زنا

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به: ناوبری، جستجو
فارسی English

در اسلام، به هر گونه رابطه جنسی میان زن و مرد بدون وجود رابطه ازدواج میان آن‌ها زنا گفته می‌شود. مردی که مرتکب زنا شده‌است را «زانی»، و زن زناکار را «زانیه» می‌خوانند.

تعریف[ویرایش]

در تعریف فقهی زنا به نزدیکی بین زن و مرد (شامل آمیزش جنسی مهبلی و مقعدی) بدون ازدواج اطلاق می‌شود. یعنی مرد و زن نامحرمی بی آنکه عقد دائم یا موقت بخوانند یا مرد و زنی که با هم محارم هستند با هم از راه جلو یا پشت نزدیکی نمایند و دخول صورت بگیرد؛ یعنی آلت مرد در آلت زن داخل گردد و دخول هم به مقدار ختنه‌گاه صورت بگیرد. اگر نزدیکی و دخول صورت نگیرد، به آن زنا نمی‌گویند. بنابراین هر چند لمس و یا دیدن بدن دختر نامحرم، حرام است اما حکم زنا را ندارد و حد زنا جاری نمی‌شود.[۱]

در اسلام، زنا از گناهان بزرگ است و در شریعت ممنوع گشته‌است. در قرآن نیز آیاتی وجود دارند که‌شان نزول آنها درباره تحریم زنا می‌باشد.

انواع زنا در اسلام[ویرایش]

زنا دارای موارد مختلفی است که برای هر کدام از آنها کیفرها و حدود جداگانه‌ای در اسلام وجود دارد.

زنا با محارم[ویرایش]

نوشتار اصلی: زنای با محارم

زنا با محارم به معنای آن است که مثلاً یک مرد با یکی از زنهایی که جزو محارم نَسَبی وی هستند و ازدواج کردن با آنان ممنوع (حرام) است، زنا کند. محارم نسبی مانند: مادر، خواهر، دختر، دختر خواهر، دختر برادر، عمه و یا خاله.

مجازات زنای با محارم: کیفر آن بنابر نظر بعضی از فقها اعدام است، ولی مفاد بعضی از روایات این است که با شمشیر یک ضربه به گردن او بزنند و اگر زنده ماند او را در حبس نگه دارند تا بمیرد، واحوط رعایت این دستور است. حکم اعدام در زنا با زنانی که بواسطه شیر خوردن محرم شده‌اند یا به سبب ازدواج محرم شده‌اند - مانند مادر زن - محل اشکال است، ولی نسبت به زن پدر جاری است. همچنین در این حکم فرقی نمی‌کند که مرد زنا کننده مجرد باشد و یا متاهل.

در زنای با محارم، در صورتی که زن به انجام عمل زنا راضی بوده، آن زن نیز اعدام می‌شود.[نیازمند منبع]

زنای به زور (زنای به عنف)[ویرایش]

نوشتار اصلی: زنای به عنف

زنای به عنف به معنای آن است که مثلاً زنی به عمل زنا راضی نباشد و مرد با زور و ارعاب و تهدید با او زنا کند.

مجازات زنای به عنف: کیفر آن برای مرد زنا کننده «اعدام» است، هرچند احوط آن است که یک شمشیر به گردن او بزنند، گرچه نمیرد.

زنای محصن و محصنه[ویرایش]

نوشتار اصلی: زنای محصنه

زنای محصنه به معنای آن است که شخص زنا کننده دارای همسر دائمی باشد به گونه‌ای که هرگاه بخواهد با همسر خود نزدیکی کند مانعی در کار نباشد و با این حال تن به زنا داده باشد. به زبان ساده‌تر اگر یک زن متاهل زنا کند، به زنای آن شخص زنای محصنه گفته می‌شود و اگر زانی مرد باشد زنای محصن گفته می‌شود.

مجازات زنای محصن در مورد چه مرد و چه زن زناکاری که متاهل است، اگر پیر است ابتدا یکصد ضربه شلاق و سپس سنگسار است، و اگر جوان است فقط او را سنگسار می‌کنند و بنابر احتیاط واجب شلاق نزنند، اگر فردی که متاهل است و همسرش در او در اختیار اوست اما هنوز با او زناشویی نکرده، اگر زنا کند او را صد ضربه شلاق می‌زنند و سر او را هم می‌تراشند و به مدت یکسال او را از شهرش تبعید می‌کنند. ولی برای زن زنا کار حکم تراشیدن سر و تبعید جاری نمی‌شود.

زنای غیر محصنه[ویرایش]

نوشتار اصلی: زنای غیر محصنه

به زنایی گفته می‌شود که شخص زناکار (زن یا مرد) فاقد همسر و مجرد باشد و به اختیار خود زنا کرده باشد. به زبان ساده‌تر به زنای شخص مجرد، زنای غیر محصنه گفته می‌شود.

مجازات زنای غیر محصنه در این نوع از زنا، کیفر شخص زناکار درمرتبه اول یکصد ضربه شلاق است، و اگر سه مرتبه زنا کند و در هر مرتبه حد خورده باشد، کیفر او در مرتبه چهارم اعدام است. مرد را در حالی شلاق می‌زنند که ایستاده باشد، و نباید ضربات شلاق بر سر و صورت و عورت او وارد شود. اگر مرد را هنگام زنا برهنه یافته‌اند، جزعورت بقیه بدن او باید برهنه باشد و اگر با لباس یافته‌اند بنابراحتیاط به هر نحو که او را یافته‌اند شلاق خواهد خورد. زن را در حالی شلاق می‌زنند که نشسته باشد و بدن او با لباس پوشیده باشد، و از شلاق زدن به سر و صورت او خود داری نمایند.

