians show that they recognized Venus as a single object, and associated it with the goddess Inanna. Inanna's movements in several of her myths, including Inanna and Shukaletuda and Inanna's Descent into the Underworld appear to parallel the motion of the planet Venus. The Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa, believed to have been compiled around the mid-seventeenth century BCE, shows the Babylonians understood the two were a single object, referred to in the tablet as the "bright queen of the sky", and could support this view with detailed observations.
The Chinese historically referred to the morning Venus as "the Great White" (Tài-bái太白) or "the Opener (Starter) of Brightness" (Qǐ-míng啟明), and the evening Venus as "the Excellent West One" (Cháng-gēng長庚).
The ancient Greeks also initially believed Venus to be two separate stars: Phosphorus, the morning star, and Hesperus, the evening star. Pliny the Elder credited the realization that they were a single object to Pythagoras in the sixth century BCE, while Diogenes Laërtius argued that Parmenides was probably responsible for this rediscovery. Though they recognized Venus as a single object, the ancient Romans continued to designate the morning aspect of Venus as Lucifer, literally "Light-Bringer", and the evening aspect as Vesper, both of which are literal translations of their traditional Greek names.
In the second century, in his astronomical treatise Almagest, Ptolemy theorized that both Mercury and Venus are located between the Sun and the Earth. The 11th-century Persian astronomerAvicenna claimed to have observed the transit of Venus, which later astronomers took as confirmation of Ptolemy's theory. In the 12th century, the Andalusian astronomer Ibn Bajjah observed "two planets as black spots on the face of the Sun"; these were thought to be the transits of Venus and Mercury by 13th-century Maragha astronomer Qotb al-Din Shirazi, though this cannot be true as there were no Venus transits in Ibn Bajjah's lifetime.[n 2]
Galileo's discovery that Venus showed phases (although remaining near the Sun in Earth's sky) proved that it orbits the Sun and not Earth
When the Italian physicist Galileo Galilei first observed the planet in the early 17th century, he found it showed phases like the Moon, varying from crescent to gibbous to full and vice versa. When Venus is furthest from the Sun in the sky, it shows a half-lit phase, and when it is closest to the Sun in the sky, it shows as a crescent or full phase. This could be possible only if Venus orbited the Sun, and this was among the first observations to clearly contradict the Ptolemaicgeocentric model that the Solar System was concentric and centred on Earth.
The atmosphere of Venus was discovered in 1761 by Russian polymath Mikhail Lomonosov. Venus's atmosphere was observed in 1790 by German astronomer Johann Schröter. Schröter found when the planet was a thin crescent, the cusps extended through more than 180°. He correctly surmised this was due to scattering of sunlight in a dense atmosphere. Later, American astronomer Chester Smith Lyman observed a complete ring around the dark side of the planet when it was at inferior conjunction, providing further evidence for an atmosphere. The atmosphere complicated efforts to determine a rotation period for the planet, and observers such as Italian-born astronomer Giovanni Cassini and Schröter incorrectly estimated periods of about 24 h from the motions of markings on the planet's apparent surface.
Modern telescopic view of Venus from Earth's surface
Little more was discovered about Venus until the 20th century. Its almost featureless disc gave no hint what its surface might be like, and it was only with the development of spectroscopic, radar and ultraviolet observations that more of its secrets were revealed. The first ultraviolet observations were carried out in the 1920s, when Frank E. Ross found that ultraviolet photographs revealed considerable detail that was absent in visible and infrared radiation. He suggested this was due to a dense, yellow lower atmosphere with high cirrus clouds above it.
Spectroscopic observations in the 1900s gave the first clues about the Venusian rotation. Vesto Slipher tried to measure the Doppler shift of light from Venus, but found he could not detect any rotation. He surmised the planet must have a much longer rotation period than had previously been thought. Later work in the 1950s showed the rotation was retrograde. Radar observations of Venus were first carried out in the 1960s, and provided the first measurements of the rotation period, which were close to the modern value.
Radar observations in the 1970s revealed details of the Venusian surface for the first time. Pulses of radio waves were beamed at the planet using the 300 m (980 ft) radio telescope at Arecibo Observatory, and the echoes revealed two highly reflective regions, designated the Alpha and Beta regions. The observations also revealed a bright region attributed to mountains, which was called Maxwell Montes. These three features are now the only ones on Venus that do not have female names.
Artist's impression of Mariner 2, launched in 1962, a skeletal, bottle-shaped spacecraft with a large radio dish on top
The first roboticspace probe mission to Venus, and the first to any planet, began with the Soviet Venera program in 1961. The United States' exploration of Venus had its first success with the Mariner 2 mission on 14 December 1962, becoming the world's first successful interplanetary mission, passing 34,833 km (21,644 mi) above the surface of Venus, and gathering data on the planet's atmosphere.
180-degree panorama of Venus's surface from the Soviet Venera 9 lander, 1975. Black-and-white image of barren, black, slate-like rocks against a flat sky. The ground and the probe are the focus. Several lines are missing due to a simultaneous transmission of the scientific data.
