روابط ایران و اسرائیل

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به: ناوبری، جستجو
فارسی English
روابط ایران-اسرائیل
نقشه موقعیت ایران-اسرائیل را نشان می‌دهد

ایران

اسرائیل

روابط ایران و اسرائیل از زمان تولد اسرائیل[۱] تا زمان انقلاب ایران در سال ۱۳۵۷ با اسرائیل هرگز به صورت روابط رسمی دیپلماتیک نبوده است.[۲] اما همواره روابط دوطرفه‌ی گسترده‌ی سیاسی، علمی، نظامی و تجاری بین دو کشور برقرار بود.[۳] بنابر اسناد منتشره از سازمان سیا «در زمان وقوع انقلاب ایران، انگیزه‌ی اصلی روابط اسرائیل با ایران در سالهای اولیه‌ی تاسیس، توسعه یک تفکر حامی اسرائیل و ضدّ عرب در میان برخی از صاحب‌منصبان ایرانی بوده است».[۴] پس از رخداد انقلاب ۱۹۷۹ ایران روابط ایران و اسرائیل شکل کاملاً متفاوتی به خود گرفت؛ به‌طوری‌که روابط رسمی و غیر رسمی به حالت تعلیق درآمدند.[۵] علی‌رغم اینکه در طول جنگ ایران و عراق اسرائیل مبادرت به ارسال سلاح و تجهیزات نظامی به ایران می‌نمود، برخی کارشناسان معتقدند اسرائیل یکی از مشوقان عراق برای تهاجم به ایران در دوران ابتدایی تشکیل حکومت جمهوری اسلامی بوده است.[۶]

تاریخچهٔ روابط سیاسی[ویرایش]

یهودیان در نزد کورش کبیر، اثر ژان فوکه (Jean Fouquet) در سال ۱۴۷۰ میلادی. یهودیان همواره بدلیل نجات آنان از بند اسارت در زمان هخامنشیان، برای کورش کبیر احترام خاصی قائل بودند.

در زمان پهلوی[ویرایش]

رضا صفی‌نیا، نماینده ویژه دولت شاهنشاهی ایران در اسرائیل، با لباس رسمی تشریفات، در حال ورود به منزل شخصی حییم وایزمن، رئیس‌جمهور اسرائیل در شهر رخووت، به مناسبت روز جشن استقلال اسرائیل در سال ۱۹۵۰ میلادی.

دولت ایران در زمان نخست‌وزیری محمد ساعد مراغه‌ای حدود ۱ سال پس از تشکیل اسرائیل (۲۳ اسفند ۱۳۲۸) این کشور را به طور دوفاکتو به رسمیت شناخت و سرکنسولگری خود را در اورشلیم دایر کرد[۷]. تا آن هنگام حدود ۵۰ کشور اسرائیل را به رسمیت شناخته بودند. اما محمد مصدق در ۱۵ تیر ۱۳۳۰ شناسایی اسرائیل را پس گرفت.[۸]

در دوران سلطنت محمدرضا شاه پهلوی، روابط ایران و اسرائیل، زائیدهٔ منافع مشترک ایران و اسرائیل از جمله رویارویی با قدرت‌طلبی کشورهای عربی منطقه خلیج فارس با خط مشی سیاسی پان-عربیستی، همانند جمال عبدالناصر و صدام حسین بود.[۹] در همین راستا اسرائیل به طور منظم تحرکات سیاسی مصر در میان اعراب منطقه، گزارش پیشرفتهای عراق در زمینه‌های گوناگون و گزارشهای مرتبط با کمونیست‌ها در ایران را در اختیار حکومت ایران قرار می‌داد.[۴]

مناسبات ایران و اسرائیل در زمینهای مختلفی گسترش می‌یافت. ولی عمده تبادلات صورت گرفته بین ایران و اسرائیل مربوط به معامله سلاح و تجهیزات نظامی بوده است. همانند آمریکا، اسرائیل نیز اساس معاملات خود با ایران را به فروش سلاح به ایران در ازای دریافت نفت از این کشور نهاده بود. اهمیت ادامه‌ی این رابطه در زمان تحریم صادرات نفت از جانب اوپک بیشتر آشکار گشت. دولت ایران در جریان جنگ هشت ساله با عراق بیش از ۵۰۰ میلیون دلار در سال سلاح از اسرائیل خریداری می‌نمود که همه نوع سلاح و تجهیزات نظامی را شامل می‌شد.[۴]

اسرائیل در زمان دودمان پهلوی کمک‌های بزرگی به مدرنیزه‌سازی کشاورزی، دفاع هوایی و گردشگری در ایران کرد. اسرائیل همچنین تعداد ۱۵۰۰ متخصص تعاونی‌های سازندگی در ایران را آموزش داد.[۱۰]

دولت اسرائیل با هدف تحکیم روابط ایران و اسرائیل، در سال ۱۹۵۸ میلادی، بخش فارسی رادیو اسرائیل را افتتاح کرد.[۱۱] امنون نتصر، آغازگر و مؤسس بخش فارسی صدای اسرائیل به زبان فارسی بود. در حیطه روابط تجاری، در سال ۱۹۷۳ اسرائیل ۳۳ میلیون دلار صادرات به ایران داشت. این مقدار در ۱۹۷۴ به ۶۳ میلیون و در ۱۹۷۷ به ۱۹۵ میلیون دلار رسید. در سال ۱۹۷۸، اسرائیل ۷٪ کل صادرات خود (بالغ بر ۲۲۵ میلیون دلار) را به ایران فرستاد.[۱۲]

مئیر عزری نخستين سفیر سياسی اسرائیل در ایران بود.[۱۳] در زمان سفارت یوری لوبرانی (Uri Lubrani) نماینده اسرائیل در تهران، بین سالهای ۱۹۷۴ تا ۱۹۷۹، اسحاق رابین، ایگال آلون، موشه دایان و شیمون پرز به کرات به ایران سفر نمودند و علی‌عباس خلعتبری نیز در سال ۱۹۷۷ رسماً به تل‌آویو سفر نمود.[۱۴]

هواپیمایی ال عال از سال ۱۹۶۰ به بعد،[۱۵] دارای پروازهای ثابت از فرودگاه بین‌المللی مهرآباد به فرودگاه بین‌المللی بن گوریون بود.[۱۶] هم‌چنین ساختمان مرکزی هواپیمایی ایران ایر توسط مهندسان اسرائیلی ساخته شد.[۱۷]

در سال ۱۹۷۵ ایران به قطعنامه ۳۳۷۹ مجمع عمومی سازمان ملل متحد که به موجب آن صهیونیسم مساوی نژادپرستی شمرده شد، رای مثبت داد.[۱۸]

تکنولوژی هسته‌ای و موشکی[ویرایش]

نوشتارهای وابسته: پروژه شکوفه

بنا به اسناد منتشر شده توسط نظام جمهوری اسلامی،[نیازمند منبع] دولت اسرائیل در سالهای قبل از انقلاب ایران در سال ۱۳۵۷ پیشنهاد تجهیز ایران به تسلیحات هسته‌ای را مطرح کرده بود. در این راستا در سال ۱۹۷۷ شیمون پرز قراردادی ۱ میلیارد دلاری با ایران به امضا رسانید که هدف از آن کار بر روی پروژه موشک‌های پیشرفته بود.[۴][نیاز به ارجاع دقیقتر] در دوران حیات اتحاد جماهیر شوروی و با توجه به مداخلات آن کشور در ایران خصوصاً عدم ترک آذربایجان و کردستان پس از جنگ جهانی دوم و اشغال افغانستان، سلاح‌های هسته‌ای و همکاری نظامی با آمریکا تنها راه دفع خطر به شمار می‌رفت.[نیازمند منبع]

همکاری در کردستان عراق[ویرایش]

در خلال سالهای ۱۹۶۵ تا ۱۹۷۵، ساواک و موساد همکاری مشترکی را در جهت حمایت کردن نیروی جدایی طلب کرد انجام دادند. این حمایت‌ها شامل آموزش، کمک مالی و جهت‌دهی فعالیت‌ها و عملیات‌ها علیه دولت مرکزی عراق بوده است. این فعایت‌ها با پشتیابانی فنی و مالی آمریکا همراه بود. پس از امضای پیمان ۱۹۷۵ الجزایر بین ایران و عراق، دولت پهلوی از ادامه این همکاری مشترک اجتناب کرد و اسرائیل به تنهایی این اقدامات را دنبال کرد.[۱۸]

پس از انقلاب[ویرایش]

راه پیمایی روز قدس - شیراز.

در تاریخ ۳۰ بهمن ۱۳۵۷، دولت انقلابی ایران در اولین موضع گیری رسمی خود، طی اطلاعیه‌ای، دستور اخراج ۳۲ کارمند اسرائیلی شعبه هواپیمایی ال عال از ایران را صادر کرد و خواستار قطع کامل روابط ایران و اسرائیل شد.[۱۹]

روز قدس، یک مراسم دولتی در ایران است که از یک‌سال پس از انقلاب ایران، در آخرین جمعه ماه رمضان و در حمایت از فلسطینی‌ها برگزار می‌شود.[۲۰]

زمان سید روح‌الله خمینی[ویرایش]

در زمان جنگ ایران و عراق[ویرایش]
نوشتارهای وابسته: عملیات اپرا
پس از جنگ[ویرایش]

روابط ایران و اسرائیل پس از جنگ ایران و عراق نیز ادامه یافت.[۲۱] در نوامبر ۱۹۸۹، پس از مرگ سید روح‌الله خمینی، وزارت امور خارجه اسرائیل، وزارت امور خارجه ایالات متحده آمریکا را مطلع ساخت که خرید نفت از ایران را از سر گرفته.[۲۲] و موشه شاهال، وزیر نیروی اسرائیل در سال ۱۹۹۰ در کنست اعلام کرد که دولت مطبوعش در معاملات نفتی با ایران دو و نیم میلیون دلار سود کرده.[۲۳] ایران البته وقوع هرگونه روابطی را تکذیب کرد.

در سال ۱۹۹۸، ناهوم منبار یک تاجر رده بالای اسرائیلی بدلیل فروش اسلحه و فناوری نظامی به ایران، به ۱۷ سال زندان محکوم گشت.[۲۴][۲۵] در جریان رسیدگی به پرونده وی در دادگاه‌های اسرائیل، بیش از ۱۰۰ شرکت اسرائیلی فاش شدند که با ایران در دههٔ ۹۰ میلادی روابط تجاری و نظامی برقرار کرده بودند، که بسیاری از آنان با اطلاع دولت انجام شده بود. این واقعه باعث بروز جنجال سرتاسری سیاسی در اسرائیل گردید.[۲۶][۲۷][۲۸][۲۹]

زمان سید علی خامنه‌ای[ویرایش]

قطع رابطهٔ کامل ایران با اسرائیل در زمان آیت‌الله خامنه‌ای نیز ادامه داشته‌است.

موضع‌گیری‌ها[ویرایش]

سید علی خامنه‌ای بارها قطعیت نابودی اسرائیل و آزادی فلسطین را داده‌است.