راه‌های اثبات زنا[ویرایش]

در اسلام بطور کلی دو راه برای اثبات زنا وجود دارد

  • اقرار شخص
  • شهادت چهار نفر شاهد

اگر چنانچه زنای محصنه یک شخص به‌وسیله هر یک از راه‌های فوق ثابت شود، آنگاه مجازات سنگسار در حق شخص زنا کار، با توجه به اینکه زنای وی به‌وسیله کدامیک از راههای فوق ثابت شده باشد متفاوت خواهد بود.

  • ۱- اقرار شخص زنا کننده که بالغ و عاقل و آزاد است در حال اختیار و بدون ارعاب و ترس چهار مرتبه و بنابراحتیاط در چهارجلسه اعتراف کند که زنا کرده‌است.
اگر زنای محصنه از راه اقرار شخص زنا کار ثابت شود و شخص زناکار هنگام سنگسار از گودال فرار کرد، دیگر او را به گودال برنمی‌گردانند، حتی بنابراحتیاط اگر یک سنگ هم به او نخورده باشد نباید او را بازگردانند.
  • ۲- شهادت چهار نفر شاهد چهار مرد عادل به دیدن عمل شهادت دهند، و اگر سه مرد و دو زن عادل یا دو مرد و چهار زن عادل هم شهادت دهند کافی است و زنا ثابت می‌شود.
اگر زنای محصنه از راه شهادت شهود ثابت شود، آنگاه اگر هنگام سنگسار از گودال فرار کرد، فرار وی فایده ندارد و او را باید به گودال برگردانند و آنقدر سنگسار شود تا بمیرد.

در قرآن[ویرایش]

سوره نساء'آیات ۱۵،۱۶،۲۲،۲۴،۲۵،

﴿وَاللَّاتِي يَأْتِينَ الْفَاحِشَةَ مِنْ نِسَائِكُمْ فَاسْتَشْهِدُوا عَلَيْهِنَّ أَرْبَعَةً مِنْكُمْ ۖ فَإِنْ شَهِدُوا فَأَمْسِكُوهُنَّ فِي الْبُيُوتِ حَتَّىٰ يَتَوَفَّاهُنَّ الْمَوْتُ أَوْ يَجْعَلَ اللَّهُ لَهُنَّ سَبِيلًا﴾(سورهٔ نساء-آیهٔ ۱۵)

و از زنان شما کسانی که مرتکب زنا می‌شوند چهار نفر از مسلمانان به عنوان شاهد بر آنان بطلبید پس اگر شهادت دادند آنان [=زنان] را در خانه‌ها (ی خود) نگاه دارید تا مرگشان فرا رسد یا خدا راهی برای آنان قرار دهد.

﴿وَاللَّذَانِ يَأْتِيَانِهَا مِنْكُمْ فَآذُوهُمَا ۖ فَإِنْ تَابَا وَأَصْلَحَا فَأَعْرِضُوا عَنْهُمَا ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ تَوَّابًا رَحِيمًا﴾(سورهٔ نساء-آیهٔ ۱۶)

و از میان شما آن دو تن را که مرتکب زشتکاری می‌شوند آزارشان دهید پس اگر توبه کردند و درستکار شدند از آنان صرفنظر کنید زیرا خداوند توبه‌پذیر مهربان است.

﴿وَلَا تَنْكِحُوا مَا نَكَحَ آبَاؤُكُمْ مِنَ النِّسَاءِ إِلَّا مَا قَدْ سَلَفَ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ فَاحِشَةً وَمَقْتًا وَسَاءَ سَبِيلًا﴾(سورهٔ نساء-آیهٔ ۲۲)

و با زنانی که پدرانتان به ازدواج خود درآورده‌اند نکاح مکنید مگر آنچه که پیشتر رخ داده است چرا که آن زشتکاری و [مایه] دشمنی و بد راهی بوده است.

﴿وَالْمُحْصَنَاتُ مِنَ النِّسَاءِ إِلَّا مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ ۖ كِتَابَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ ۚ وَأُحِلَّ لَكُمْ مَا وَرَاءَ ذَٰلِكُمْ أَنْ تَبْتَغُوا بِأَمْوَالِكُمْ مُحْصِنِينَ غَيْرَ مُسَافِحِينَ ۚ فَمَا اسْتَمْتَعْتُمْ بِهِ مِنْهُنَّ فَآتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ فَرِيضَةً ۚ وَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِيمَا تَرَاضَيْتُمْ بِهِ مِنْ بَعْدِ الْفَرِيضَةِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا﴾(سورهٔ نساء-آیهٔ ۲۴)

و زنان شوهردار [نیز بر شما حرام شده است] به استثنای زنانی که مالک آنان شده‌اید [این] فریضه الهی است که بر شما مقرر گردیده است و غیر از این [زنان نامبرده] برای شما حلال است که [زنان دیگر را] به وسیله اموال خود طلب کنید در صورتی که پاکدامن باشید و زناکار نباشید و زنانی را که متعه کرده‌اید مهرشان را به عنوان فریضه‌ای به آنان بدهید و بر شما گناهی نیست که پس از مقرر با یکدیگر توافق کنید مسلماً خداوند دانای حکیم است

﴿وَمَنْ لَمْ يَسْتَطِعْ مِنْكُمْ طَوْلًا أَنْ يَنْكِحَ الْمُحْصَنَاتِ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ فَمِنْ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ مِنْ فَتَيَاتِكُمُ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ ۚ وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِإِيمَانِكُمْ ۚ بَعْضُكُمْ مِنْ بَعْضٍ ۚ فَانْكِحُوهُنَّ بِإِذْنِ أَهْلِهِنَّ وَآتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ مُحْصَنَاتٍ غَيْرَ مُسَافِحَاتٍ وَلَا مُتَّخِذَاتِ أَخْدَانٍ ۚ فَإِذَا أُحْصِنَّ فَإِنْ أَتَيْنَ بِفَاحِشَةٍ فَعَلَيْهِنَّ نِصْفُ مَا عَلَى الْمُحْصَنَاتِ مِنَ الْعَذَابِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ لِمَنْ خَشِيَ الْعَنَتَ مِنْكُمْ ۚ وَأَنْ تَصْبِرُوا خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ﴾(سورهٔ نساء-آیهٔ ۲۵)

