روابط ایران و سوئیس

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به ناوبری پرش به جستجو
فارسیEnglish
Iran–Switzerland (روابط)
Map indicating locations of Iran and Switzerland

ایران

سوئیس
سفارت ایران در برن، سوئیس

دو کشور ایران و سوئیس از قرن هفدهم میلادی با یکدیگر رابطه دارند.[۱] ایران در سال ۱۹۱۷ سفارت خود در برن را افتتاح کرد[۲] و در سال ۱۹۱۹ کنسولگری سوئیس درایران شروع به فعالیت کرد که در سال ۱۹۳۶ به سفارت تبدیل شد.[۱] سرکنسولگری ایران در ژنو در سال ۱۳۳۶ شمسی گشایش یافت ولی در ۱۳۸۰ تعطیل و وظایف آن به سفارت جمهوری اسلامی ایران در برن واگذار گردید.[۳] سوئیس حافظ منافع ایران در مصر است و در طول تاریخ خود حافظ مافع کشورهای ایتالیا (۱۹۴۶)، استرالیا، کانادا، بریتانیای کبیر، ایرلند و نیوزلند (۱۹۵۲)، آفریقای جنوبی (۱۹۵۲ , ۱۹۷۹ تا ۱۹۹۵)، لبنان (۱۹۸۴)و ایالات متحده آمریکا (۱۹۸۰ تا به حال) در ایران بوده‌است.[۱] در سال ۲۰۰۵ ،۱۸۷ سوئیسی درایران زندگی می‌کردند و طبق آمار سال ۲۰۰۴، ۳٬۸۰۱ ایرانی در سوئیس زندگی می‌کردند.[۴]

در پی اعمال تحریم‌های اقتصادی یک‌طرفه از جانب اعضای اتحادیه اروپا بر ایران به دلیل آنکه پافشاری برای تعلیق برنامه اتمی ایران نامیده شده‌است، سوئیس که از جمله اعضای این اتحادیه به‌شمار نمی‌رود، در این مدت تغییر برنامه محسوسی در مراودات خود با ایران وارد نساخته است و به‌طور معمول به ارسال تجهیزات صنعتی و سایر کالاهای تجاری به ایران ادامه داده و قراردادهای بزرگ خرید گاز نیز با ایران امضا کرده‌است که این موضوع با مخالفت سیاستمداران دولت فدرال آمریکا مواجه شده‌است.[۵] اما دولت سوئیس از این کار خود دفاع کرده‌است و علت این تصمیم بر سیاست خارجی این کشور اتخاذ شده‌است و نه منافع مالی. همراستا با تحریم‌های نفتی علیه ایران از سوی کشورهای غربی، شرکت‌های نفتی سوئیس صرفاً موظفند اطلاعات تبادلات نفتی خود با ایران را به دولت این کشور گزارش کنند و دولت سوئیس اعلام کرده‌است که این اطلاعات را منتشر نمی‌سازد.[۶]

رخدادها[ویرایش]

در سال ۱۳۸۷، پلیس ایران، «مارکو کمپف» دبیر اول بخش حافظ منافع آمریکا در سفارت سوئیس را همراه با یک زن در توچال و در یک اتومبیل با پلاک دیپلماتیک دستگیر و «مارکو کمپف» را متهم به تجاوز جنسی کرد.[۷] در نهایت هم مارکو کمپف و هم زن از ایران خارج شدند.[۸]

پس از تصویب موافق‌نامه برجام در خصوص برنامه هسته‌ای ایران، سوئیس اعلام کرد که تصمیم به لغو تحریم‌هایی گرفته‌است که همسو با تحریم‌های بین‌المللی علیه ایران، وضع کرده بوده. این تحریم‌ها، مواردی از قبیل محدودیت در معامله فلزات گرانبها، نقل نفت خام، محصولات پتروشیمی و نقل و انتقال پول را شامل می‌شده‌است. این کشور، پیش از تصویب برجام نیز تحریم‌های خود علیه ایران را از ابتدای سال ۲۰۱۴ (میلادی) به حال تعویق درآورده بودند.[۹]