از جمله وی در خطبه‌ها نماز عید فطر ۱۳۸۷ گفت: « صهیونیست‌ها امروز رو به شکست اند و مسلماً دنیای اسلام آن روز را خواهد دید و امیدواریم همین نسل کنونیِ مردم فلسطین ببینند آن روزی را که فلسطین در اختیار مردم فلسطین، ملت فلسطین و صاحبان خانه قرار گرفته‌است و آنها بتوانند آنجا به ارادهٔ خودشان و آنچنانی که شایسته‌ی آن‌هاست، زندگی کنند.»[۳۰]

او در دیدار رمضان عبدالله در سال ۱۳۸۸ نیز گفت: «من به آیندهٔ فلسطین بسیار خوش بین ام و معتقدم اسرائیل در سراشیبی تند افول و زوال حرکت می‌کند و انشاءالله نابودی آن حتمی خواهد بود.»[۳۱] و چندی بعد در جمع شرکت‌کنندگان همایش غزه نیز در مقابل خاورمیانه جدید گفت: «فلسطین آزاد خواهد شد؛ در این هیچ شبهه‌ای نداشته باشید. فلسطین قطعاً آزاد خواهد شد و به مردم برخواهدگشت و در آنجا دولت فلسطینی تشکیل خواهد شد؛ در اینها هیچ تردیدی نیست؛ اما بدنامی آمریکا و بدنامی غرب برطرف نخواهد شد. اینها همچنان بدنام خواهند بود. شکی نیست که بر اساس حقایقی که خدای متعال تقدیر کرده‌است، خاورمیانهٔ جدید شکل خواهد گرفت. این خاورمیانه، خاورمیانهٔ اسلام خواهد بود»[۳۲]

هم‌چنین در نماز جمعهٔ روز درگذشت آیت‌الله خمینی گفت که صهیونیست‌ها در محاسبه‌شان اشتباه بزرگی کرده‌اند. وی با اشاره به حمله به لبنان و غزه و حمله به کاروان کمک‌رسانی غزه بیان کرد: «این اشتباه‌ها یکی پس از دیگری نشان‌دهندهٔ این است که رژیم غاصب صهیونیستی به نهایت قطعی خود -یعنی سرنگون شدن و ساقط شدن در درهٔ نیستی- دارد قدم به قدم نزدیک می‌شود.»[۳۳]

او در دیدار آزادگان نزدیک روز قدس سال ۱۳۹۱ نیز گفت: «همچنان که ستاره‌ی صبح امید درخشید، یک بار در انقلاب اسلامی، یک بار در جنگ تحمیلی، یک بار در زندگی شما آزادگان، در این قضیه هم قطعاً شفق امید خواهد درخشید و قطعاً فلسطین به دست مردم فلسطین برخواهد گشت و این زائده‌ی دروغی و جعلی از صحنه‌ی جغرافیا محو خواهد شد؛ در این تردیدی نیست.»[۳۴]

حملات تروریستی در آرژانتین[ویرایش]

در تاریخ ۱۸ مارس ۱۹۹۲ میلادی (۲۸ اسفند ۱۳۷۰) ساختمان سفارت اسرائیل در بوئنوس آیرس، پایتخت آرژانتین در اثر یک انفجار مهیب فرو ریخت که در جریان آن ۲۹ نفر از کارمندان سفارت اسرائیل و عابرین محلی کشته شدند و بیش از صد نفر زخمی گردیدند. دولت آرژانتین پس از انجام تحقیقاتی جامع، این انفجار و عوامل آن را به تروریست‌های تحت خدمت نظام جمهوری اسلامی ایران نسبت داد.[۳۵] دو سال پس از فروریختن ساختمان سفارت اسرائیل در بوئنوس آیرس و در تاریخ ۱۸ ژوئیه ۱۹۹۴ (۲۷ تیر ۱۳۷۳) انفجار مشابهی در ساختمان کانون همیاری یهودیان آرژانتین رخ داد که بر اثر آن، ۸۵ نفر کشته و بیش از سیصد نفر زخمی شدند.[۳۶]

در مارس ۲۰۰۷ میلادی و پس از مدت تقریباً سیزده سال، دولت آرژانتین با درخواستی رسمی به پلیس بین‌الملل، درخواست جلب پنج مقام بلندپایه نظام جمهوری اسلامی در ارتباط با انفجار آمیا را صادر کرد.[۳۷]

در تاریخ ۱۸ مارس ۲۰۰۹ میلادی، وزارت امور خارجه اسرائیل با انتشار بیانیه‌ای رسمی به مناسبت هفدهمین سالگرد انفجار سفارت اسرائیل در بوئنوس آیرس، مسئولیت این تعرض تروریستی را متوجه نظام جمهوری اسلامی ایران دانست.[۳۸]

زمان سید محمد خاتمی[ویرایش]

در شرایطی که ظن دست داشتن ایران در بمب گذاریهای آمیا، مرکز نظامیان آمریکایی در ظهران عربستان و حکم نهایی دادگاه میکونوس که رهبران ایران را مقصر ترور سه تن از کردهای ایرانی در آلمان دانست ایران را در آستانه حمله نظامی آمریکا قرار داده بود، پیروزی غیر متنظره محمد خاتمی و آغاز سیاست تنش زدایی او روابط ایران و غرب را تا حدود زیادی بهبود بخشید.[۳۹]

دولت خاتمی در آغازین روزهای خود (آبان ۱۳۷۶) میزبان اجلاس سران سازمان کنفرانس اسلامی در تهران بود.وی در اظهار نظری درباره اسرائیل اعلام کرد که اگر فلسطینیان موجودیت اسرائیل را بپذیرند ایران نیز با آنها موافقت خواهد کرد.[۴۰]

تعیین سیاست خارجی ایران توسط سیدعلی خامنه‌ای و ناتوانی (یا عدم تمایل) دولت خاتمی در اتخاذ موضعی مستقل، روی کار آمدن دولت جرج بوش و قرار دادن ایران در لیست محور شرارت، دستگیری عده‌ای از یهودیان شیراز به اتهام جاسوسی، برنامه اتمی ایران (که غرب و خصوصاً اسرائیل به شدت به آن مشکوک است) وضعیت را به روزهای قبل از دولت خاتمی برگرداند.

همچنین از مهمترین رویدادهای دراین دوره اتهام تلاش نافرجام ایران و حزب‌الله لبنان و برای ارسال یک کشتی (کشتی کارین-A) اسلحه برای عرفات بود. با اقدام نظامی اسرائیل در دریای سرخ کشتی (حاوی ۵۰ تن اسلحه) را توقیف کردند. گرچه ایران ارسال اسلحه را تکذیب کرد اما عرفات در نامه‌ای به مقامات آمریکا تلاش برای دریافت اسلحه از ایران را تایید کرد.[۴۱] دولت ایران خود را از ارسال اسلحه مبری دانست، با این حال جرج بوش ایران را در کنار کشورهایی همچون کره شمالی، لیبی و عراق در محور شرارت قرار داد.[۴۲]

زمان محمود احمدی‌نژاد[ویرایش]

ایران و اسرائیل امروزه روابطی خصمانه با یکدیگر دارند که گاهی تا حد تهدیدهای نظامی متقابل نیز پیش رفته‌است.[۴۳][۴۴] در ایران حتی نام بردن از دوستی با مردم (و نه دولت) اسرائیل به واکنشهای تند و خشمگین می‌انجامد.[۴۵] بارها رهبران جمهوری اسلامی خواهان محو و نابودی اسرائیل از روی نقشه جهان شده‌اند، [۴۶] در مقابل به گزارش بعضی از مطبوعات بریتانیا، اسرائیل طرح‌هایی برای «حمله اتمی» به ایران نیز آماده کرده‌است.[۴۷]

همچنین وزارت خارجه اسرائیل همواره تاکید داشته که «اسرائیل همیشه حساب ملت صلح طلب و آرامش طلب ایران را از حساب رژیمی که با گفتارها و کردارهای خویش موجب انزوای ایران می‌گردد» جدا دانسته‌است.[۴۸]

از موانع امروزی روابط ایران و اسرائیل می‌توان به واقعه دستگیری عده‌ای از یهودیان ایرانی در شیراز به ظن جاسوسی برای اسراییل که بازتاب‌های فروانی یافت، حمایت مالی و نظامی گروه‌های ضداسرائیلی همچون حزب‌الله لبنان و حماس، تشکیل نیروی قدس سپاه، اعلام روز جهانی قدس از سوی روح‌الله خمینی و برگزاری آن، خواندن اسرائیل با القابی همچون «رژیم صهیونیستی» و «رژیم اشغالگر قدس»، استقرار نیروی نظامی اسراییل در خاک ترکیه در استان وان در جوار مرزهای ایران، مخالفت سرسخت اسراییل با برنامه هسته‌ای ایران و سرنوشت نامعلوم ۴ دیپلمات ایرانی ربوده شد در لبنان که به گفته سید حسن نصرالله در زندان‌های اسرائیل نگهداری می‌شوند[۴۹] اشاره کرد.

حملهٔ نیروی هوایی اسرائیل به کاروان تسلیحاتی، برای حماس از طریق کشور سودان (که دارای روابط گرمی یا ایران است) در فروردین ۱۳۸۸ از سوی رسانه‌های جهانی به عنوان هشدار به ایران تعبیر شد.[۵۰]

در تاریخ ۲۶ آوریل ۲۰۰۹ میلادی، محمود احمدی‌نژاد در مصاحبه‌ای با شبکهٔ تلویزیونی آمریکایی ای‌بی‌سی، سیاست نظام جمهوری اسلامی ایران در مناقشهٔ خاورمیانه را تعدیل کرد.[۵۱] محمود احمدی‌نژاد مدّعی شد که نظام جمهوری اسلامی با چاره دو کشوری و به رسمیت‌شناختن کشور اسرائیل توسط فلسطینی‌ها بر اساس طرح دو دولت برای دو ملت مخالفتی ندارد.[۵۲][۵۳]

روابط اسرائیل با گروهک تروریستی جندالله[ویرایش]

در ژانویه ۲۰۱۲ منابع اطلاعاتی آمریکا ضمن افشای خبر ارتباط موساد اسرائیل با گروه جندالله از این موضوع که اسرائیل از هویت جعلی آمریکایی برای افسران اطلاعاتی خود بهره برده و به عنوان افسران دستگاه امنیتی آمریکا با جندالله در انگلیس تماس بر قرار کرده ابراز نگرانی و نارضایتی کردند.[۵۴]

زمان حسن روحانی[ویرایش]

با روی کار آمدن حسن روحانی به عنوان رئیس یازدهمین دولت ایران و افزایش امید بین‌المللی نسبت به حل بحران‌های مرتبط با ایران، اسرائیل از همان ابتدای امر نارضایتی خود را نسبت به این انتخاب ابراز می‌کرد و از سایر کشورها درخواست داشت نسبت به از سرگیری مجدد روابط دوستانه با ایران خوش‌بین نباشند و در پی یافتن راه حل نظامی برای مقابله با ایران هسته‌ای برآیند.[۵۵]

ایرانیان اسرائیل[ویرایش]

نوشتارهای وابسته: یهودیان ایران
یک نقاشی تبلیغاتی که بر روی آن از گفته‌های آیت الله خمینی «اسرائیل باید از بین برود.» نوشته شده است.

مهاجرت ایرانیان غالباً کلیمی به کشور اسرائیل از حدود هشتاد سال پیش آغاز شده و کماکان ادامه دارد. گفتنی است که بنابر آمار موجود بیش از ۱۳۵٬۰۰۰ ایرانی تبار در کشور اسرائیل زندگی می‌کنند که بسیاری از آن‌ها با وجود سال‌ها زندگی در اسرائیل، هنوز ایران را وطن و کشور نخستین و واقعی خود می‌دانند.و بر گفته صدای اسرائیل در حدود ۲۵۰٬۰۰۰ ایرانی و ایرانی زاده در اسرائیل زندگی میکنند.منظور از ایرانی و ایرانی زاده ایرانیانی که فرزندان آنها نیز با اتباع سایر کشورها ازدواج کرده‌اند نیز هست.[۵۶]

موشه کاتساو هشتمین رئیس جمهور کشور اسرائیل، نمونه‌ای از ایرانیان موفق در کشور اسرائیل است. وی که در شهر یزد در ایران و از یک خانواده کلیمی ایرانی متولد شده و در کودکی به همراه خانواده‌اش اسرائیل مهاجرت کرده، اولین ایرانی تباری در تاریخ ایران است که توانسته در پروسه و روند دموکراسی و انتخابات آزاد به بالاترین مقام سیاسی در کشوری جز ایران نایل آید.[۵۷][۵۸]

از ایرانیان معروف دیگر در اسرائیل می‌توان به دن حلوتز و شائول موفاز اشاره کرد.