و هر کس از شما از نظر مالی نمی‌تواند زنان [آزاد] پاکدامن با ایمان را به همسری [خود] درآورد پس با دختران جوانسال با ایمان شما که مالک آنان هستید [ازدواج کند] و خدا به ایمان شما داناتر است [همه] از یکدیگرید پس آنان را با اجازه خانواده‌شان به همسری [خود] درآورید و مهرشان را به طور پسندیده به آنان بدهید [به شرط آنکه] پاکدامن باشند نه زناکار و دوست‌گیران پنهانی نباشند پس چون به ازدواج [شما] درآمدند اگر مرتکب فحشا شدند پس بر آنان نیمی از عذاب [=مجازات] زنان آزاد است این [پیشنهاد زناشویی با کنیزان] برای کسی از شماست که از آلایش گناه بیم دارد و صبر کردن برای شما بهتر است و خداوند آمرزنده مهربان است.

سوره مائده آیه ۵،

﴿الْيَوْمَ أُحِلَّ لَكُمُ الطَّيِّبَاتُ ۖ وَطَعَامُ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ حِلٌّ لَكُمْ وَطَعَامُكُمْ حِلٌّ لَهُمْ ۖ وَالْمُحْصَنَاتُ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ وَالْمُحْصَنَاتُ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ إِذَا آتَيْتُمُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ مُحْصِنِينَ غَيْرَ مُسَافِحِينَ وَلَا مُتَّخِذِي أَخْدَانٍ ۗ وَمَنْ يَكْفُرْ بِالْإِيمَانِ فَقَدْ حَبِطَ عَمَلُهُ وَهُوَ فِي الْآخِرَةِ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ﴾(سورهٔ مائده-آیهٔ ۵)

امروز چیزهای پاکیزه برای شما حلال شده؛ و (همچنین) طعام اهل کتاب، برای شما حلال است؛ و طعام شما برای آنها حلال؛ و (نیز) زنان پاکدامن از مسلمانان، و زنان پاکدامن از اهل کتاب، حلالند؛ هنگامی که مهر آنها را بپردازید و پاکدامن باشید؛ نه زناکار، و نه دوست پنهانی و نامشروع گیرید. و کسی که انکار کند آنچه را باید به آن ایمان بیاورد، اعمال او تباه می‌گردد؛ و در سرای دیگر، از زیانکاران خواهد بود.

سوره اسراء آیه ۳۲،

﴿وَلَا تَقْرَبُوا الزِّنَا ۖ إِنَّهُ كَانَ فَاحِشَةً وَسَاءَ سَبِيلًا﴾(سورهٔ اسراء-آیهٔ ۳۲)

و نزدیک زنا نشوید، که کار بسیار زشت، و بد راهی است!

در تفسیر نمونه این آیه این‌طور تفسیر شده است: می‌گوید به این عمل نزدیک هم نشوید، و اشاره به این است که آلودگی به زنا غالباً مقدماتی دارد که انسان را تدریجاً به آن نزدیک می‌کند.[۲]

همچنین در تفسیر المیزان این‌طور آمده است: این آیه از زنا نهی می‌کند و در حرمت آن مبالغه کرده است چرا که این عمل فاحشه است، و زشتی و فحش آن صفت لا ینفک و جدایی ناپذیر آن است، به طوری که در هیچ فرضی از آن جدا نمی‌شود، و با تعلیل وَ ساءَ سَبِیلًا فهماند که این روش، روش زشتی است که به فساد جامعه، آن هم فساد همه شؤون اجتماع منجر می‌شود، و به کلی نظام اجتماع را مختل می‌کند.[۳]

سوره نور آیات ۲،۳،۸

﴿الزَّانِيَةُ وَالزَّانِي فَاجْلِدُوا كُلَّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا مِائَةَ جَلْدَةٍ ۖ وَلَا تَأْخُذْكُمْ بِهِمَا رَأْفَةٌ فِي دِينِ اللَّهِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ ۖ وَلْيَشْهَدْ عَذَابَهُمَا طَائِفَةٌ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ﴾(سورهٔ نور-آیهٔ ۲)

هر یک از زن و مرد زناکار را صد تازیانه بزنید؛ و نباید رأفت (و محبّت کاذب) نسبت به آن دو شما را از اجرای حکم الهی مانع شود، اگر به خدا و روز جزا ایمان دارید! و باید گروهی از مؤمنان مجازاتشان را مشاهده کنند!

﴿الزَّانِي لَا يَنْكِحُ إِلَّا زَانِيَةً أَوْ مُشْرِكَةً وَالزَّانِيَةُ لَا يَنْكِحُهَا إِلَّا زَانٍ أَوْ مُشْرِكٌ ۚ وَحُرِّمَ ذَٰلِكَ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ﴾(سورهٔ نور-آیهٔ ۳)

مرد زناکار جز با زن زناکار یا مشرک ازدواج نمی‌کند؛ و زن زناکار را، جز مرد زناکار یا مشرک، به ازدواج خود درنمی‌آورد؛ و این کار بر مؤمنان حرام شده است!

و سوره فرقان آیه ۶۸،

﴿وَالَّذِينَ لَا يَدْعُونَ مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلَٰهًا آخَرَ وَلَا يَقْتُلُونَ النَّفْسَ الَّتِي حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ إِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ وَلَا يَزْنُونَ ۚ وَمَنْ يَفْعَلْ ذَٰلِكَ يَلْقَ أَثَامًا﴾(سورهٔ فرقان-آیهٔ ۶۸)

و کسانی که معبود دیگری را با خداوند نمی‌خوانند؛ و انسانی را که خداوند خونش را حرام شمرده، جز بحق نمی‌کشند؛ و زنا نمی‌کنند؛ و هر کس چنین کند، مجازات سختی خواهد دید!