On 18 October 1967, the Soviet Venera 4 successfully entered the atmosphere and deployed science experiments. Venera 4 showed the surface temperature was hotter than Mariner 2 had calculated, at almost 500 °C (932 °F), determined that the atmosphere was 95% carbon dioxide (CO 2), and discovered that Venus's atmosphere was considerably denser than Venera 4's designers had anticipated. The joint Venera 4–Mariner 5 data were analysed by a combined Soviet–American science team in a series of colloquia over the following year, in an early example of space cooperation.
In 1974, Mariner 10 swung by Venus on its way to Mercury and took ultraviolet photographs of the clouds, revealing the extraordinarily high wind speeds in the Venusian atmosphere.
Global view of Venus in ultraviolet light done by Mariner 10.
In 1975, the Soviet Venera 9 and 10 landers transmitted the first images from the surface of Venus, which were in black and white. In 1982 the first colour images of the surface were obtained with the Soviet Venera 13 and 14 landers.
Several other Venus flybys took place in the 1980s and 1990s that increased the understanding of Venus, including Vega 1 (1985), Vega 2 (1985), Galileo (1990), Magellan (1994), Cassini–Huygens (1998), and MESSENGER (2006). Then, Venus Express by the European Space Agency (ESA) entered orbit around Venus in April 2006. Equipped with seven scientific instruments, Venus Express provided unprecedented long-term observation of Venus's atmosphere. ESA concluded that mission in December 2014.
Because the movements of Venus appear to be discontinuous (it disappears due to its proximity to the sun, for many days at a time, and then reappears on the other horizon), some cultures did not recognize Venus as single entity; instead, they assumed it to be two separate stars on each horizon: the morning and evening star. Nonetheless, a cylinder seal from the Jemdet Nasr period indicates that the ancient Sumerians already knew that the morning and evening stars were the same celestial object. The Sumerians associated the planet with the goddessInanna (known as Ishtar by the later Akkadians and Babylonians), and their myths of Inanna are often allegories for the apparent motions and cycles of the planet. In the Old Babylonian period, the planet Venus was known as Ninsi'anna, and later as Dilbat. The name "Ninsi'anna" translates to "divine lady, illumination of heaven", which refers to Venus as the brightest visible "star". Earlier spellings of the name were written with the cuneiform sign si4 (= SU, meaning "to be red"), and the original meaning may have been "divine lady of the redness of heaven", in reference to the colour of the morning and evening sky. Venus is described in Babylonian cuneiform texts such as the Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa, which relates observations that possibly date from 1600 BC.
In Chinese the planet is called Jīn-xīng (金星), the golden planet of the metal element. In India Shukra Graha ("the planet Shukra") which is named after a powerful saint Shukra. Shukra which is used in Indian Vedic astrology means "clear, pure" or "brightness, clearness" in Sanskrit. One of the nine Navagraha, it is held to affect wealth, pleasure and reproduction; it was the son of Bhrgu, preceptor of the Daityas, and guru of the Asuras. The word Shukra is also associated with semen, or generation. Venus is known as Kejora in Indonesian and Malay. Modern Chinese, Japanese and Korean cultures refer to the planet literally as the "metal star" (金星), based on the Five elements.
The Ancient Egyptians and Greeks believed Venus to be two separate bodies, a morning star and an evening star. The Egyptians knew the morning star as Tioumoutiri and the evening star as Ouaiti. The Greeks used the names Phosphoros (meaning "light-bringer"; alternately Heosphoros, meaning "dawn-bringer") for the morning star, and Hesperus (meaning "Western one") for the evening star. Though by the Roman era they were recognized as one celestial object, known as "the star of Venus", the traditional two Greek names continued to be used, though usually translated to Latin as Lucifer and Vesper.
Venus was considered the most important celestial body observed by the Maya, who called it Chac ek, or Noh Ek', "the Great Star".
With the invention of the telescope, the idea that Venus was a physical world and possible destination began to take form.
The impenetrable Venusian cloud cover gave science fiction writers free rein to speculate on conditions at its surface; all the more so when early observations showed that not only was it similar in size to Earth, it possessed a substantial atmosphere. Closer to the Sun than Earth, the planet was frequently depicted as warmer, but still habitable by humans. The genre reached its peak between the 1930s and 1950s, at a time when science had revealed some aspects of Venus, but not yet the harsh reality of its surface conditions. Findings from the first missions to Venus showed the reality to be quite different, and brought this particular genre to an end. As scientific knowledge of Venus advanced, so science fiction authors tried to keep pace, particularly by conjecturing human attempts to terraform Venus.
The astronomical symbol for Venus is the same as that used in biology for the female sex: a circle with a small cross beneath. The Venus symbol also represents femininity, and in Western alchemy stood for the metal copper. Polished copper has been used for mirrors from antiquity, and the symbol for Venus has sometimes been understood to stand for the mirror of the goddess although that is not its true origin.