روابط غیرسیاسی[ویرایش]


اسرائیل و برنامه هسته‌ای ایران[ویرایش]


دولت اسرائیل معتقد است که در صورت دست‌یابی حکومت جمهوری اسلامی ایران به ساخت سلاح‌های اتمی، موجودیت کشور یهود در خطر جدی قرار خواهد گرفت و این کشور اولین هدف حمله احتمالی اتمی ایران خواهد بود.[۵۹] بنیامین نتانیاهو، نخست‌وزیر کنونی اسرائیل که از وی به عنوان یکی از موافقان[۶۰] «حمله پیش‌گیرانه» اسرائیل به تاسیسات هسته‌ای ایران یاد می‌شود، بارها در سخنرانی‌های رسمی تاکید کرده است که «همه خطرها در مقایسه با خطر ناشی از هسته‌ای شدن ایران کوچک و بی‌اهمیت است».[۶۱]

در واکنش، دولت ایران بارها تاکید کرده است که به «سناریوی حمله» اسرائیل به ایران «پاسخی سنگین»[۶۲] و از طریق ارتش، سپاه و بسیج «سیلی‌های محکم و مشت‌های پولادین» خواهد داد.[۶۳]

ترور دانشمندان مرتبط با برنامه هسته‌ای ایران، تهاجم بدافزارها و ویروس‌های رایانه‌ای به تاسیسات هسته‌ای ایران و تهدیدهای مکرر مقامات نظامی و سیاسی اسرائیل در «حمله پیش‌گیرانه» به تاسیسات هسته‌ای ایران از موضوعات مورد مناقشه دو کشور ایران و اسرائیل در سال‌های اخیر بوده‌اند.

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

پانویس[ویرایش]

  1. کتاب The Israeli Connection: Whom Israel Arms and why نوشته Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi. ۱۹۸۷ ISBN 1-85043-069-1 ص۱۰
  2. The Israeli Connection: Whom Israel Arms and why. Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi. I.B.Tauris. 1988. ISBN 1-85043-069-1 pp.10
  3. The Israeli Connection: Whom Israel Arms and why. Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi. I.B.Tauris. 1988. ISBN 1-85043-069-1 pp.10
  4. ۴٫۰ ۴٫۱ ۴٫۲ ۴٫۳ by Johnathan Marshall, Peter Dale Scott, and Jane Hunter. «Irangate: The Israel Connection»(انگلیسی)‎. South End Press، ۱۹۸۷. p169. بازبینی‌شده در ۲ آوریل ۲۰۱۰. 
  5. انقلاب اسلامی ایران
  6. Tabarani, Gabriel G.. “CHAPTER XI IRAN VS ISRAEL:BATTLES OF IDEAS”. In How Iran Plans-to Fight America And Dominate the Middle East [چگونگی نقشه‌های ایران برای مبارزه با آمریکا و تسلط بر خاورمیانه]. بلومینگتون، ایندیانا: AuthorHouse. 243. ISBN ‎7-1832-4389-1-978. Retrieved 25 ژوئن 2012. 
  7. علیرضا ازغندی، روابط خارجی ایران (۱۳۲۰-۱۳۵۷)، تهران:قومس، ۱۳۸۴ پنجم، ص ۴۱۰
  8. علیرضا ازغندی، روابط خارجی ایران (۱۳۲۰-۱۳۵۷)، تهران:قومس، ۱۳۸۴ پنجم، ص ۴۱۱
  9. کتاب The Israeli Connection: Whom Israel Arms and why نوشته Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi. ۱۹۸۷. ISBN 1-85043-069-1 ص۹-۱۰
  10. The Israeli Connection: Whom Israel Arms and why. Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi. I.B.Tauris. 1988. ISBN 1-85043-069-1 pp.10
  11. یادواره پروفسور امنون نتصر - استاد ایران‌شناس در کالیفرنیا با شرکت بزرگان جامعه برگزار شد, وزارت امور خارجه اسرائیل
  12. The Israeli Connection: Whom Israel Arms and why. Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi. I.B.Tauris. 1988. ISBN 1-85043-069-1 pp.12
  13. اسرائیل شصت ساله و رابطه با ایران، رادیو فردا
  14. کتاب The Israeli Connection: Whom Israel Arms and why نوشته Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi. ۱۹۸۷. ISBN 1-85043-069-1 ص۱۰
  15. The Israeli Connection: Whom Israel Arms and why. Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi. I.B.Tauris. 1988. ISBN 1-85043-069-1 pp.12
  16. سخنگوی دولت اولمرت در برنامه رادیو اسرائیل: «سود دو ملت ایران و اسرائیل آن است که در برابر تندروی مذهبی بایستند و نگذارند ترور پیروز شود»، وزارت امور خارجه اسرائیل
  17. Google Earth reveals Star of David on roof of Iran Air HQ, The Jerusalem Post
  18. ۱۸٫۰ ۱۸٫۱ BY TRITA PARSI. «Treacherous Alliance: The Secret Dealings of Israel, Iran, and the U.S.»(انگلیسی)‎. انتشارات دانشگاه ییل، ۲۰۰۷. بازبینی‌شده در ۳ آوریل ۲۰۱۰. 
  19. امروز در تاریخ (آفتاب)
  20. رفسنجانی خواستار حضور مردم در راهپیمایی روز قدس, بی‌بی‌سی فارسی
  21. Political Dictionary of the State of Israel: Supplement 1987-1993. Susan Hattis Rolef. Maxwell Macmillan International. 1993. ISBN 0-02-897193-0. pp.157
  22. State Department: Israel Informed U.S. about resuming oil purchases from Iran. Jerusalem Post. Dec 20, 1989.
  23. IDF Radio says Israel made 2.5 million Dollar profit in oil deal with Iran. BBC. Feb 22, 1990.
  24. CNN - Israel gripped by swirl surrounding treason trial - July 16, 1998
  25. Israeli Linked To Iran Arms Ordered Jailed - The New York Times
  26. Manbar: victim of Israeli-Iranian covert relations
  27. What Israel’s Top-Secret Manbar Trial Reveals About Extensive, Ongoing Israeli Arms Dealing With Iran
  28. Israel: Manbar Reveals More Weapons Deals with Iran
  29. Israel / Iran
  30. «خطبه‌های نماز عید سعید فطر». پایگاه حفظ و نشر آثار حضرت آیت‌الله العظما خامنه‌ای، ۱۰ مهر ۱۳۸۷. 
  31. «دیدار دکتر رمضان عبدالله دبیرکل جهاد اسلامی فلسطین و هیأت همراه با رهبر انقلاب». پایگاه حفظ و نشر آثار حضرت آیت‌الله العظما خامنه‌ای، ۱۸ بهمن ۱۳۸۸. 
  32. «بیانات در ديدار شركت كنندگان در افتتاحيهى همايش غزه». پایگاه حفظ و نشر آثار حضرت آیت‌الله العظما خامنه‌ای، ۸ اسفند ۱۳۸۸. 
  33. «خطبه‌های نماز جمعه‌ی تهران در حرم امام خمینی (ره)». پایگاه حفظ و نشر آثار حضرت آیت‌الله العظما خامنه‌ای، ۱۴ خرداد ۱۳۸۹. 
  34. «بیانات در دیدار جمعی از آزادگان». پایگاه حفظ و نشر آثار حضرت آیت‌الله العظما خامنه‌ای، ۲۵ مرداد ۱۳۹۱. 
  35. اسرائیل: حکومت ایران عامل انفجار سفارت ما در آرژانتین بود (وزارت امور خارجه اسرائیل)
  36. «بررسی اجمالی پرونده آمیا (خبرگزاری ایرنا)». بازبینی‌شده در ۲۷ سپتامبر ۲۰۰۷. 
  37. رای گیری برای صدور «اخطار قرمز» برای پنج ایرانی (رادیو فردا)
  38. اسرائیل: حکومت ایران عامل انفجار سفارت ما در آرژانتین بود (وزارت امور خارجه اسرائیل)
  39. موقعیت بین‌المللی جمهوری اسلامی ایران، پیش از حماسه دوم خرداد. . گویا نیوز به نقل از روزنامه کارگزاران، ۲۳ شهریور ۱۳۸۷.  بازیابی‌شده در ۱ آوریل ۲۰۰۹.
  40. Just How Far Did They Go, Those Words Against Israel?وبگاه نیویورک تایمز
  41. مقامات اسراییلی ۸ ملوان مصری را آزاد کردند. . صدای آمریکا، ۱۵/۱۰/۲۰۰۲.  بازیابی‌شده در ۱ آوریل ۲۰۰۹.
  42. گفتگوی اختصاصی امروز با گری سیک مشاور امنیت ملی کارتر درباره انتخابات ایران. . گویا نیوز، ۲۶ خرداد ۱۳۸۴.  بازیابی‌شده در ۱ آوریل ۲۰۰۹.
  43. پیشنهاد اسرائیل برای تجهیز ایران به سلاح‌های اتمی شریف نیوز، ۱۵ بهمن ۱۳۸۶
  44. اسرائیل تهدید کرد: ایران را نابود می‌کنیم! حمله به ایران جدی می‌شود؟ عصر ایران
  45. روزنامه کارگزاران - Kargozaaran Newspaper - هزار بار مرگ بر اسرائیل
  46. BBCPersian.com انتقادها از اظهارات تازه احمدی نژاد درباره اسرائیل بی‌بی‌سی فارسی
  47. «روزنامه‌های بریتانیا یکشنبه ۷ ژانویه». BBC فارسی، ۱۳۸۵/۱۰/۱۷. بازبینی‌شده در ۲۰۰۷/می/۱۵. 
  48. وب سایت وزارت خارجه اسرائیل به زبان فارسی بی‌بی‌سی فارسی
  49. مقاومت اسلامی لبنان - سید حسن نصرالله امروز درباره آزادی اسیران لبنانی سخن می‌گوید::
  50. چگونه اسرائیل کاروان ایرانی را در سودان نابود کرد؟. . ریا نووستی، ۱۱ فروردین ۱۳۸۸.  بازیابی‌شده در ۱ آوریل ۲۰۰۹.
  51. ایران راه حل دو دولت فلسطینی و اسرائیلی را می‌پذیرد (دویچه وله فارسی)
  52. متن کامل مصاحبه (شبکه‌ای‌بی‌سی)
  53. حمایت احمدی‌نژاد از صلح با اسرائیل و بروز علایم دیپلماسی پرتقال (العربیه فارسی)
  54. کشمکش بر سر رابطه موساد و جندالله بی‌بی‌سی فارسی
  55. Foroohar, Kambiz. “Rohani Victory May Curb Support for Israeli Attack on Iran”. bloomberg, Jun 17, 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2013. 
  56. پرپنچی، مهدی. «چرا سفر به سرزمین مگو؟». بی‌بی‌سی فارسی، ۱۱ مه ۲۰۰۷. بازبینی‌شده در ۲۶ ژوئن ۲۰۱۳. 
  57. محکومیت رئیس‌جمهور پیشین اسرائیل به حبس، بی‌بی‌سی فارسی
  58. رئیس‌جمهور پیشین اسرائیل به هفت سال زندان محکوم شد، دویچه‌وله فارسی
  59. Robert Grenier. «Nuclear dilemma: Israel vs. Iran». english aljazeera، ۲۹ نوامبر ۲۰۱۰. بازبینی‌شده در ۲۱ آوریل ۲۰۱۱. 
  60. Netanyahu on Iran: 'None of us can afford to wait much longer', The Guardian
  61. گزارش رسانه‌های اسرائیلی از شنیده‌شدن «صدای پای جنگ» علیه ایران، رادیو فردا
  62. رئیس پیشین موساد: «خطر حمله اسرائیل به ایران جدی است»، بی‌بی‌سی فارسی
  63. رهبر ایران به آمریکا و اسرائیل در مورد حمله احتمالی هشدار داد، بی‌بی‌سی فارسی

پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]

Iranian–Israeli relations
Map indicating locations of Iran and Israel

Iran

Israel

Iranian–Israeli relations can be divided into four major phases: composing period between 1947-1953, friendly period during the era of the Pahlavi dynasty, worsening period since the 1979 Iranian Revolution to 1990, and finally hostility since the end of the First Gulf War. In 1947, Iran was among 13 countries that voted against the UN Partition Plan for Palestine. Two years later, Iran also voted against Israel's admission to the United Nations, and showed tacit solidarity with the Arab states during the 1948 Palestine war. Nevertheless, Iran was the second Muslim-majority country to recognize Israel as a sovereign nation after Turkey. After the 1953 coup d'état, which brought pro-Western Mohammad Reza Pahlavi to power, relations between the two countries significantly improved. After the 1979 Revolution, Iran severed all diplomatic and commercial ties with Israel, and its government does not recognize the legitimacy of Israel as a state.