در فرقه‌ها و مذاهب مختلف اسلامی احادیث و روایات بسیاری در باب تحریم زنا و آثار سوء زنا بر جامعه وجود دارد .

در قرآن، سوره نور، آیات ۲ الی ۹، در بارهٔ مجازات زناکار و شرایط اثبات گناه و شرایط اثبات بی گناهی، مطالبی بیان شده‌است:

به هر زن زناکار و مرد زناکاری صد تازیانه بزنید و اگر به خدا و روز بازپسین ایمان دارید در [کار] دین خدا نسبت به آن دو دلسوزی نکنید و باید گروهی از مؤمنان در کیفر آن دو حضور یابند (۲) مرد زناکار جز زن زناکار یا مشرک را به همسری نگیرد و زن زناکار جز مرد زناکار یا مشرک را به زنی نگیرد و بر مؤمنان این [امر] حرام گردیده‌است (۳) و کسانی که نسبت زنا به زنان شوهردار می‌دهند سپس چهار گواه نمی‌آورند هشتاد تازیانه به آنان بزنید و هیچگاه شهادتی از آنها نپذیرید و اینانند که خود فاسقند (۴) مگر کسانی که بعد از آن [بهتان] توبه کرده و به صلاح آمده باشند که خدا البته آمرزنده مهربان است (۵) و کسانی که به همسران خود نسبت زنا می‌دهند و جز خودشان گواهانی [دیگر] ندارند هر یک از آنان [باید] چهار بار به خدا سوگند یاد کند که او قطعاً از راستگویان است (۶) و [گواهی در دفعه] پنجم این است که [شوهر بگوید] لعنت خدا بر او باد اگر از دروغگویان باشد (۷) و از [زن] کیفر ساقط می‌شود در صورتی که چهار بار به خدا سوگند یاد کند که [شوهر] او جدا از دروغگویان است (۸) و [گواهی] پنجم آنکه خشم خدا بر او باد اگر [شوهرش] از راستگویان باشد (۹)[۴]

پانویس[ویرایش]

  1. روح‌الله خمینی. تحریر الوسیله. ۱۷ فوریه ۲۰۱۲. 
  2. تفسير نمونه ج۱۲ ص۱۰۲
  3. ترجمه تفسير الميزان ج۱۳ ص۱۱۷
  4. قرآن، سوره نور، آیات ۲ تا ۹، ترجمه محمدمهدی فولادوند

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

پرونده زنا با محارم فریتزل

منابع[ویرایش]

This article is about adultery in Islam. For extramarital affairs in general, see Adultery.
For other uses, see Zina (disambiguation).

Zināʾ (زِنَاء) or zina (زِنًى or زِنًا) is an Islamic law concerning unlawful sexual relations between Muslims who are not married to one another through a Nikah.[1] It includes extramarital sex and premarital sex,[2][3] such as adultery (consensual sexual relations outside marriage),[4] fornication (consensual sexual intercourse between two unmarried persons),[5] and homosexuality (consensual sexual relations between same-sex partners).[6] Traditionally, a married or unmarried Muslim male could have sex outside marriage with a non-Muslim slave, with or without her consent, and such sex was not considered zina.[7][8][9]

In the four schools of Sunni fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence), and the two schools of Shi'a fiqh, the term zināʾ is a sin of sexual intercourse that is not allowed by Sharia (Islamic law) and classed as a hudud crime (class of Islamic punishments that are fixed for certain crimes that are considered to be "claims of God").[10] To prove an act of zina, a qadi (religious judge) in a sharia court relies on an unmarried woman's pregnancy, the confession in the name of Allah, or four witnesses to the actual act of penetration. The last two types of prosecutions are uncommon; most prosecuted cases of zina in the history of Islam have been pregnant unmarried women.[11][12] In some schools of Islamic law, a pregnant woman accused of zina who denies sex was consensual must prove she was raped with four eyewitnesses testifying before the court. This has led to many cases where rape victims have been punished for zina.[13][14] Pressing charges of zina without required eyewitnesses is considered slander (Qadhf, القذف) in Islam, itself a hudud crime.[15][16]

Zina the unIslamic act, is not to be confused with 'Zina' or 'Zeina' (زينة), the woman's name. The name has a different linguistic root, a different meaning ("guest, stranger"), is pronounced differently (either Zīnah or Zaynah), and is usually spelled differently.[17]

Islamic scriptures

Islam considers zināʾ a hudud sin, or crime against Allah.[18] It is mentioned in Quran and in the Hadiths. From the perspective of the Qur'an, sex uncoupled with a legally binding marital tie is considered zināʾ, and is equally punishable for both women and men.

Qur'an

The Qur'an deals with zināʾ in several places. First is the Qur'anic general rule that commands Muslims not to commit zināʾ:

“Nor come nigh to fornication/adultery: for it is a shameful (deed) and an evil, opening the road (to other evils).”

— Qur'an, Sura 17 (Al-Isra), ayat 32[19]

Most of the rules related to zināʾ, fornication/adultery, and false accusations from a husband to his wife or from members of the community to chaste women, can be found in Surat an-Nur (the Light). The sura starts by giving very specific rules about punishment for zināʾ:

"The woman and the man guilty of fornication,- flog each of them with a hundred stripes: Let not compassion move you in their case, in a matter prescribed by Allah, if ye believe in Allah and the Last Day: and let a party of the Believers witness their punishment."

— Qur'an, Sura 24 (An-Nur), ayat 2[20]

“And those who accuse free women then do not bring four witnesses, flog them, (giving) eighty stripes, and do not admit any evidence from them ever; and these it is that are the transgressors. Except those who repent after this and act aright, for surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.”