The speculation of the existence of life on Venus decreased significantly since the early 1960s, when spacecraft began studying Venus and it became clear that the conditions on Venus are extreme compared to those on Earth.
That Venus is closer to the Sun than Earth, raising temperatures on the surface to nearly 735 K (462 °C; 863 °F), that its atmospheric pressure is 90 times that of Earth, and the extreme impact of the greenhouse effect make water-based life as currently known unlikely. A few scientists have speculated that thermoacidophilic extremophilemicroorganisms might exist in the lower-temperature, acidic upper layers of the Venusian atmosphere. The atmospheric pressure and temperature fifty kilometres above the surface are similar to those at Earth's surface. This has led to proposals to use aerostats (lighter-than-air balloons) for initial exploration and ultimately for permanent "floating cities" in the Venusian atmosphere. Among the many engineering challenges are the dangerous amounts of sulfuric acid at these heights.
Nonetheless, in August 2019, astronomers reported that newly discovered long-term pattern of absorbance and albedo changes in the atmosphere of the planet Venus are caused by "unknown absorbers", which may be chemicals or even large colonies of microorganisms high up in the atmosphere of the planet.
^ Misstated as "Ganiki Chasma" in the press release and scientific publication.
^Several claims of transit observations made by medieval Islamic astronomers have been shown to be sunspots. Avicenna did not record the date of his observation. There was a transit of Venus within his lifetime, on 24 May 1032, although it is questionable whether it would have been visible from his location.
^ abSimon, J.L.; Bretagnon, P.; Chapront, J.; Chapront-Touzé, M.; Francou, G.; Laskar, J. (February 1994). "Numerical expressions for precession formulae and mean elements for the Moon and planets". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 282 (2): 663–683. Bibcode:1994A&A...282..663S.
^Jakosky, Bruce M. (1999). "Atmospheres of the Terrestrial Planets". In Beatty, J. Kelly; Petersen, Carolyn Collins; Chaikin, Andrew (eds.). The New Solar System (4th ed.). Boston: Sky Publishing. pp. 175–200. ISBN978-0-933346-86-4. OCLC39464951.
^Davies, M. E.; Abalakin, V. K.; Bursa, M.; Lieske, J. H.; Morando, B.; Morrison, D.; Seidelmann, P. K.; Sinclair, A. T.; Yallop, B.; Tjuflin, Y. S. (1994). "Report of the IAU Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements of the Planets and Satellites". Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy. 63 (2): 127–148. Bibcode:1996CeMDA..63..127D. doi:10.1007/BF00693410.
^Goettel, K. A.; Shields, J. A.; Decker, D. A. (16–20 March 1981). "Density constraints on the composition of Venus". Proceedings of the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Houston, TX: Pergamon Press. pp. 1507–1516. Bibcode:1982LPSC...12.1507G.
^Faure, Gunter; Mensing, Teresa M. (2007). Introduction to planetary science: the geological perspective. Springer eBook collection. Springer. p. 201. ISBN978-1-4020-5233-0.
^Fukuhara, Tetsuya; Futaguchi, Masahiko; Hashimoto, George L.; et al. (16 January 2017). "Large stationary gravity wave in the atmosphere of Venus". Nature Geoscience. 10 (2): 85–88. Bibcode:2017NatGe..10...85F. doi:10.1038/ngeo2873.
^Earl, Michael A., Rotation Speed, Canadian Astronomy, Satellite Tracking and Optical Research (CASTOR)
^The equatorial speed of Earth is given as both about 1674.4km/h and 1669.8km/h by reliable sources. The simplest way to determine the correct figure is to multiply Earth's radius of 6378137 m (WGS84) and Earth's angular speed, 7.2921150×10−5 rad/s, yielding 465.1011 m/s = 1674.364km/h. The incorrect figure of 1669.8km/h is obtained by dividing Earth's equatorial circumference by 24h. But the correct speed must be relative to inertial space, so the stellar day of 86164.098903691 s/3600 =23.934472 h(23 h 56 m 4.0989 s) must be used. Thus 2π(6378.137 km)/23.934472 h = 1674.364km/h.
^S. M. Razaullah Ansari (2002). History of Oriental Astronomy: Proceedings of the Joint Discussion-17 at the 23rd General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union, Organised by the Commission 41 (History of Astronomy), Held in Kyoto, August 25–26, 1997. Springer Science+Business Media. p. 137. ISBN978-1-4020-0657-9.
^Marov, Mikhail Ya. (2004). D.W. Kurtz (ed.). Mikhail Lomonosov and the discovery of the atmosphere of Venus during the 1761 transit. Proceedings of IAU Colloquium No. 196. Preston, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. pp. 209–219. Bibcode:2005tvnv.conf..209M. doi:10.1017/S1743921305001390.
^"Report on the Activities of the COSPAR Working Group VII". Preliminary Report, COSPAR Twelfth Plenary Meeting and Tenth International Space Science Symposium. Prague, Czechoslovakia: National Academy of Sciences. 11–24 May 1969. p. 94.