The turning point from cold peace toward hostility occurred in the early 1990s, shortly after the collapse of the Soviet Union and defeat of the Iraqi Army during Desert Storm, after which distribution of relative power shifted towards Iran and Israel and formed a nascent bipolar structure in the Middle East. The conflict escalated in the early 1990s, as Yitzhak Rabin's government adopted a more aggressive posture on Iran.[1] Rhetorical conflict additionally heated up during the presidency of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, who made inflammatory statements against Israel. Factors which have contributed to the escalation of tensions also include Iranian development of nuclear technology, Iranian funding of the groups like Hezbollah, Islamic Jihad and Hamas and alleged involvement in terrorist attacks such as the 1992 AMIA bombing, alleged Israeli support for groups like PMOI or Jundallah and alleged covert operations in Iran including assassinations and explosions.[2]

Country comparison

Iran Iran Israel Israel
Populations 77,176,930 8,051,200
Area 1,648,195 km² (636,372 sq mi) 20,770/22,072 km² (8,019/8,522 sq mi)
Population density 48/km² (124/sq mi) 359/km² (930/sq mi)
Capital Tehran Jerusalem (disputed)
Largest city Tehran Jerusalem (disputed)
Government Unitary state, Islamic republic Parliamentary, democracy
Current leader Hassan Rouhani Benjamin Netanyahu
Official languages Persian Hebrew, Arabic
Main religions Shia Islam 90–95%[3][4] Sunni Islam 4–8%[5] Christianity 1% Judaism 0.9%. Judaism 75% Islam 15% (mostly Sunni) Christianity 7% Druze 3%
GDP (nominal) $482.445 billion ($5,039 per capita) $272.737 billion ($34,651 per capita)
GDP (PPP) $990.219 billion ($12,803 per capita) $274.504 billion ($34,875 per capita)
Military expenditures $7.463 billion (1.8% of GDP) $15.209 billion (6.5% of GDP)

Timeline of relations

Biblical

Cyrus the Great releases Jews from the Babylonian captivity to resettle and rebuild Jerusalem. Jean Fouquet, 1470.

The beginnings of Jewish history in Iran date back to late Biblical times. The biblical books of Isaiah, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, Chronicles, and Esther contain references to the life and experiences of Jews in Persia. In the book of Ezra, the Persian king Cyrus the Great is credited with permitting and enabling the Jews to return to Jerusalem and rebuild their Temple; its reconstruction was carried out "according to the decree of Cyrus, and Darius, and Artaxerxes king of Persia" (Ezra 6:14). This great event in Jewish history took place in the late sixth century BC, by which time there was a well-established and influential Jewish community in Persia. Persian Jews have lived in the territories of today's Iran for over 2,700 years, since the first Jewish diaspora when Shalmaneser V conquered the (Northern) Kingdom of Israel (722 BC) and sent the Israelites into captivity at Khorasan. In 586 BC, the Babylonians expelled large populations of Jews from Judea to the Babylonian captivity. Jews who migrated to ancient Persia mostly lived in their own communities.

The Jewish Bible's Ketuvim ends in Second Chronicles with the decree of Cyrus, which returned the exiles to the Promised Land from Babylon along with a commission to rebuild the temple.

'Thus saith Cyrus, king of Persia: All the kingdoms of the earth hath Yahweh, the God of heaven, given me; and He hath charged me to build Him a house in Jerusalem, which is in Judah. Whosoever there is among you of all His people — may Yahweh, his God, be with him — let him go there.' (2 Chronicles 36:23)

This edict is also fully reproduced in the Book of Ezra.

"In the first year of King Cyrus, Cyrus the king issued a decree: 'Concerning the house of God at Jerusalem, let the temple, the place where sacrifices are offered, be rebuilt and let its foundations be retained, its height being 60 cubits and its width 60 cubits; with three layers of huge stones and one layer of timbers. And let the cost be paid from the royal treasury. Also let the gold and silver utensils of the house of God, which Nebuchadnezzar took from the temple in Jerusalem and brought to Babylon, be returned and brought to their places in the temple in Jerusalem; and you shall put them in the house of God.' (Ezra 6:3-5)

As a result of Cyrus's policies, the Jews honored him as a dignified and righteous king. However, there is no evidence that the declaration reflected a unique attitude towards Jews. Rather, it may have been part of his renowned tolerance towards the cultures and religions of the people under his rule.

Cyrus ordered rebuilding the Second Temple in the same place as the first; however, he died before it was completed. Darius the Great came to power in the Persian empire and ordered the completion of the temple. According to the Bible, the prophets Haggai and Zechariah urged this work. The temple was ready for consecration in the spring of 515 BCE, more than twenty years after the Jews' return to Jerusalem.

Israeli independence to Iranian revolution (1947–79)

In 1947, Iran was one of the eleven nations selected to form a Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP) to recommend a resolution to the issue of the Palestine Mandate. After much deliberation the committee presented a Partition plan for Palestine, which had the support of eight out of eleven members of the committee. Iran along with India and Yugoslavia opposed the plan, predicting it would lead to an escalation of violence. Maintaining that peace could only be established through a single federal state, Iran voted against the partition plan when it was adopted by the UN General assembly. The Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, predicted that the partition would lead to generations of fighting.

From the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948 until the Iranian Revolution and the fall of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1979, Israel and Iran maintained close ties. Iran was the second Muslim-majority country to recognize Israel[6] as a sovereign nation after Turkey.[7][8] Israel viewed Iran as a natural ally as a non-Arab power on the edge of the Arab world, in accordance with David Ben Gurion's concept of an alliance of the periphery. Israel had a permanent delegation in Tehran which served as an unofficial de facto embassy.[9]

Iranian minister Reza Saffinia arriving at the house of Israeli president Chaim Weizmann in Rehovot on Yom Ha'atzmaut, 1950.

After the Six-Day War, Iran supplied Israel with a significant portion of its oil needs and Iranian oil was shipped to European markets via the joint Israeli-Iranian Eilat-Ashkelon pipeline.[10][11] Brisk trade between the countries continued until 1979.[12] Israeli construction firms and engineers were active in Iran. Iranian-Israeli military links and projects were kept secret, but they are believed to have been wide-ranging,[13] for example the joint military project Project Flower (1977–79), an Iranian-Israeli attempt to develop a new missile.[14][15]

Under Khomeini (1979–89)

During Ayatollah Khomeini's campaign to overthrow Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Israel, which had relatively warm relations with the Shah, became an issue. Khomeini declared Israel an "enemy of Islam" and 'The Little Satan'[16] - the United States was called 'The Great Satan'.

In the immediate aftermath of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which witnessed the establishment of the Islamic Republic, Iran cut off all official relations; official statements, state institutes, events and sanctioned initiatives adopted a sharp anti-Zionist stance. The Israeli embassy in Tehran was also closed on 14 February.[17][18]

According to Trita Parsi, author of Treacherous Alliance - The Secret Dealings of Israel, Iran and the United States, (Yale University Press, 2007), Iran's strategic imperatives compelled the Khomeini government to maintain clandestine ties to Israel, while hope that the periphery doctrine could be resurrected motivated the Jewish State's assistance to Iran.[citation needed]

Israeli logistical support for Iran during the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988)

Israel sold Iran US$75 million worth of arms from stocks of Israel Military Industries, Israel Aircraft Industries and Israel Defense Forces stockpiles, in their Operation Seashell in 1981.[19] Materiel included 150 M-40 antitank guns with 24,000 shells for each gun, spare parts for tank and aircraft engines, 106 mm, 130 mm, 203 mm and 175 mm shells and TOW missiles. This material was transported first by air by Argentine airline Transporte Aéreo Rioplatense and then by ship.

Arms sales to Iran that totaled an estimated $500 million from 1981 to 1983 according to the Jafe Institute for Strategic Studies at Tel Aviv University. Most of it was paid for by Iranian oil delivered to Israel. "According to Ahmad Haidari, "an Iranian arms dealer working for the Khomeini government, roughly 80% of the weaponry bought by Tehran" immediately after the onset of the war originated in Israel.[20]

According to Mark Phythian, the fact "that the Iranian air force could function at all" after Iraq's initial attack and "was able to undertake a number of sorties over Baghdad and strike at strategic installations" was "at least partly due to the decision of the Reagan administration to allow Israel to channel arms of US origin to Iran to prevent an easy and early Iraqi victory."[21]

Despite all the speeches of Iranian leaders and the denunciation of Israel at Friday prayers, there were never less than around one hundred Israeli advisers and technicians in Iran at any time throughout the war, living in a carefully guarded and secluded camp just north of Tehran, where they remained even after the ceasefire.[22]

Israel's support was "crucial" to keeping Iran's air force flying against Iraq. Israeli sales also included spare parts for U.S.-made F-4 Phantom jets. Newsweek also reported that after an Iranian defector landed his F-4 Phantom jet in Saudi Arabia in 1984, intelligence experts determined that many of its parts had originally been sold to Israel, and had then been re-exported to Tehran in violation of U.S. law.[23] Ariel Sharon believed it was important to "leave a small window open" to the possibility of good relations with Iran in the future.[24]

An Iranian stamp issued in memory of Suleiman Khater, who perpetuated the Ras Burqa massacre against Israeli tourists.

Increasing Tensions (1989–present)

Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei

Ayatollah Ali Khamenei in December 2000 called Israel a "cancerous tumor" that should be removed from the region.[25][26] In 2005 he emphasized that “Palestine belongs to Palestinians, and the fate of Palestine should also be determined by the Palestinian people”.[27] In 2005 Khamenei responded to President Ahmadinejad's alleged remark that Israel should be "wiped off the map" by saying that "the Islamic Republic has never threatened and will never threaten any country."[28]

On 15 August 2012, during a meeting with veterans of the Iran-Iraq War, Ayatollah Khamenei said that he was confident that "the fake Zionist (regime) will disappear from the landscape of geography."[29][30] In addition, on 19 August, Khamenei reiterated comments made by President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, which members of the international community, including the United States, France, European Union foreign policy chief Catherine Ashton, and United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-moon condemned,[31] during which he called Israel a "cancerous tumor in the heart of the Islamic world" and said that its existence is responsible for many problems facing the Muslim world.[32]

Rafsanjani presidency (1989-1997)

Khatami presidency (1997–2005)

Under reformist Iranian President Mohammad Khatami, elected in 1997, some believed Iran–Israel relations would improve. Khatami called Israel an "illegal state" and a "parasite,"[33] but also said in 1999 Jews would be "safe in Iran" and all religious minorities would be protected.[34] A report indicates that Iran tried in 2003 to initiate a rapprochement with Israel by recognizing its existence in a proposal to the United States. The report claims that Iran's peace proposal with Israel was not accepted by the United States.[35] In January 2004, Khatami spoke to an Israeli reporter who asked him on what grounds Iran would recognize Israel. This was believed to be the first time he had spoken publicly with an Israeli.[36] At the funeral of Pope John Paul II in April 2005, Khatami was seated close to the Iranian-born Israeli President Moshe Katsav, who is from the same province, the Yazd Province, as Khatami. Katsav said that he shook Khatami's hand and the two had a brief conversation about Iran. However, Khatami denied this.[37]

Ahmadinejad presidency (2005-2013)

With the election of Mahmud Ahmedinijiad, a hardliner of the Iranian politics, the relations of the countries became increasingly strained as the countries became to be engaged in a series of proxy conflicts and covert operations against each other.