— Qur'an, Sura 24 (An-Nur), ayat 4-5[21]

Hadith

The public lashing and public lethal stoning punishment for zina are also prescribed in Hadiths, the books most trusted in Islam after Quran, particularly in Kitab Al-Hudud.[7][22]

'Ubada b. as-Samit reported: Allah's Messenger as saying: Receive teaching from me, receive teaching from me. Allah has ordained a way for those women. When an unmarried male commits adultery with an unmarried female, they should receive one hundred lashes and banishment for one year. And in case of married male committing adultery with a married female, they shall receive one hundred lashes and be stoned to death.

Sahih Muslim, 17:4191

Allah's Messenger awarded the punishment of stoning to death to the married adulterer and adulteress and, after him, we also awarded the punishment of stoning, I am afraid that with the lapse of time, the people may forget it and may say: We do not find the punishment of stoning in the Book of Allah, and thus go astray by abandoning this duty prescribed by Allah. Stoning is a duty laid down in Allah's Book for married men and women who commit adultery when proof is established, or if there is pregnancy, or a confession.

Sahih Muslim, 17:4194

Ma'iz came to the Prophet and admitted having committed adultery four times in his presence so he ordered him to be stoned to death, but said to Huzzal: If you had covered him with your garment, it would have been better for you.

Sunan Abu Dawood, 38:4364

Hadith Sahih al Bukhari, another authentic source of sunnah, has several entries which refer to death by stoning.[23] For example,

Narrated 'Aisha: 'Utba bin Abi Waqqas said to his brother Sa'd bin Abi Waqqas, "The son of the slave girl of Zam'a is from me, so take him into your custody." So in the year of Conquest of Mecca, Sa'd took him and said. (This is) my brother's son whom my brother has asked me to take into my custody." 'Abd bin Zam'a got up before him and said, (He is) my brother and the son of the slave girl of my father, and was born on my father's bed." So they both submitted their case before Allah's Apostle. Sa'd said, "O Allah's Apostle! This boy is the son of my brother and he entrusted him to me." 'Abd bin Zam'a said, "This boy is my brother and the son of the slave girl of my father, and was born on the bed of my father." Allah's Apostle said, "The boy is for you, O 'Abd bin Zam'a!" Then Allah's Apostle further said, "The child is for the owner of the bed, and the stone is for the adulterer," He then said to Sauda bint Zam'a, "Veil (screen) yourself before him," when he saw the child's resemblance to 'Utba. The boy did not see her again till he met Allah.

Sahih al-Bukhari, 9:89:293

Other hadith collections on zina between men and woman include:

  • The stoning (Rajm) of a Jewish man and woman for having committed illegal sexual intercourse.[24]
  • Abu Hurairah states that the Prophet, in a case of intercourse between a young man and a married woman, sentenced the woman to stoning[25] and the young man to flogging and banishment for a year;
  • Umar al-Khattab asserts that there was a revelation to the effect that those who are muhsan (i.e. an adult, free, Muslim who has previously enjoyed legitimate sexual relations in matrimony regardless of whether the marriage still exists) and have unlawful intercourse are to be punished with stoning.

Homosexuality and zina

Quran forbids homosexual relationships, in Al-Nisa, Al-Araf (using the story of Lot's people), and other surahs. For example,[6][26]

“If two men among you are guilty of lewdness, punish them both. If they repent and amend, Leave them alone; for Allah is Oft-returning, Most Merciful.”

— Qur'an, Sura 4 (Al-Nisa), ayat 16[27]

The Hadiths consider homosexuality as zina, to be punished with death. For example, Abu Dawud states,[26][28]

Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas: The Prophet said: If you find anyone doing as Lot's people did,[29] kill the one who does it, and the one to whom it is done.

Sunan Abu Dawood, 38:4447

Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas: If a man who is not married is seized committing sodomy, he will be stoned to death.

Sunan Abu Dawood, 38:4448

Rape and zina

The classical Maliki madhhab doctrine held that a case of rape has the same requirements as proving the case of zina: (1) four male witnesses who testify that they saw the rape and the act of penetration, or (2) confession by the accused.[30] If either of these evidences are missing, the rapist could not be sentenced to hadd punishment.[30] Furthermore, the classical legal doctrine held that a woman who does not manage to substantiate her allegation of rape may incur the qadhf or firya punishment under sharia, which was eighty lashes for calumny from unproven accusation.[30]

When the rape accusation is proven, there is no punishment on the victim, and the rapist is either subjected to hadd punishment or is required to pay bride price to the victim or money to the raped slave girl's owner:[31]

Malik related to me from Ibn Shihab that gave a judgment that the rapist had to pay the raped woman her bride-price. Yahya said that he heard Malik say, "What is done in our community about the man who rapes a woman, virgin or non-virgin, if she is free, is that he must pay the bride-price of the like of her. If she is a slave, he must pay what he has diminished of her worth. The hadd-punishment in such cases is applied to the rapist, and there is no punishment applied to the raped woman. If the rapist is a slave, that is against his master unless he wishes to surrender him."

Al-Muwatta, 36 16.14

There have been historical exceptions where rape and zina have been treated as different offenses in some Muslim states, such as when the 7th century Caliph Omar accepted the testimony from a single witness who heard the victim call for help.[32] However, in other times, there have been instances where sharia-based rape laws in some Islamic nations have termed rape as zina-bil-jabr and treated rape and zina together, then requiring four adult male eyewitnesses for zina or rape.[33] This requirement have been questioned by other Islamic scholars.[33] In some cases, modern laws on rape have adopted the viewpoint that rape and zina are different, then reduced the number of adult male witnesses required to prove rape from four to two.[32]

Inclusions of the zināʾ definition

Zināʾ encompasses extramarital sex (between a married Muslim man and a married Muslim woman who are not married to one another), and premarital sex (between unmarried Muslim man and unmarried Muslim woman). In Islamic history, zina also included sex between Muslim man with a non-Muslim female slave, when the slave was not owned by that Muslim man.[11][34]

