زرافه (صورت فلکی)
زَرّافه از صورتهای فلکی است.
رسیدن به نصفالنهار:۱۲ بهمن مساحت ۷۵۷ درجه مربع معادل انگلیسی Cam
زرافه یکی از صورتهای فلکی جدید در آسمان شمالی میباشد که برای اولین بار توسط ستارهشناس آلمانی، یاکوب بارچ در سال ۱۶۲۴ محدوده آن تعیین شد. این صورت فلکی دارای ستارگان کم فروغ در اطراف صورتهای معروف خرس بزرگ، خداوند کرسی و غیره، با ستارههای درخشان تر است. نام انگلیسی این صورت فلکی برگرفته از یک اسم یونانی به معنای ((شتر-پلنگ)) است که به زرافه داده شده.این حیوان دارای سر و گردنی مانند شتر و پوست خالداری شبیه به پلنگ است. هرچند که صورت فلکی زرافه وسیع است اما ستارگانش کم فروغ و بی نامند.
زرافه دارای ستارگان قابل توجهی نیست.
اجرام عمقی آسمان[ویرایش]
NGC۱۵۰۲ یک خوشه باز در فاصله ۳۷۵۰ سال نوری شامل ۱۵ ستارهاست که درخشانترین آنها در قدر ۵ میباشد NGC۲۴۰۳ که یک کهکشان مارپیچی قدر هشتم، با ابعاد حداکثر حدود یک چهارم درجه یا نصف عرض کره ماه است.
آیسی ۳۴۲ نیز در این صورت فلکی قرار دارد.
Camelopardalis // is a large but faint constellation of the northern sky representing a giraffe. The constellation was introduced in 1612 or 1613 by Petrus Plancius. Some older astronomy books give Camelopardalus or Camelopardus as alternative spellings of the name, but the official version recognized by the International Astronomical Union is Camelopardalis.
First attested in English in 1785, the word camelopardalis comes from Latin, and it is the romanization of the Greek "καμηλοπάρδαλις" meaning "giraffe", from "κάμηλος" (kamēlos), "camel" + "πάρδαλις" (pardalis), "leopard", because it has a long neck like a camel and spots like a leopard.
Although Camelopardalis is the 18th largest constellation, it is not a particularly bright constellation, as the brightest stars are only of fourth magnitude. In fact, it only contains four stars below (brighter than) magnitude 5.0.
Other variable stars are U Camelopardalis, VZ Camelopardalis, and Mira variables T Camelopardalis, X Camelopardalis, and R Camelopardalis. RU Camelopardalis is one of the brighter Type II Cepheids visible in the night sky.
In 2011 a supernova was discovered in the constellation.
Camelopardalis is in the part of the celestial sphere facing away from the galactic plane. Accordingly, many distant galaxies are visible within its borders. NGC 2403 is a galaxy in the M81 group of galaxies, located approximately 12 million light-years from Earth with a redshift of 0.00043. It is classified as being between an elliptical and a spiral galaxy because it has faint arms and a large central bulge. NGC 2403 was first discovered by the 18th century astronomer William Herschel, who was working in England at the time. It has an integrated magnitude of 8.0 and is approximately 0.25° long.
NGC 1502 is a magnitude 6.9 open cluster about 3,000 light years from Earth. It has about 45 bright members, and features a double star of magnitude 7.0 at its center. NGC 1502 is also associated with Kemble's Cascade, a simple but beautiful asterism appearing in the sky as a chain of stars 2.5° long that is parallel to the Milky Way and is pointed towards Cassiopeia. NGC 1501 is a planetary nebula located roughly 1.4° south of NGC 1502.
IC 342 is one of the brightest two galaxies in the IC 342/Maffei Group of galaxies. The dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 1569 is a magnitude 11.9 starburst galaxy, about 11 million light years away. NGC 2655 is a large lenticular galaxy with visual magnitude 10.1.
MS0735.6+7421 is a galaxy cluster with a redshift of 0.216, located 2.6 billion light-years from Earth. It is unique for its intracluster medium, which emits X-rays at a very high rate. This galaxy cluster features two cavities 600,000 light-years in diameter, caused by its central supermassive black hole, which emits jets of matter. MS0735.6+7421 is one of the largest and most distant examples of this phenomenon.
Tombaugh 5 is a fairly dim open cluster in Camelopardalis. It has an overall magnitude of 8.4 and is located 5,800 light-years from Earth. It is a Shapley class c and Trumpler class III 1 r cluster, meaning that it is irregularly shaped and appears loose. Though it is detached from the star field, it is not concentrated at its center at all. It has more than 100 stars which do not vary widely in brightness, mostly being of the 15th and 16th magnitude.
NGC 2146 is an 11th magnitude barred spiral starburst galaxy conspicuously warped by interaction with a neighbour.
The space probe Voyager 1 is moving in the direction of this constellation, though it will not be nearing any of the stars in this constellation for many thousands of years, by which time its power source will be long dead.
Camelopardalis is not one of Ptolemy's 48 constellations in the Almagest. It was created by Petrus Plancius in 1613. It first appeared in a globe designed by him and produced by Pieter van den Keere. One year later, Jakob Bartsch featured it in his atlas. Johannes Hevelius depicted this constellation in his works which were so influential that it was referred to as Camelopardali Hevelii or abbreviated as Camelopard. Hevel.
Part of the constellation was hived off to form the constellation Sciurus Volans, the Flying Squirrel, by William Croswell in 1810. However this was not taken up by later cartographers.