During the 2006 Lebanon War, Iranian Revolutionary Guards were believed to have directly assisted Hezbollah fighters in their attacks on Israel. Multiple sources suggested that hundreds of Revolutionary Guard operatives participated in the firing of rockets into Israel during the war, and secured Hezbollah's long-range missiles. Revolutionary Guard operatives were allegedly seen operating openly at Hezbollah outposts during the war. In addition, Revolutionary Guard operatives were alleged to have supervised Hezbollah's attack on the INS Hanit with a C-802 anti-ship missile. The attack severely damaged the warship and killed four crewmen. It is alleged that between six and nine Revolutionary Guard operatives were killed by the Israeli military during the war. According to the Israeli media their bodies were transferred to Syria and from there, flown to Tehran.[38]

During and immediately after the Gaza War, the Israeli Air Force, with the assistance of Israeli commandos, was reported to have carried out three airstrikes against Iranian arms being smuggled to Hamas through Sudan, as Iran launched an intensive effort to supply Hamas with weapons and ammunition. Israel hinted that it was behind the attacks. Two truck convoys were destroyed, and an arms-laden ship was sunk in the Red Sea.[39][40] On 4 November 2009, Israel captured a ship in the eastern Mediterranean Sea and its cargo of hundreds of tons of weapons allegedly bound from Iran to Hezbollah.

In 2010, a wave of assassinations targeting Iranian nuclear scientists began. The assassinations were widely believed to be the work of Mossad, Israel's foreign intelligence service. According to Iran and global media sources, the methods used to kill the scientists is reminiscent of the way Mossad had previously assassinated targets. The assassinations were alleged to be an attempt to stop Iran's nuclear program, or to ensure that it cannot recover following a strike on Iranian nuclear facilities.[41] In the first attack, particle physicist Masoud Alimohammadi was killed on 12 January 2010 when a booby-trapped motorcycle parked near his car exploded. On 12 October 2010, an explosion occurred at an IRGC military base near the city of Khorramabad, killing 18 soldiers.[42] On 29 November 2010, two senior Iranian nuclear scientists, Majid Shahriari and Fereydoon Abbasi, were targeted by hitmen on motorcycles, who attached bombs to their cars and detonated them from a distance. Shahriari was killed, while Abbasi was severely wounded. On 23 July 2011, Darioush Rezaeinejad was shot dead in eastern Tehran. On 11 January 2012, Mostafa Ahmadi Roshan and his driver were killed by a bomb attached to their car from a motorcycle.[43]

In June 2010 Stuxnet, an advanced computer worm was discovered. It is believed that it had been developed by US and Israel to attack Iran's nuclear facilities.[44] In a study conducted by ISIS it is estimated that Stuxnet might have damaged as many as 1,000 centrifuges (10% of all installed) in the Natanz enrichment plant.[45] Other computer viruses and malware, including Duqu and Flame, were reportedly related to Stuxnet.[46][47]

On 15 March 2011, Israel seized a ship from Syria bringing Iranian weapons to Gaza.[48] In addition, the Mossad was also suspected of being responsible for an explosion that reportedly damaged the nuclear facility at Isfahan. Iran denied that any explosion had occurred, but The Times reported damage to the nuclear plant based on satellite images, and quoted Israeli intelligence sources as saying that the blast indeed targeted a nuclear site, and was "no accident".[49] Hours after the blast took place, Hezbollah fired two rockets into northern Israel, causing property damage. The Israel Defense Forces reacted by firing four artillery shells at the area from where the launch originated. It was speculated that the attack was ordered by Iran and Syria as a warning to Israel.[50] The Israeli attack was reported to have killed 7 people, including foreign nationals. Another 12 people were injured, of whom 7 later died in hospital.[51][52] The Mossad was also suspected of being behind an explosion at a Revolutionary Guard missile base in November 2011. The blast killed 17 Revolutionary Guard operatives, including General Hassan Moqaddam, described as a key figure in Iran's missile program.[53] Israeli journalist Ron Ben-Yishai wrote that several lower-ranked Iranian missile experts had probably been previously killed in several explosions at various sites.[41]

In response to Israeli covert operations, Iranian agents reportedly began trying to hit Israeli and Jewish targets; potential targets were then placed on high alert. Yoram Cohen, the head of Shin Bet, claimed that three planned attacks in Turkey, Azerbaijan and Thailand were thwarted at the last minute.[54] On 11 October 2011, the United States claimed to have foiled an alleged Iranian plot that included bombing the Israeli and Saudi embassies in Washington DC and Buenos Aires.[55] On 13 February 2012, Israeli embassy staff in Georgia and India were targeted. In Georgia, a car bomb failed to explode near the embassy and was safely detonated by Georgian police. In India, the car bomb exploded, injuring four people. Amongst the wounded was the wife of an Israeli Defense Ministry employee.[56] Israel accused Iran of being behind the attacks.[57][58] The following day, three alleged Iranian agents were uncovered in Bangkok, Thailand, thought to have been planning to kill Israeli diplomatic officials, including the ambassador, by attaching bombs to embassy cars. The cell was uncovered when one of their bombs exploded. Police responded, and the Iranian agent present at the house threw an explosive device at officers that tore his legs off, and was subsequently taken into custody. A second suspect was arrested as he tried to catch a flight out of the country, and the third escaped to Malaysia, where he was arrested by Malaysian Federal Police.[59] Thai police subsequently arrested two people suspected of involvement.[60][61] Indian police arrested a Delhi-based journalist in connection with February’s car bomb, which injured four Israelis including the wife of an Israeli diplomat. Syed Mohammed Kazmi the journalist was arrested on 6 March 2012, he is said to have been in contact with a suspect police believe might have stuck a magnetic bomb to the diplomat’s car. It is said Kazmi was an Indian citizen who worked for an Iranian publication.[62]

In late February 2012, WikiLeaks published confidential emails from Stratfor, a US-based private intelligence company, which were stolen by the hacking group Anonymous. Among the information released was a claim that Israeli commandos, in collaboration with Kurdish fighters, destroyed several underground Iranian facilities used for nuclear and defense research projects.[63] Khamenei has accused Israel of helping Jundallah to carry out attacks in Iran.[64] According to a New Yorker report, members of the Mujahideen-e-Khalq received training in the U.S. and Israeli funding for their operations against the Iranian government.[65]

On July 18, 2012, a bus carrying Israeli tourists in Bulgaria was destroyed in a bombing attack that killed five Israeli tourists and the driver, and injured 32 people. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu blamed Iran and Hezbollah for the attack.[66] In July 2012, a senior Israeli defense official stated that since May 2011, more than 20 terrorist attacks planned by Iran and Hezbollah against Israeli targets worldwide had been foiled, including in South Africa, Azerbaijan, Kenya, Turkey, Thailand, Cyprus, Bulgaria, Nepal, and Nigeria, and that Iranian and Hezbollah operatives were incarcerated in jails throughout the world.[67][68][69][70]

On October 6, 2012, Israeli airplanes shot down a small UAV as it flew over northern Negev.[71] Hezbollah confirmed it sent drone and Nasrallah said in a televised speech that the drone's parts were manufactured in Iran.[72] On October 24, 2012, Sudan claimed that Israel had bombed a munitions factory, allegedly belonging to Iran's Revolutionary Guard, south of Khartoum.[73][74][75] In November 2012, Israel reported that an Iranian ship was being loaded with rockets to be exported to countries within range of Israel and that Israel "will attack and destroy any shipment of arms".[76] In January 2013, the Fordo nuclear plant was hit by an explosion. Iranian officials suspected Mossad or CIA were responsible.[77] On April 25, 2013, Israeli aircraft shot down a drone off the coast of Haifa, allegedly belonging to Hezbollah.[78]

On January 30, 2013, Israeli aircraft allegedly struck a Syrian convoy transporting Iranian weapons to Hezbollah.[79] Other sources stated the targeted site was a military research center in Jamraya responsible for developing biological and chemical weapons.[80] Two additional air strikes reportedly took place on May 3 and 5, 2013. Both targeted long-ranged weapons sent from Iran to Hezbollah.[81][82]

In the media

President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad

President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, in office since August 2005, at the October 2005 "World Without Zionism" conference in Teheran[83][84] adopted a sharp anti-Zionist stance. On December 8, 2005, during a summit of Muslim nations in Islam's holy city of Mecca, Ahmadinejad told Iran's Arabic channel Al-Alam a complicated story on the Holocaust and the establishment of Israel. Since then, the Iranian president has made statements pertaining to these topics.

Iran’s Ambassador to the IAEA, Soltanieh

In April 2006, CNN correspondent Wolf Blitzer interviewed Ambassador Ali Asghar Soltanieh, Iran’s Permanent Representative to the IAEA, who said, in regards to whether there should be a state of Israel, "I think I’ve already answered to you. If Israel is a synonym and will give the indication of Zionism mentality, no. But if you are going to conclude that we have said the people there have to be removed or we [said] they have to be massacred or so, this is fabricated, unfortunate selective approach to what the mentality and policy of Islamic Republic of Iran is."[85]

Vice President Mashaei

In a speech at a tourism convention in Tehran in July 2008, Esfandiar Rahim Mashaei, Vice President and Head of Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran, proclaimed, "No nation in the world is our enemy, Iran is a friend of the nation in the United States and in Israel, and this is an honor. We view the American nation as one with the greatest nations of the world."[86] He also added that Iran "wants no war with any country," insisting that Iran's actions during the Iran–Iraq War were purely defensive.[87]

Hard-liners close to the government harshly attacked Mashaei's remarks. President Ahmadinejad, however, defended Mashaei and spoke in his favor. At a news conference, he said, "The Iranian nation never recognized Israel and will never ever recognize it. But we feel pity for those who have been deceived or smuggled into Israel to be oppressed citizens in Israel."[86][88]

The issue prompted Iran's Supreme Leader Khamenei to "spell an end to the debates" on Israel. During a Friday sermon in Tehran, he stated, "It is incorrect, irrational, pointless and nonsense to say that we are friends of Israeli people... we are on a collision course with the occupiers of Palestine and the occupiers are the Zionist regime. This is the position of our regime, our revolution and our people."[86]

Ayatollah Ahmad Khatami

In August 2012, a senior cleric and Tehran's provisional Friday Prayers Leader Ayatollah Ahmad Khatami, speaking about Qods Day, called for the annihilation of the "Zionist regime," emphasizing that the spread of the "Islamic Awakening" in the Middle East "heralds annihilation of the Zionist regime."[89]

Brigadier General Gholamreza Jalali

In August 2012, Brigadier General Gholam Reza Jalali, who heads Iran's Passive Defense Organization, said ahead of Al-Quds Day that Israel must be destroyed, saying, "[Al-Quds Day] is a reflection of the fact that no other way exists apart from resolve and strength to completely eliminate the aggressive nature and to destroy Israel." Jalali added that the Muslim world is required to support the "oppressed people of Palestine" against "the Zionist usurpers" and that the Islamic Revolution was a "beacon of light." Jalali also said that the "Islamic front in Syria" had strengthened.[29][90][91]

In response to these remarks, an Israeli government official said that these remarks were a "reaffirmation of what we continually hear from the Iranian leadership" and that Israel was taking the Iranian threat seriously. The official said that the continual announcement of these remarks show how Iran's leaders believes in them, and that Iran's leadership must end these comments to reduce international pressure.[29][90]

General Mohammad Ali Jafari

On 22 September 2012, General Mohammad Ali Jafari, the commander of the Iranian Revolutionary Guards, said that eventually a war with Israel would soon break out, during which Iran would eradicate Israel, which he referred to as a "cancerous tumor."[92]

Cooperation

Business

In 1998, Israeli businessman Nahum Manbar was sentenced to 16 years in prison in Israel for doing business with Tehran, and in the course of the investigation, "hundreds of companies" were found to have illegal business dealings with Iran.[93] The fall-out reached the United States as some transactions were alleged to have been part of the Iran-Contra scandal. A controversy over Israeli-Iranian business links erupted in mid-2011. Israeli company Ofer Brothers Group was subject to U.S. sanctions after it was revealed that it sold ships to Iran via a third party, and that its ships also docked at Iranian ports.[94]

Ynet reported that Israeli-Iranian trade, conducted covertly and illegally by dozens of Israeli companies, totals tens of millions of dollars a year. Much of this trade is conducted through a third country. Israel supplies Iran with fertilizer, irrigation pipes, hormones for milk production, seeds, and fruit; Iran, meanwhile, provides Israel with marble, cashews, and pistachios.[95][96][97]