Zina also includes homosexuality, sodomy (liwat) - zoophilia as well as any type of heterosexual sex between a man and a woman that does not involve penetration of penis into vagina. Sharia, in describing zina, differentiates between an unmarried Muslim, a married Muslim (Muhsan) and non-Muslim slave (Ma malakat aymanukum). The last two must be lethally stoned (rajm), while an unmarried Muslim must receive public lashing.[6][35] Heavy petting, kissing, caressing, masturbation and any form of sexual intimacy between individuals who are not married to each other are all considered a form of zina.[36][37]

There is some disagreement between Islamic scholars on the nature of zina and the kind of Sharia-required punishment for sexual acts between husband and wife such as oral sex, mutual masturbation, and having sex when sharia forbids sex to them such as during religious fasting, hajj and when the wife is having her menstrual period.[38] Abu Hanifah and Malik, and the two major fiqhs named after them, use the Principle of Najassah to argue irregular sex such as oral sex between husband and wife are abominable and disapproved (makruh) because it leads to impurity (Hadath-Akbar, حدث أکبر).

Accusation process and punishment

Islam requires evidence before a man or a woman can be punished for zināʾ. These are:[11][7][39]

  1. A confession by a Muslim of zināʾ. However, the person has a right to retract his/her confession; if confession is retracted, he/she is not punishable for zina (barring the presence of four male Muslim witnesses), or
  2. The woman is pregnant but not married, or
  3. The testimony of four reliable Muslim adult male eyewitnesses, all of whom must have witnessed the penetration at the same time.
“If any of your women are guilty of lewdness, Take the evidence of four (Reliable) witnesses from amongst you against them; and if they testify, confine them to houses until death do claim them, or Allah ordain for them some (other) way.”

— Qur'an, Sura 4 (Al-Nisa), ayat 15[40]

The four witnesses requirement for zina, that applies in case of an accusation against man or woman, is also revealed by Quranic verses 24:11 through 24:13 and various hadiths.[41][42] Some Islamic scholars state that the requirement of four male eyewitnesses was to address zina in public. There is disagreement between Islamic scholars on whether female eyewitnesses are acceptable witnesses in cases of zina (for other crimes, sharia considers two female witnesses equal the witness of one male).[43] In Sunni fiqhs of Islam, female Muslims, child and non-Muslim witnesses of zina are not acceptable.

Any uninvolved Muslim witness, or victim of non-consensual sexual intercourse, who accuses a Muslim of zina, but fails to produce four adult, pious male eyewitnesses (Tazikyah-al-shuhood) before a sharia court, commits the crime of false accusation (Qadhf, القذف), punishable with eighty lashes in public.[44][45]

Confession and four witness-based prosecutions of zina are rare. Most cases of prosecutions are when the woman becomes pregnant, or when she has been raped, seeks justice and the sharia authorities charge her for zina, instead of duly investigating the rapist.[13][46]

Some fiqhs (schools of Islamic jurisprudence) created the principle of shubha (doubt), wherein there would be no zina charges if a Muslim man claims he believed he was having sex with a woman he was married to or with a woman he owned as a slave.[7]

Sunni practice

All Sunni schools of jurisprudence agree that zināʾ is to be punished with lethal stoning if the offender is a married Muslim (muhsan). The punishment for zina by a muhsan is a hundred lashes followed by stoning to death in public. Persons who are not muhsan (unmarried Muslim) are punished for zina with one hundred lashes in public, but their life is spared.[28][47]

Pregnancy of an unmarried woman is regarded as evidence of zina.[11][7] Maliki school of Islamic jurisprudence considers pregnancy as sufficient and automatic evidence. Other Sunni schools of jurisprudence rely on early Islamic scholars that state that a fetus can "sleep and stop developing for 5 years in a womb", and thus a woman who was previously married but now divorced may not have committed zina even if she delivers a baby years after her divorce.[48] These alternate fiqhs of Sunni Islam consider pregnancy of a never married woman as evidence of her committing the crime of zina. The position of modern Islamic scholars, however, varies from country to country. For example, in Malaysia which officially follows the non-Maliki Shafi'i fiqh, Section 23(2) through 23(4) of the Syariah (Sharia) Criminal Offences (Federal Territories) Act 1997 state,[49]

Section 23(2) - Any woman who performs sexual intercourse with a man who is not her lawful husband shall be guilty of an offence and shall on conviction be liable to a fine not exceeding five thousand ringgit or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years or to whipping not exceeding six strokes or to any combination thereof.

Section 23(3) - The fact that a woman is pregnant out of wedlock as a result of sexual intercourse performed with her consent shall be prima facie evidence of the commission of an offence under subsection (2) by that woman.

Section 23(4) - For the purpose of subsection (3), any woman who gives birth to a fully developed child within a period of six qamariah months from the date of her marriage shall be deemed to have been pregnant out of wedlock.

— Islamic Laws of Malaysia[50]

The Malikis do not require Ihsan for the imposition of stoning. According to the Hanafis, homosexual intercourse can only be punished on the strength of tazir. Minimal proof for zināʾ is still the testimony of four male eyewitnesses, even in the case of homosexual intercourse.[citation needed]

Prosecution of extramarital pregnancy as zināʾ, as well as prosecution of rape victims for the crime of zina, have been the source of worldwide controversy in recent years.[51][52]

Shi'a practice

Again, minimal proof for zināʾ is the testimony of four male eyewitnesses. The Shi'is, however, also allow the testimony of women, if there is at least one male witness, testifying together with six women. All witnesses must have seen the act in its most intimate details, i.e. the penetration (like “a stick disappearing in a kohl container,” as the fiqh books specify). If their testimonies do not satisfy the requirements, they can be sentenced to eighty lashes for unfounded accusation of fornication (kadhf). If the accused freely admits the offense, the confession must be repeated four times, just as in Sunni practice. Pregnancy of a single woman is also sufficient evidence of her having committed zina.[6]

Human rights controversy

Muslim-majority regions with zina laws against consensual premarital and extramarital sex.[53][54]

The zināʾ and rape laws of countries under Sharia law are the subjects of a global human rights debate.[55][56]

Hundreds of women in Afghan jails are victims of rape or domestic violence.[52] This has been criticized as leading to "hundreds of incidents where a woman subjected to rape, or gang rape, was eventually accused of zināʾ" and incarcerated,[57] which is defended as punishment ordained by God.