در تاریخ ۷ اسفند ۱۳۹۴رئیس‌جمهور سوئیس طی سفری سه روزه وارد تهران شد و از بیمارستان خیریه محک دیدار کرده و همچنین در مراسم شام تدارک دیده شده با حضور اعضای اتاق بازرگانی ایران و سوئیس شرکت نمود.[۱۰]

منابع[ویرایش]

پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]

Iran–Switzerland relations
Map indicating locations of Iran and Switzerland

Iran

Switzerland
Iranian embassy at Bern, Switzerland
Markus Leitner, Swiss ambassador to Iran from 27 August 2017, Interviewed by FNA on 30 April 2018.

Iranian-Swiss relations are foreign relations between the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Swiss Confederation.

Switzerland has had a consulate in Tehran since 1919 which was raised to the status of embassy in 1936 and also represents the interests of the United States in the Iranian capital Tehran.

History

Notable Monarchy-era Iranians who lived and studied in Switzerland

Former Iranian Prime Minister, Mohammad Mosaddegh obtained his Doctorate of Laws (doctorat en droit) at the University of Neuchâtel in Switzerland, 1911. As a child, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran attended Institut Le Rosey, a Swiss boarding school, completing his studies there in 1935.

1979 Revolution

Switzerland becomes the "protecting power" of the United States in Iran after the Iranian Revolution of 1979.

Iran–Iraq war

Beginning in 1984, victims of the Iran–Iraq War received medical treatment in Switzerland, while Swiss companies were doing multibillion-dollar business with Iraq at the same time. Cooperation on the national level to prevent natural catastrophes was initiated in 2006.

Murder of Kazem Rajavi

Ali Fallahian, an Iranian politician and cleric who served as a member of the 3rd Assembly of Experts of the IRI and as the Minister of Intelligence of Islamic Republic of Iran in cabinet of President Hashemi Rafsanjani was charged by a Swiss court[1][2][3] with masterminding the assassination of Kazem Rajavi, a brother of Mujahedin-e Khalq leader Massoud Rajavi, near Geneva in broad daylight by several agents on April 24, 1990.[4]

Crypto AG and espionage case

In 1992, Hans Buehler an employee of Swiss firm Crypto AG was detained in Iran on charges of espionage. He was later released by the Iranian authorities after the firm paid a 1 million dollar bond.[5] Soon after Buehler's release Crypto AG dismissed him and charged him the $1m. Swiss media and the German magazine Der Spiegel took up his case in 1994, pursuing the question of whether Crypto's machines had in fact been rigged by Western intelligence (namely the NSA).[6][7][8]

Friedrich Tinner, the Iranian nuclear program and the CIA

Friedrich Tinner is a Swiss engineer, connected with the Khan network trafficking in the proliferation of nuclear materials and know-how to Pakistan, Iran, Libya, and North Korea. He has been connected in particular with gas centrifuges used for isotopic enrichment of uranium.[9] In May 2008, the President of the Swiss Confederation, Pascal Couchepin announced that the Tinner files, believed to number around 30,000 documents, had been shredded.[10] It is alleged that this was a cover-up, to hide the involvement of Urs Tinner with the CIA.[11][12]

Swiss diplomat arrested on sexual charges

In February 2009, the Iranian police arrested Marco Kämpf, the Swiss diplomat acting as the First Secretary of the US Interests, on sex charges after finding him with an Iranian woman in a car. The diplomat was recalled to Switzerland.[13][14]

Human rights dialogue and the 2009 Swiss vote on minarets

The two countries have been engaged in a human rights dialogue since 2003 and in discussions on migration since 2005. Following a constitutional amendment banning the construction of new minarets in Switzerland in 2009, Iran described the Swiss vote as "Islamophobic" and a blow to religious freedom.[15]