Military relations

Pre-revolution

Israel was involved in the arming of Iran during the Pahlavi dynasty:

  • Project "Flower" Tzur (see also Project Flower), a joint collaboration between Iran and Israel, aimed to develop a "state-of-the-art sea-to-sea missile, an advanced version of the U.S. Harpoon missile, with a range of 200 kilometers."[98]
  • Israeli Defense Minister General Ezer Weizmann and Iranian Vice Minister of War General Hasan Toufanian discussed the co-production of Israel's Jericho-2 missile, code named Project Flower.[99]

Khomeini era

The Observer estimated that Israel's arms sales to Iran during the Iran-Iraq war totaled US$ 500 million annually,[100] and Time Magazine reported that throughout 1981 and 1982, "the Israelis reportedly set up Swiss bank accounts to handle the financial end of the deals."[101][102]

According to the report of the U.S. Congressional Committees Investigating the Iran-Contra Affair issued in November 1987, "the sale of U.S. arms to Iran through Israel began in the summer of 1985, after receiving the approval of President Reagan."[103] These sales included "2,008 TOW missiles and 235 parts kits for Hawk missiles had been sent to Iran via Israel." Further shipments of up to US$2 billion of American weapons from Israel to Iran consisting of 18 F-4 fighter-bombers, 46 Skyhawk fighter-bombers, and nearly 4,000 missiles were foiled by the U.S. Department of Justice, and "unverified reports alleged that Israel agreed to sell Iran Sidewinder air-to-air missiles, radar equipment, mortar and machinegun ammunition, field telephones, M-60 tank engines and artillery shells, and spare parts for C-130 transport planes."[104][105] Israeli arms deals to Iran continued after the Iran-Iraq war, although sporadically and unofficially.[93][106][107][108][109]

Disputed issues

Iranian funding of Hamas and Hezbollah

A mural in Tehran, Iran. The mural depicts the emblem of Lebanon's Hezbollah, and quotes the founder of The Islamic Republic of Iran, Ayatollah Khomeini, saying: "Israel must be destroyed"

Iran supplies political support and weapons to Hamas,[110] an organization committed to the destruction of Israel by Jihad[111] According to Mahmoud Abbas, President of the Palestinian National Authority, "Hamas is funded by Iran. It claims it is financed by donations, but the donations are nothing like what it receives from Iran."[112][113]

Iran has also supplied another enemy of Israel, the militant organization Hezbollah with substantial amounts of financial, training, weapons, explosives, political, diplomatic, and organizational aid while persuading Hezbollah to take an action against Israel.[114][115][116] Hezbollah's 1985 manifesto listed its four main goals as "Israel's final departure from Lebanon as a prelude to its final obliteration"[117] According to reports released in February 2010, Hezbollah received $400 million from Iran.[115]

Nuclear program of Iran

Iran threatening Israel

The nuclear program of Iran with its potential to develop nuclear weapons, together with the anti-Israel rhetoric of the President, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, and his desire for "the regime occupying Jerusalem" to "vanish from the pages of time," has led many Israelis to fear an eventual attack from Iran.[118][119]

In a May 2012 speech to a defense gathering in Tehran, Iran's Military Chief of Staff declared: “The Iranian nation is standing for its cause and that is the full annihilation of Israel.” [120]

In August 2012, Brigadier General Gholam Reza Jalali, who heads Iran's Passive Defense Organization, said ahead of Al-Quds Day that Israel must be destroyed, saying, "[Al-Quds Day] is a reflection of the fact that no other way exists apart from resolve and strength to completely eliminate the aggressive nature and to destroy Israel."[29][90][91]

In August 2012, a senior cleric and Tehran's provisional Friday Prayers Leader Ayatollah Ahmad Khatami, speaking about Qods Day, called for the annihilation of the "Zionist regime," emphasizing that the spread of the "Islamic Awakening" in the Middle East "heralds annihilation of the Zionist regime."[89]

On 21 September, at a military parade in Iran to mark the beginning of the Iran-Iraq War, and in which a new air defense system was unveiled, Amir Ali Hajizadeh, the Iranian air force chief, said that should a conflict between Iran and Israel break out, Israel would "manage the beginning of the war, but the response and end would be in our hands, in which case the Zionist entity would cease to exist. The number of missiles launched would be more than the Zionists could imagine.[121]

On 22 September, General Mohammad Ali Jafari, the commander of the Iranian Revolutionary Guards, said that eventually a war with Israel would break out, during which Iran would eradicate Israel, which he referred to as a "cancerous tumor."[92]

On 23 September, Hajizadeh threatened to attack Israel and trigger World War III, saying that "it is possible that we will make a pre-emptive attack" which would "turn into World War III." In the same statement, Hajizadeh threatened to attack American bases in the Middle East as well. Hajizadeh said that as a result of this attack, Israel would "sustain heavy damage and that will be a prelude to its obliteration."[122] On the same day, Deputy Commander of the Iranian Revolutionary Guards Brigadier General Hossein Salami said that while Iran isn't concerned by Israeli "threats" to strike Iranian nuclear facilities, such an attack would be "a historic opportunity for the Islamic Revolution to wipe them off the world's geographic history."[123]

On 2 October 2012, Hojjat al-Eslam Ali Shirazi, the representative of Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei to the Iranian Qods Force, alleged that Iran required only "24 hours and an excuse" in order to eradicate Israel. Shirazi alleged that Israel was "close to annihilation," and allegedly sought to attack Iran out of desperation.[124]

Iran's actions, nuclear program, and threats have been viewed by Dr. Gregory Stanton, the world's top expert regarding genocide and the founder and director of Genocide Watch, as having taken 6 out of 8 steps on the "path to genocide." Stanton urged the international community to take action against Iran and to isolate it, in order to "curb its genocidal intent." He said that "one of the best predictors of genocide is incitement to genocide... and I believe that is exactly what Iran is doing today." Incitement to genocide is a crime under international law. He stressed that it is important not to dismiss "the early signs" as "diabolical rhetoric or as a tactic meant to advance a different goal," and doing so would "enable the perpetrators." Stanton also said that Iran has classified and symbolized Israel via hate speech and an ideaology of exclusion, and has dehumanized Israel by portraying potential victim as "cancer" that should be wiped out. In addition, Stanton said that Iran has organized "fanatical militas," such as the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, while stifling dissent in Iranian society. He added that by denying a previous genocide, the Holocaust, by working on weapons of mass destruction, and through global terrorism, Iran has prepared for genocide.[125]

In January 2013, Iran warned that any Israeli attack on Syria would be treated the same as an attack on Iran.[126] After Israel attacked Syria, Iran simply stated that Israel would "regret this recent aggression".[127]

Israel threatening Iran

In November 2003 a Scottish newspaper claimed that Israel "warned that it is prepared to take unilateral military action against Iran if the international community fails to stop any development of nuclear weapons at the country's atomic energy facilities."[128] It cited then Israeli defence minister Shaul Mofaz stating, "under no circumstances would Israel be able to tolerate nuclear weapons in Iranian possession." In December 2005, a British newspaper claimed that the Israeli military had been ordered by then Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon to plan for possible strikes on uranium enrichment sites in Iran in March 2006, based on Israeli intelligence estimates that Iran would be able to build nuclear weapons in two to four years. It was claimed that the special forces command was in the highest stage of readiness for an attack (state G) in December of the following year. Ariel Sharon reportedly said, "Israel - and not only Israel - cannot accept a nuclear Iran. We have the ability to deal with this and we're making all the necessary preparations to be ready for such a situation."[129] Israeli military Chief of Staff, Dan Halutz, was quoted as responding to the question of how far Israel was ready to go to stop Iran's nuclear energy program with the statement "Two thousand kilometers."[130] Seymour Hersh says U.S. Department of Defense civilians led by Douglas Feith have been working with Israeli planners and consultants to develop and refine potential nuclear, chemical-weapons, and missile targets inside Iran.[131]

On 8 May 2006, then Israeli Vice Premier Shimon Peres said in an interview with Reuters that "the president of Iran should remember that Iran can also be wiped off the map," Army Radio reported.[132] Peres, a Nobel Peace Prize laureate, drew unusually stiff criticism from an analyst on Israel's state television, Yoav Limor, for talking of destroying another country.[133] In May 2006, IDF Chief of Staff Dan Halutz stated that Iran’s nuclear facilities can be destroyed, hinting at a possible plan to do just that.[134] Shabtai Shavit, a former chief of the Mossad, said Iranian atomic facilities could be destroyed within a year, but has not ruled out going that direction. Isaac Ben-Israel, a former general of the Israeli Air Force, said an attack could be carried out at any time but only as a last resort.[135] Iran's Shahab-3 missile exercises were conducted in early July demonstrating that Israel was within reach.

According to the New York Times, Israel sought help from the United States for a military attack against Iran.[136] Israel reportedly asked for bunker-busting bombs for an attack on Iran's main nuclear complex and for permission to fly over Iraq to reach Iran's major nuclear complex at Natanz. The Bush administration rejected the requests. According to the article, White House officials never conclusively determined whether Israel had decided to go ahead with the strike before the United States protested, or whether Prime Minister Ehud Olmert of Israel was trying to goad the White House into more decisive action before President Bush left office.[136]

On 27 July 2009, Israel’s Defence Minister Ehud Barak during a press conference with Robert Gates, the US Defense Secretary, in Jerusalem, warned Iran that a military strike on its nuclear facilities was still an option: "We clearly believe that no option should be removed from the table. This is our policy; we mean it. We recommend to others to take the same position, but we cannot dictate it to anyone."[137] The same day, Israel's Ambassador to US, Gabriela Shalev, during a special UN Security Council session held to discuss the situation in the Middle East, called Iran the "biggest supporter of terrorism." The Islamic Republic's nuclear program and its support of terrorism pose a threat to the entire Middle East."[138]

In 2010, Gabi Ashkenazi and Meir Dagan balked at Benjamin Netanyahu's preparations for a strike on Iran.[139]

On 5 November 2012, Israel's Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu reiterated his willingness to mount a unilateral attack on Iran's nuclear facilities even without US support.[140] This conflicts with experts' assessments that US support is needed in the form of the newer GBU-31 bunker busting bombs, which are required to penetrate some of Iran's reinforced nuclear facilities such as the Fordo site. Israel currently only has the GBU-28 bunker busting munitions, which are said to be insufficient. However, with the announcement by Netanyahu being made on the eve of the 2012 Presedential elections, tensions between the two allies are likely to rise.

In 2013, retiring defense minister Ehud Barak said that though it would be very difficult for Israel to operate alone, that Obama had ordered the Pentagon to prepare detailed plans for an American strike on Iran.[141]

Netanyahu said in September 2013 that President Hassan Rouhani is trying to acquire a nuclear weapon, and that his perception as a moderate makes him a "wolf in sheep's clothing."[142]

In January 2014, during a plenary session at the 9th World Economic Forum in Davos Switzerland, the President of Israel Shimon Peres said in response to a question about the threat of Iran's nuclear program that "Iran is not an enemy", and there are no historical hostilities between the two countries. In that regard he added: "I don't see a reason to spend so much money in the name of hatred".[143]

Speculations

On 26 May 2006, then Russian Defense Minister Sergei Ivanov reiterated Moscow's commitment to supply Iran with sophisticated anti-aircraft missiles. However Lockheed Martin Executive Vice President of F-35 Program Integration Tom Burbage indicated that once Israel has the F-35 it need not fear the S-300.[144]

In June 2008, Israel conducted a major military exercise that American officials speculated might be training for a bombing attack on Iran. A senior Pentagon official said one of the goals of the exercise was to send a clear message to the United States and other countries that Israel was prepared to act militarily: “They wanted us to know, they wanted the Europeans to know, and they wanted the Iranians to know,” the Pentagon official said. “There’s a lot of signaling going on at different levels.”[145]

The Bush administration did agree to sell a thousand GBU-39 standoff bunker penetrating bombs to Israel, but a strike against Natanz would require hundreds of these bombs.[146]

In a 2009 interview, American diplomat John Bolton argued that the Iran–Israel relationship had deteriorated to the point that it might be "wise" for Israel to preemptively attack Iran's nuclear research facilities. To destroy the facilities, while not a permanent solution to ending Iran's nuclear ambitions, he argued, might delay the progress of Iranian nuclear research for long enough that regime change could occur before the development of a nuclear weapon took place. He cited as an example the case of the apartheid government of South Africa, which renounced their efforts to pursue nuclear weapons after the Mandela government came to power.[147]

In April 2009, Army General David Petraeus said “the Israeli government may ultimately see itself so threatened by the prospect of an Iranian nuclear weapon that it would take preemptive military action to derail or delay it.[148] On 17 September 2009, Ze'ev Elkin said that the delivery by Russia of S-300 missiles may prompt Israel to strike Iran.[149] However in June 2010 Russia voted for UN sanctions to prevent the S-300 missile sale.[150]

The global price of oil is likely to increase suddenly and dramatically should Israel strike Iran's nuclear facilities. It is just as likely, although not to the same degree, that the price of oil will increase if Iran successfully develops nuclear weapons.[151]

Iran consistently claimed that its nuclear program is purely for civilian purposes, and that it has no intention of ever utilizing its peaceful nuclear program to develop nuclear weapons. During the course of Iran's recent history, specifically during the Iran-Iraq war, Iran has experienced significant outages of its commercial electricity grid. Iran has also continuously claimed that it intends to ultimately export part of the electricity produced by its nuclear reactors to its regional neighbors, as a way of diversifying its mainly oil-based economy to more diversified revenue streams.