In Pakistan, over 200,000 zina cases against women, under its Hudood laws, were under process at various levels in Pakistan's legal system in 2005.[51] In addition to thousands of women in prison awaiting trial for zina-related charges, there has been a severe reluctance to even report rape because the victim fears of being charged with zina.[58]

Iran has prosecuted many cases of zina, and enforced public stoning to death of those accused between 2001 and 2010.[59][60]

Zina laws are one of many items of reform and secularization debate with respect to Islam.[61][62] In early 20th century, under the influence of colonial era, many penal laws and criminal justice systems were reformed away from Sharia in Muslim-majority parts of the world. In contrast, in the second half of 20th century, after respective independence, governments from Pakistan to Morocco, Malaysia to Iran have reverted to Sharia with traditional interpretations of Islam’s sacred texts. Zina and hudud laws have been re-enacted and enforced.[63]

Contemporary human right activists refer this as a new phase in the politics of gender in Islam, the battle between forces of traditionalism and modernism in the Muslim world, and the use of religious texts of Islam through state laws to sanction and practice gender-based violence.[64][65]

In contrast to human rights activists, Islamic scholars and Islamist political parties consider 'universal human rights' arguments as imposition of a non-Muslim culture on Muslim people, a disrespect of customary cultural practices and sexual codes that are central to Islam. Zina laws come under hudud — seen as crime against Allah; the Islamists refer to this pressure and proposals to reform zina and other laws as ‘contrary to Islam’. Attempts by international human rights to reform religious laws and codes of Islam has become the Islamist rallying platforms during political campaigns.[66][67]