Security incidences at the Iranian embassy in Bern

In November 2011, Swiss police investigated two minor attacks on the Iranian Embassy in Bern.[16][17]

Trade

Trade agreements

There are agreements between the two countries on air traffic (1954, 1972 and 2004), road and rail transport (1977), export risk guarantees (1966), protection of investments (1998) and double taxation (2002). Iran is one of Switzerland's most important trading partners in the Middle East. Swiss-Iranian economic treaties already exist for investment protection, double taxation and aviation.[18] A trade agreement was signed in 2005 but has not yet been ratified.[citation needed] In 2010, the volume of trade with Iran was about 741 million Swiss francs; Switzerland exported goods for about 700 million francs, and it has imported goods to 41 million Swiss francs. The main goods exported by Switzerland are pharmaceutical products, machinery and agricultural products.[19] Switzerland exports to Iran totaled nearly USD 1.9 billion in the ten-month period ending on January 31, 2014.[20]

2007 gas contract

In the year 2007, Iran and Switzerland signed a major 25-year gas contract to export over 5 billion cubic meters of gas per year from the Persian Gulf reportedly valued at 18 billion euros.[21][22] Starting with 1.5 billion cubic meters per year in 2010, to be increased to 4 bcm by 2012.[23] This contract has been signed between the Switzerland's company of Elektrizitätsgesellschaft Laufenburg (EGL) and the National Iranian Gas Export Company which will be started practically at the beginning of 2009.[24][25] There is some skepticism that Iran will not be able to supply gas to Switzerland for the foreseeable future because no pipeline connects Iran to Europe at present.[26] In February 2010, Iran announced it is ready for gas export to Switzerland.[23] The deal was aimed at reducing Bern's dependency on Russian gas.[23] In October 2010, EGL announced the unilateral suspension of the gas contract with Iran.[27][28]