German Defense Minister Thomas de Maiziere said in 2012 that an Israeli attack would be unlikely to succeed.[152]

Iran responding to Israel threats

Iran's former foreign minister, Manouchehr Mottaki declared that Israel was not capable of an attack and still recovering from the 2006 war in Lebanon.[135] The Iranian Chief of the Revolutionary Guards, Mohammad Ali Jafari said Israel was within the reach of Iranian missiles and Iran would close the Strait of Hormuz, cutting off two-fifths of the global oil supply.[135] Iran has the capability to close the Strait of Hormuz or impede traffic for a month or more, and any U.S. attempts to reopen it could escalate the conflict.[153]

According to Mohammad Ali Jafari "If Israel military aggresses against sovereignty and independence of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the country will use its right, established under international law which unequivocally establishes the right to defend its sovereignty by all lawful means available to it. Moreover, if such aggression is penetrated, the United Nations will be obliged to repulse such an aggression towards its sovereign member".[154]

On 7 February 2010, Iran's supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei said the destruction of Israel was assured. According to the Tehran Times, Khamenei told Palestinian Islamic Jihad leader Ramadan Abdullah Shallah, "Israel is going downhill toward decline and fall and God willing its obliteration is certain". Khamenei went on to call Israel "a symbol of atrocity, viciousness, and ugliness," and said the West’s "support for the Zionist regime is ineffective."[155] Former Iranian President Ahmadinejad’s chief of staff, Esfandiar Rahim Mashaei, said that if Israel attacked Iran it would be destroyed within a week.[156]

See also

  • The 35th Anniversary of the Rise to Power in Iran of Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini: Publish at the web site of Israel State Archives:

http://www.archives.gov.il/NR/exeres/E5D1F239-E308-4F5D-A725-3083E50EDA92,frameless.htm?NRMODE=Published