See also

References

  1. ^ R. Peters, Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman et al., Brill, ISBN 978-9004161214, see article on Zinā
  2. ^ Muḥammad Salīm ʻAwwā (1982), Punishment in Islamic Law: A Comparative Study, American Trust Publications, ISBN 978-0892590155
  3. ^ Sakah Saidu Mahmud (2013), Sharia or Shura: Contending Approaches to Muslim Politics in Nigeria and Senegal, Lexington, ISBN 978-0739175644, Chapter 3
  4. ^ Ursula Smartt, Honour Killings Justice of the Peace, Vol. 170, January 2006, pp. 4-6
  5. ^ Z. Mir-Hosseini (2011), Criminalizing sexuality: zina laws as violence against women in Muslim contexts, Int'l Journal on Human Rights, 15, 7-16
  6. ^ a b c d Camilla Adang (2003), Ibn Hazam on Homosexuality, Al Qantara, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 5-31
  7. ^ a b c d e Z. Mir-Hosseini (2011), Criminalizing sexuality: zina laws as violence against women in Muslim contexts, SUR-Int'l Journal on Human Rights, 8(15), pp 7-33
  8. ^ M. S. Sujimon (2003), Istilḥāq and Its Role in Islamic Law, Arab Law Quarterly, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp 117-143
  9. ^
    • Ali, Kecia (2010). Marriage and slavery in early Islam. USA: Harvard University Press. pp. 161–172. ;
    • Haeri, Shahla (1989). Law of Desire: Temporary Marriage in Shi'i Iran. Syracuse University Press. pp. 24–32. ISBN 978-0815624837. Quote: Sexual intercourse with one's own slave girl continued to be legitimate until recently in most Islamic societies. Slave ownership should not be confused with slave marriage. Slave marriage involves marriage of a slave with another person, with the permission of the slave master. Marriage is not necessary between a male slave owner and his female slaves. His ownership entitles him to a right of intercourse. 
  10. ^ Julie Chadbourne (1999), Never wear your shoes after midnight: Legal trends under the Pakistan Zina Ordinance, Wisconsin International Law Journal, Vol. 17, pp. 179-234
  11. ^ a b c d Kecia Ali (2006), Sexual Ethics and Islam, ISBN 978-1851684564, Chapter 4
  12. ^ M. Tamadonfar (2001), Islam, law, and political control in contemporary Iran, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 40(2): 205-220
  13. ^ a b A. Quraishi (1999), Her honour: an Islamic critique of the rape provisions in Pakistan's ordinance on zina, Islamic studies, Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 403-431
  14. ^ Joseph Schacht, An Introduction to Islamic Law (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973), pp. 176-183
  15. ^ Peters, Rudolph (2006). Crime and Punishment in Islamic Law: : Theory and Practice from the Sixteenth to the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge University Press. p. 63. ISBN 978-0521796705. 
  16. ^ DeLong-Bas, Wahhabi Islam, 2004: 89-90
  17. ^ "Zina meaning and name origin". thinkbabynames.com. Retrieved 16 September 2014. 
  18. ^ Reza Aslan (2004), "The Problem of Stoning in the Islamic Penal Code: An Argument for Reform", UCLA Journal of Islamic and Near East Law, Vol 3, No. 1, pp. 91-119
  19. ^ Quran 17:32
  20. ^ Quran 24:2
  21. ^ Quran 24:4–5
  22. ^ Ziba Mir-Hosseini (2001), Marriage on Trial: A Study of Islamic Family Law, ISBN 978-1860646089, pp. 140-223
  23. ^ Hina Azam (2012), Rape as a Variant of Fornication (Zina) in Islamic Law: An Examination of the Early Legal Reports, Journal of Law & Religion, Volume 28, 441-459
  24. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 2:23:413
  25. ^ Understanding Islamic Law By Raj Bhala, LexisNexis, May 24, 2011
  26. ^ a b Stephen O. Murray and Will Roscoe (1997), Islamic Homosexualities: Culture, History, and Literature, ISBN 978-0814774687, New York University Press, pp. 88-94
  27. ^ Quran 4:16
  28. ^ a b Mohamed S. El-Awa (1993), Punishment In Islamic Law, American Trust Publications, ISBN 978-0892591428
  29. ^ The sunnah and surah describe the Lot's people in context of homosexuality and sodomy such as any form of sex between a man and woman that does not involve penetration of man's penis in woman's vagina.
  30. ^ a b c Camila Adang, Maribel Fierro and Sabine Schmidtke (2012), Ibn azm of Cordoba, Handbook of Oriental Studies, Brill Academic, ISBN 978-9004234246, p. 181
  31. ^ Hina Azam, Sexual Violation in Islamic Law: Substance, Evidence, and Procedure, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-1-107-09424-6, pp. 127-158
  32. ^ a b Abiad, Nisrine (2008). Sharia, Muslim States and International Human Rights Treaty Obligations: A Comparative Study. p. 136. 
  33. ^ a b Theodore Friend (2011), Woman, Man, and God in Modern Islam, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, ISBN 978-0802866738, p. 102
  34. ^ Sharia allows sex between married or unmarried Muslim man and any slaves he owns, without the slave's consent.
  35. ^ Jan Otto, Sharia Incorporated, Leiden University Press, ISBN 978-9087280574
  36. ^ What constitutes Zina? Universiti Sains Isam Malaysia (2002)
  37. ^ Quran 23:5–7
  38. ^ Quran 2:222
  39. ^ Sahih Muslim, 17:4194
  40. ^ Quran 4:15
  41. ^ Quran 24:13, Kerby Anderson (2007), Islam, Harvest House ISBN 978-0736921176, pp. 87-88
  42. ^ Al-Muwatta, 36 19.17, Al-Muwatta, 36 19.18, Al-Muwatta, 41 1.7
  43. ^ A. Engineer (2004), The Rights of Women in Islam, 3rd Edition, ISBN 978-8120739338, pp. 80-86
  44. ^ J. Campo (2009), Encyclopedia of Islam, ISBN 978-0816054541, pp. 13-14
  45. ^ R. Mehdi (1997), The offence of rape in the Islamic law of Pakistan, Women Living under Muslim Laws: Dossier, 18, pp. 98-108
  46. ^ A.S. Sidahmed (2001), Problems in contemporary applications of Islamic criminal sanctions: The penalty for adultery in relation to women, British journal of middle eastern studies, 28(2): 187-204
  47. ^ F. Vogel, Marriage and Slavery in Early Islam. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
  48. ^ JANSEN, W. (2000), Sleeping in the Womb: Protracted Pregnancies in the Maghreb, The Muslim World, n. 90, p. 218-237
  49. ^ Laws of Malaysia SYARIAH CRIMINAL OFFENCES (FEDERAL TERRITORIES) ACT 1997, Government of Malaysia
  50. ^ CEDAW and Malaysia Women's Aid Organization, United Nations Report (April 2012), page 83-85
  51. ^ a b Pakistan Human Rights Watch (2005)
  52. ^ a b Afghanistan - Moral Crimes Human Rights Watch (2012); Quote "Some women and girls have been convicted of zina, sex outside of marriage, after being raped or forced into prostitution. Zina is a crime under Afghan law, punishable by up to 15 years in prison."
  53. ^ Ziba Mir-Hosseini (2011), Criminalizing sexuality: zina laws as violence against women in Muslim contexts, SUR - Int'l Journal on Human Rights, 15, pp. 7-31
  54. ^ Haideh Moghissi (2005), Women and Islam: Part 4 Women, sexuality and sexual politics in Islamic cultures, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-415-32420-3
  55. ^ KUGLE (2003), Sexuality, diversity and ethics in the agenda of progressive Muslims, In: SAFI, O. (Ed.). Progressive Muslims: On Justice, Gender, and Pluralism, Oxford: Oneworld. pp. 190-234
  56. ^ LAU, M. (2007), Twenty-Five Years of Hudood Ordinances: A Review, Washington and Lee Law Review, n. 64, pp. 1291-1314
  57. ^ National Commission on the status of women's report on Hudood Ordinance 1979
  58. ^ Rahat Imran (2005), Legal Injustices: The Zina Hudood Ordinance of Pakistan and Its Implications for Women, Journal of International Women's Studies, Vol. 7, Issue 2, pp 78-100
  59. ^ BAGHI, E. (2007) The Bloodied Stone: Execution by Stoning International Campaign for Human Rights in Iran
  60. ^ End Executions by Stoning - An Appeal AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL, 15 Jan 2010
  61. ^ Rehman J. (2007), The sharia, Islamic family laws and international human rights law: Examining the theory and practice of polygamy and talaq, International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family, 21(1), pp. 108-127
  62. ^ SAFWAT (1982), Offences and Penalties in Islamic Law. Islamic Quarterly, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 149-181
  63. ^ Weiss A. M. (2003), Interpreting Islam and women's rights implementing CEDAW in Pakistan, International Sociology, 18(3), pp. 581-601
  64. ^ KAMALI (1998), Punishment in Islamic Law: A Critique of the Hudud Bill of Kelantan Malaysia, Arab Law Quarterly, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 203-234
  65. ^ QURAISHI, A (1996), Her Honor: An Islamic Critique of the Rape Laws of Pakistan from a Woman-Sensitive Perspective, Michigan Journal of International Law, vol. 18, pp. 287-320
  66. ^ A. SAJOO (1999), Islam and Human Rights: Congruence or Dichotomy, Temple International and Comparative Law Journal, vol. 4, pp. 23-34
  67. ^ K. ALI (2003), Progressive Muslims and Islamic Jurisprudence: The Necessity for Critical Engagement with Marriage and Divorce Law, In: SAFI, O. (Ed.). Progressive Muslims: On Justice, Gender, and Pluralism, Oxford: Oneworld, pp. 163-189

Further reading

External links