International sanctions

Switzerland and Iran have greatly reduced their bilateral economic cooperation since the UN Security Council took up Iran’s nuclear enrichment program in 2005.[29] The Swiss government has been cooperating with the U.S. to freeze banking accounts and other financial assets belonging to individuals involved in the Iranian nuclear program; Switzerland has also committed to block the sale of dual-use items.[29] Vitol and Glencore, 2 Swiss-based firms, were also major re-sellers of gasoline to Iran until recently but have since stopped trading with the country.[30][31] In January and December 2011, Switzerland expanded its unilateral sanctions against Iran.[19][32][33] The Swiss Federal Council said in a statement on January 2014 that it had suspended part of its economic sanctions against Iran in accordance with the Geneva nuclear accords between Tehran and the six world powers but the trade barriers are still officially in place.[20] Based on a statement by Swiss President Didier Burkhalter at the 9th World Economic Forum, it will be a step by step process and the official removal of all trade sanctions will depend on the final agreement about Iran's nuclear program.[34] It has been reported in the media that the Swiss government has circumvented the sanctions in several cases.[35][36] The adoption of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) took place in the Swiss city of Geneva and the general framework of the current agreement was concluded on April 2, 2015 in Lausanne.[37] In 2016, following the implementation of the JCPOA with P5+1, Switzerland lifted all unilateral sanctions against Iran pertaining to its nuclear program and Johann Schneider-Ammann became the first ever Swiss president to visit Iran.[18][38][37]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Swiss orders arrest of Iranian ex-minister". Swissinfo.org. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
  2. ^ [1][dead link]
  3. ^ "People's Daily Online -- Switzerland orders arrest of Iranian ex-minister on murder charges". English.peopledaily.com. Retrieved May 18, 2016.
  4. ^ "Xinhua - English". News3.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved May 18, 2016.
  5. ^ Schneier, Bruce (June 15, 2004). "Breaking Iranian codes". Crypto-Gram newsletter.
  6. ^ Mehdi Atmani: La lune de miel secrète entre la Suisse et le renseignement international. Le Temps, August 21, 2015. Retrieved August 22, 2015.
  7. ^ Shane, Scott; Tom Bowman (December 4, 1995). "No Such Agency, part four: Rigging the game". The Baltimore Sun. pp. 9–11. Archived online March 8, 1997.
  8. ^ The NSA-Crypto AG Sting – OhmyNews International. English.ohmynews.com (December 29, 2007). Retrieved July 23, 2010.
  9. ^ (in French) émissions – temps présent – Les espions qui venaient d'Helvétie. tsr.ch (January 22, 2009). Retrieved July 23, 2010.
  10. ^ Ian Traynor (May 31, 2008). "Nuclear bomb blueprints for sale on world black market, experts fear". The Guardian. UK.
  11. ^ William J. Broad and David E. Sanger (August 24, 2008). "In Nuclear Net's Undoing, a Web of Shadowy Deals". New York Times.
  12. ^ "US delivers legal aid in nuclear probe". Swissinfo.ch. November 28, 2006.
  13. ^ "Swiss call diplomat home--but is there a scandal?". Iran Times International. Washington, DC. February 20, 2009.
  14. ^ "Schweizer Diplomat nicht mehr im Iran tätig". 20 Minuten. February 9, 2009. Archived from the original on August 31, 2014. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
  15. ^ Iran condemns Swiss minaret ban. Presstv.com (December 1, 2009). Retrieved July 23, 2010.
  16. ^ "Swiss police: Iran embassy attacked - Nov. 30, 2011". Kyivpost.ocm. November 30, 2011. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
  17. ^ [2][dead link]
  18. ^ a b John Heilprin; swissinfo.ch. "Swiss brands advised to risk Iranian market". SWI swissinfo.ch. Retrieved May 18, 2016.
  19. ^ a b [3][dead link]
  20. ^ a b "PressTV". Presstv.com. Retrieved May 18, 2016.
  21. ^ "Iran and Switzerland ink major gas deal". Presstv.ir. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
  22. ^ Iran's Economy. Fpc.state.gov, (PDF) Retrieved July 23, 2010.
  23. ^ a b c Iran ready for gas export to Switzerland. Presstv.ir (February 10, 2010). Retrieved July 23, 2010.
  24. ^ US feels the heat after Iran-Switzerland $42b gas deal. tehran times (May 3, 2008). Retrieved July 23, 2010.
  25. ^ Washington seeks copy of Iran gas contract with Switzerland. Swissinfo.ch. Retrieved July 23, 2010.
  26. ^ [4][dead link]
  27. ^ [5][dead link]
  28. ^ [6][dead link]
  29. ^ a b Switzerland – Iran Foreign Relations. IranTracker (July 18, 2010). Retrieved July 23, 2010.
  30. ^ Kittrie, Orde F. (November 13, 2008) How to Put the Squeeze on Iran – WSJ.com. Online.wsj.com. Retrieved July 23, 2010.
  31. ^ Iran's May gasoline imports up 37 pct on yr | Business | guardian.co.uk. Guardian. Retrieved July 23, 2010.
  32. ^ "Iran Focus - Iran Focus". Iranfocus.com. Retrieved May 18, 2016.
  33. ^ "PressTV". Presstv.com. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
  34. ^ SRF Tagesschau vom 24. Jan. 2014. WEF 2014 Wirtschaft. Schweizer Radio und Fernsehen.
  35. ^ "What's Rankling the Swiss Foreign Ministry?". Weekly Standard. Retrieved May 18, 2016.
  36. ^ "Switzerland Snubs Obama's and Europe's Iran Sanctions". Weekly Standard. Retrieved May 18, 2016.
  37. ^ a b "Partners In Time". The Business Year. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
  38. ^ "La Suisse lève ses sanctions contre l'Iran suite à l'accord sur le nucléaire". rts.ch. Retrieved May 18, 2016.

External links