References

  1. ^ Menashri, David; Parsi, Trita (15 December 2007). "Israel i. Relations With Iran". Encyclopædia Iranica. New York. Retrieved 26 October 2013. 
  2. ^ Borger, Julian (11 July 2012). "New book claims Mossad assassination unit killed Iranian nuclear scientists". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 October 2013. 
  3. ^ Walter Martin (2003-10-01). Kingdom of the Cults, The. Baker Books. p. 421. ISBN 978-0-7642-2821-6. Retrieved 2013-06-24. "Ninety-five percent of Iran's Muslims are Shi'ites." 
  4. ^ Bhabani Sen Gupta (1987). The Persian Gulf and South Asia: prospects and problems of inter-regional cooperation. South Asian Publishers. p. 158. ISBN 978-81-7003-077-5. "Shias constitute seventy-five percent of the population of the Gulf. Of this, ninety-five percent of Iranians and sixty of Iraqis are Shias." 
  5. ^ CIA World Factbook. "Iran". Retrieved 7 August 2012. 
  6. ^ "Shah Censors Israel Relations". Retrieved 4 September 2011. 
  7. ^ Dahl, Brock; Slutzky, Danielle (2006). "Timeline of Turkish-Israeli Relations, 1949–2006". Turkish Research Program. Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Retrieved July 26, 2012. 
  8. ^ "Turkey and Israel". Smi.uib.no. Retrieved 2010-06-05. 
  9. ^ Raphael Ahren, The Times of Israel, 1 November 2013, Did Israel, under the shah, help start Iran’s nuclear program?
  10. ^ Ammann, Daniel (2009). The King of Oil: The Secret Lives of Marc Rich. New York: St. Martin‘s Press. ISBN 0-312-57074-0. 
  11. ^ Bialer, Uri. Fuel Bridge across the Middle East—Israel, Iran, and the Eilat-Ashkelon Oil Pipeline. In: Israel Studies, Vol 12, No 3 (Fall 2007)
  12. ^ Cohen, Amiram; Ashkenazi, Eli (April 27, 2009). "Iran and the Israeli 'citrus fruit conspiracy'". Haaretz. Retrieved July 26, 2012. 
  13. ^ "The Islamic Republic of Iran". Ynetnews. December 23, 2007. Retrieved July 27, 2012. 
  14. ^ "Iran". Nuclear Threat Initiative. November 2011. Retrieved July 26, 2012. 
  15. ^ For details on Iran's strategic reasoning during the 1970s, see "Israel and the Origins of Iran’s Arab Option: Dissection of a Strategy Misunderstood," Middle East Journal, Volume 60, Number 3, Summer 2006.
  16. ^ "Iran to examine Holocaust evidence". Al Jazeera. 3 September 2006. Retrieved 27 July 2012. 
  17. ^ Alavi, Bahram (April 1988). "Khomeini's Iran: Israel's Ally". Washington Report. Special reports. Retrieved 3 August 2013. 
  18. ^ Nikou, Semira N. "Timeline of Iran's Foreign Relations". United States Institution of Peace. Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  19. ^ Ronen Bergman, The Secret War with Iran, Free Press, 2008, p.40-48
  20. ^ Parsi, Trita Treacherous Alliance: The secret dealings of Israel, Iran and the United States, by Trita Parsi, Yale University Press, 2007
  21. ^ Phythian, Mark. Arming Iraq : How the U.S. and Britain Secretly Built Saddam's War Machine, p.20
  22. ^ Bulloch, John, The Gulf War : Its Origins, History and Consequences by John Bulloch and Harvey Morris, London : Methuen London, 1989, p.17
  23. ^ Scott, Peter Dale, The Iran-Contra Connection: Secret Teams and Covert Operations in Reagan Era, 1987, p. 173-174
  24. ^ Parsi, Trita Treacherous Alliance: The secret dealings of Israel, Iran and the United States, by Trita Parsi, Yale University Press, 2007
  25. ^ Pipes, Daniel (January 18, 2002). "Arabs Still Want to Destroy Israel". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 26, 2012. 
  26. ^ "Iran leader urges destruction of 'cancerous' Israel". CNN. December 15, 2000. Retrieved July 27, 2012. 
  27. ^ "Leader's Speech to Government Officials on the Eid-al-Fitr". khamenei.ir. November 4, 2005. Retrieved 2005. 
  28. ^ Edalat, Abbas (April 5, 2007). "The US can learn from this example of mutual respect". The Guardian. Retrieved July 26, 2012. 
  29. ^ a b c d Keinon, Herb; Paraszczuk, Joanna; (August 15, 2012). "Khamenei: The Zionist regime will disappear from the map". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved August 15, 2012. 
  30. ^ Cohen, Dudi (August 15, 2012). "Iran's Khamenei: Israel will eventually disappear". Yedioth Ahronot. Retrieved August 15, 2012. 
  31. ^ "Khamenei: 'Tumor' of Israel is world's biggest problem". AFP. Yedioth Ahronot. August 19, 2012. Retrieved August 19, 2012. 
  32. ^ Tepper, Greg (August 19, 2012). "Israel a 'cancerous tumor' and Middle East's biggest problem, Iranian supreme leader saysKhamenei reiterates statements made by Ahmadinejad on Friday, which the international community condemned". The Times of Israel. Retrieved August 19, 2012. 
  33. ^ "The Zionist Entity and Iran". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved July 27, 2012. 
  34. ^ "Khatami: Jews are safe in Iran". BBC News. 1999-06-14. Retrieved 2010-05-05. 
  35. ^ Porter, Gareth (May 26, 2006). "Iran offered 'to make peace with Israel'". Asia Times Online. Retrieved July 27, 2012. 
  36. ^ "Iranian leader talks to Israeli". BBC News. January 22, 2004. Retrieved July 27, 2012. 
  37. ^ "Iran denies contact with Israel". BBC News. 2005-04-09. Retrieved 2010-05-05. 
  38. ^ Iranian soldiers join Hizbullah in fighting
  39. ^ Three Israeli Airstrikes Against Sudan
  40. ^ Israel carried out 3 attacks on Sudan arms smugglers
  41. ^ a b Ben-Yishai, Ron (January 12, 2012). "Killing the brains". Ynetnews. Retrieved July 27, 2012. 
  42. ^ Yong, William (October 13, 2010). "18 Iran Guards Killed by Blast at Their Base". The New York Times. 
  43. ^ Meikle, James (January 11, 2012). "Iran: timeline of attacks". The Guardian. Retrieved September 23, 2012. 
  44. ^ "Legal Experts: Stuxnet Attack on Iran Was Illegal ‘Act of Force’". Wired. 25 March 2013. Retrieved 2013-05-07. 
  45. ^ "Did Stuxnet Take Out 1,000 Centrifuges at the Natanz Enrichment Plant?". Institute for Science and International Security. 22 December 2010. Retrieved 7 May 2013. 
  46. ^ "Spotted in Iran, trojan Duqu may not be "son of Stuxnet" after all". Retrieved 27 October 2011. 
  47. ^ Lee, Dave (4 June 2012). "Flame: Attackers 'sought confidential Iran data'". BBC News. Retrieved 4 June 2012. 
  48. ^ "Navy intercepts ship with Iranian arms bound for Hamas". Jerusalem Post. March 15, 2011. 
  49. ^ Blast at Isfahan damaged nuclear facility
  50. ^ Nisman, Daniel (November 29, 2011). "A message from Iran". Ynetnews. Retrieved September 23, 2012. 
  51. ^ Iran: 7 killed in steel factory blast
  52. ^ Iran: Factory blast death toll reaches 16
  53. ^ Iranian missile expert killed in explosion
  54. ^ Iran 'trying to attack Israeli targets in retaliation for scientists' deaths'
  55. ^ Stevens, John; Tree, Oliver (13 October 2011). "This is an act of war': U.S. vows action over bizarre Iranian plot to hire Mexican drugs cartel to kill Saudi ambassador in D.C. restaurant blast". London: Daily Mail. Retrieved October 21, 2011. 
  56. ^ Israeli missions in India, Georgia targeted
  57. ^ Netanyahu: Iran responsible for attacks on Israeli embassies
  58. ^ Israel embassy car blast: Indian intelligence hints at Iran's hand
  59. ^ Malaysia police arrest suspect in Bangkok blasts
  60. ^ Thai police: 2 more suspects in terror case
  61. ^ Thai official: Iran terrorists targeted Israeli diplomats
  62. ^ BBS News India (7 March 2012). "Indian journalist held for attack on Israeli envoy". BBC News India. 
  63. ^ "ISRAEL/IRAN - Barak hails munitions blast in Iran". Global Intelligence Files. WikiLeaks. February 27, 2012. Retrieved 2012-07-27. 
  64. ^ "Ahmadinejad: US behind terror attacks". Presstv.ir. Archived from the original on 20 July 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-19. 
  65. ^ "Report: U.S., Israel helped train Iranian dissidents". Haaretz. April 7, 2012. 
  66. ^ "PM Netanyahu's Remarks Following Terror Attack in Bulgaria". Yeshiva World News. July 18, 2012. Retrieved 2012-07-27. 
  67. ^ Eichner, Itamar (July 20, 2012). "PM reveals: South Africa attack against Israelis thwarted". Ynetnews. Retrieved 2012-07-27. 
  68. ^ Tait, Robert (April 23, 2013). "Iranian travelling on fake Israeli passport 'arrested in Nepal'". The Telegraph. 
  69. ^ "Nigeria nabs terrorists planning attacks on Israelis". Jerusalem Post. February 21, 2013. 
  70. ^ "Nigeria foils latest Hezbollah plot to attack Israelis". Jerusalem Post. May 30, 2013. 
  71. ^ IAF shoots down UAV in northern Negev
  72. ^ Hezbollah confirms it sent drone downed over Israel
  73. ^ "Khartoum fire blamed on Israeli bombing". Al Jazeera. 25 October 2012. Retrieved 25 October 2012. 
  74. ^ "Israeli jets 'bombed weapons factory in Khartoum', Sudan claims". Daily Telegraph. 24 Oct 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  75. ^ http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/oct/25/israeli-sudanese-factory-secret-war
  76. ^ "Report: Israeli spy satellites spot Iranian ship being loaded with rockets for Gaza."
  77. ^ "Tehran suspects Mossad in Fordo blast, says Iranian expat". Times of Israel. January 28, 2013. 
  78. ^ "IAF shoots down drone from Lebanon off Haifa". Jerusalem Post. April 25, 2013. 
  79. ^ "Israel strikes Syrian weapons en route to Hezbollah". Jerusalem Post. January 30, 2013. 
  80. ^ "Analysis: Syria center long been on Israel’s radar". Jerusalem Post. January 31, 2013. 
  81. ^ "'IAF strike in Syria targeted arms from Iran'". Jerusalem Post. May 4, 2013. 
  82. ^ Cohen, Gili (May 5, 2013). "'Israel overnight strike targeted Iranian missile shipment meant for Hezbollah'". Ha'aretz. Retrieved May 5, 2013. 
  83. ^ "Ahmadinejad: Wipe Israel off map". Al Jazeera English. October 26, 2005. Retrieved July 27, 2012. 
  84. ^ Dan Meridor: We misquoted Ahmadinejad. Al Jazeera, April 16, 2012. Retrieved January 20, 2013.
  85. ^ "Wolf Blitzer Interview With Vicente Fox; Interview With Hoshyar Zebari". CNN.com. April 2, 2006. Retrieved 2006-05-04. 
  86. ^ a b c Ramin Mostaghim (20 September 2008). "Ayatollah Ali Khamenei says Iran, Israel on 'collision course'". The Los Angeles Times. 
  87. ^ Dudi Cohen (19 July 2008). "Iranian VP: We are friends of the nation in Israel". Ynetnews. 
  88. ^ "Ahmadinejad clashes with Khamenei over VP". 22 July 2009. Retrieved 27 August 2013. 
  89. ^ a b "Senior Cleric: Regional Revolutionary Nations Able to Annihilate Zionist Regime". Fars News Agency. August 13, 2012. Retrieved August 14, 2012. 
  90. ^ a b c Keinon, Herb; Parazczuk, Joanna (August 15, 2012). "Senior Iranian official threatens Israel with destruction". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved August 15, 2012. 
  91. ^ a b Cohen, Dudi (August 15, 2012). "Iranian general: Israel must be destroyed". Ynetnews. Retrieved September 23, 2012. 
  92. ^ a b Goldman, Yoel (22 September 2012). "War with 'cancerous tumor Israel' will eventually happen, says Iranian general". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 22 September 2012. 
  93. ^ a b "Israel gripped by swirl surrounding treason trial". CNN. July 16, 1998. Retrieved July 26, 2012. 
  94. ^ Maor, Dafna; Coren, Ora; Melman, Yossi (May 29, 2011). "13 ships owned by Israel's Ofer Brothers have docked in Iran over past decade". Haaretz. Retrieved July 27, 2012. 
  95. ^ Petersburg, Ofer (May 31, 2011). "Israel-Iran trade ties thriving". Ynetnews. Retrieved July 27, 2012. 
  96. ^ Cohen, Dudi (May 29, 2011). "Iran in uproar over 'Israeli fruit'". Ynetnews. Retrieved September 23, 2012. 
  97. ^ Gindin, Thamar E. (June 27, 2012). "'Israeli cherries sold in Iranian markets'". Ynetnews. Retrieved September 23, 2012. 
  98. ^ Ronen Bergman, "5 billion Reasons to Talk to Iran," Haaretz (Tel Aviv), 19 March 1999; in "Israel's Outstanding Debt to Iran Viewed," FBIS Document FTS19990319001273, 19 March 1999.
  99. ^ "Minutes from Meeting Held in Tel Aviv between H. E. General M. Dayan, Foreign Minister of Israel, and H.E. General H. Toufanian, Vice Minister of War, Imperial Government of Iran," Top Secret Minutes from Israel's Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 18 July 1977, in Digital National Security Archive
  100. ^ Hunter, Jane (November 1986). "Israeli Arms Sales to Iran". Washington Report on Middle East Affairs (American Educational Trust): 2. Retrieved September 25, 2012. 
  101. ^ Lamar Jr., Jacob V.; Flamini, Roland; McGeary, Johanna; McWhirter, William (December 8, 1986). "From Many Strands, a Tangled Web". Time. Retrieved July 28, 2012. 
  102. ^ (For more on Israeli Hawk missile sales to Iran see Richard Johns, "Arms Embargo Which Cannot Withstand The Profit Motive," Financial Times (London), 13 November 1987)
  103. ^ "The Iran-Contra Affair". Jewish Virtual Library. American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Retrieved July 28, 2012. 
  104. ^ "Iran. Introduction". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved July 27, 2012. 
  105. ^ "Text of Russian 'October Surprise' Report". Consortiumnews. Retrieved July 28, 2012. 
  106. ^ "Israel: Manbar Reveals More Weapons Deals with Iran". The Risk Report (Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control) 2 (4). 1996. Retrieved July 28, 2012. 
  107. ^ "Israel/Iran". Voice of America. July 16, 1998. Retrieved July 28, 2012. 
  108. ^ Israel-Made Military Equipments for Iran Seized in Germany
  109. ^ What Israel’s Top-Secret Manbar Trial Reveals About Extensive, Ongoing Israeli Arms Dealing With Iran
  110. ^ "Cyprus: Ship violated UN resolutions". The Jerusalem Post. 30 January 2009. Retrieved 24 July 2012. 
  111. ^ The Avalon Project: Hamas Covenant 1988
  112. ^ "Hamas Signs Deal With Fatah, But Its True Partner Is Iran". Retrieved 24 February 2012. 
  113. ^ Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud 'Abbas: No To Violence, Terrorism, Gunfire, or Military Intifada
  114. ^ Jeffrey Goldberg (14 October 2002). "IN THE PARTY OF GOD Are terrorists in Lebanon preparing for a larger war?". The New Yorker. Retrieved 3 March 2007. 
  115. ^ a b Iran Massively Rearming Hezbollah in Violation of UN Security Council Resolution, American Chronicle, 28 March 2010
  116. ^ Background Information on Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations
  117. ^ Norton, Augustus (1987). Amal and the Shi'a: the struggle for the Soul of Lebanon. Austin: University of Texas Press. pp. 167–87. ISBN 0-292-73040-3. 
  118. ^ Greenblum, Benjamin M. “The Iranian Nuclear Threat: Israel’s Options under International Law.”, p. 3
  119. ^ Barany, Ronen (28 January 2012). היום האחרון [The Last Day] (in Hebrew, English). Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  120. ^ Iran committed to ‘full annihilation of Israel,’ says top Iranian military commander, The Daily Caller, 21 May 2012.
  121. ^ Goldman, Yoel (21 September 2012). "Israel will 'cease to exist' if it attacks, Iranian air force chief says". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 22 September 2012. 
  122. ^ Davidovitch, Joshua (23 September 2012). "Iranian general threatens pre-emptive strike against Israel". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 23 September 2012. 
  123. ^ Cohen, Dudi (23 September 2012). "Iranian Iran: Strike a chance to wipe Israel off map". Yedioth Ahronot. Retrieved 23 September 2012. 
  124. ^ Paraszczuk, Joanna (2 October 2012). "'To annihilate Israel we need 24 hours, an excuse'". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 4 October 2012. 
  125. ^ "Genocides, unlike hurricanes, are predictable, says world expert. And Iran is following the pattern". The Times of Israel. 18 September 2012. Retrieved 19 September 2012. 
  126. ^ "Why did Israel attack Syria now, and why did the Syrians admit it?"
  127. ^ "Iran says Israel will regret Syria air strike." Reuters, 4 February 2013
  128. ^ "Israel threatens strikes on Iranian nuclear targets". The Scotsman. 23 November 2003. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  129. ^ Israel readies forces for strike on nuclear Iran
  130. ^ Israel's War with Iran, James Petras, uruknet.info, December 28, 2005 - this has a quote apparently from the Financial Times
  131. ^ Annals of National Security: The Coming Wars The New Yorker, 24 January 2005
  132. ^ "Peres says that Iran 'can also be wiped off the map'". Dominican Today. 8 May 2006. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  133. ^ Peres: Iran nuclear policy could backfire
  134. ^ Spira, Yechiel (9 May 2006). "Peres Shifts World Attention to Iran". Arutz Sheva. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  135. ^ a b c "Iran warnt Israel vor Angriff auf Nuklearanlagen". Der Spiegel (in German). 29 June 2008. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  136. ^ a b Sanger, David E. (11 January 2009). "U.S. Rejected Aid for Israeli Raid on Iranian Nuclear Site". The New York Times. 
  137. ^ Israeli Defense Minister Barak to U.S.: 'No option' off table on Iran
  138. ^ Shamir, Shlomo (27 July 2009). "Israel: Iran the biggest supporter of terrorism". Haaretz. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  139. ^ Cohen, Gili. " 'Israel's security chiefs rejected orders to prepare for Iran strike in 2010'." Haaretz, 4 November 2012.
  140. ^ Rudoren, Jodi. "Netanyahu Says He’d Go It Alone on Striking Iran" 'The New York Times', 5 November 2012.
  141. ^ "Israeli Official Hints Pentagon Plans May Make Lone Strike on Iran Unnecessary ."
  142. ^ Watkins, Tom. "Netanyahu: Iranian president is 'wolf in sheep's clothing'". CNN. Retrieved 1 October 2013. 
  143. ^ Peres honored at Davos World Economic Forum. The Jerusalem Post 01/24/2014. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
  144. ^ Can the U.S. F-35 fighter destroy Russia's S-300 systems? UPI, 20 January 2009
  145. ^ Gordon, Michael R.; Schmitt, Eric (20 June 2008). "U.S. Says Israeli Exercise Seemed Directed at Iran". New York Times. Retrieved 23 June 2008. 
  146. ^ Katz, Yaakov (14 September 2008). "Israel slated to buy US smart bombs". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  147. ^ Stewart, Jon (29 July 2009). "John Bolton interview". The Daily Show. Comedy Central. Retrieved 27 June 2013. 
  148. ^ Capaccio, Tony (1 April 2009). "Petraeus Says Israel Might Choose to Attack Iran". Bloomberg. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  149. ^ nuclear program and supply of S-300 from Russia can bring the Israeli attack on Iran Kommersant
  150. ^ Russia: Sanctions ban S-300 missiles Jerusalem Post
  151. ^ Lord of War - Iran's nuclear program and the price of oil
  152. ^ "Germany: Israeli military strike on Iran unlikely to succeed." Haaretz. 12 February 2012.
  153. ^ Closing Time: Assessing the Iranian Threat to the Strait of Hormuz, International Security journal, Harvard Kennedy School Belfer Center
  154. ^ PressTV. 27 July 2009.
  155. ^ 'Israel’s obliteration is certain', Jerusalem Post 7 February 2010
  156. ^ Iran says can destroy Israel in week

Further reading

External links