رستگاری در قرآن[ویرایش]
در قرآن حدود ۴۰ بار از واژه فلاح (رستگاری) سخن گفته شده و در ضمن آیات مربوط از صفات و علائم رستگاران و سعادتمندان واقعی و اخروی سخن راندهاست که البته رستگاری از هر دو بعدش هم دنیوی و هم اخروی مدنظر بوده و از آنجا که حیات اخروی جاودانی و ابدی است از اهمیت بیشتری برخوردار میباشد.
رستگاری در مسیحیت[ویرایش]
اصطلاح رستگاری (salvation) در مسیحیت دارای معنایی ویژهاست. رهایی از قدرت گناه، حالت و وضعیتی که در آن انسان از گناه و مرگ آزاد میشود، تحقق برتری خدای نامتناهی بر تباهیهای پدید آمده از گناه، بیماری و مرگ؛ و سرانجام، به «آن عمل خداوند گفته میشود که برای بازگرداندن انسان به موقعیت اولی اش انجام گرفته است؛ موقعیتی که از آن به سبب گناه آدم هبوط کردهاست». به اعتقاد مسیحیان، انسان در آغاز آفرینش در کمال راستی و درستی بود، اما آدم (نخستین نمونه انسانیت) به معصیت خدا وسوسه شد و دامن خود را به گناه آلوده ساخت. بدین سبب، از آن جایگاه بلند هبوط کرد و در دنیایی خاکی گرفتار آمد. این امر تبار او را نیز به گناه ذاتی مبتلا نمود.
رستگاری در مزدیسنا[ویرایش]
رستگاری در ادیان هندی[ویرایش]
Salvation (Latin: salvatio; Ancient Greek: σωτηρία, romanized: sōtēría; Hebrew: גאולה, romanized: g'ulah; Arabic: الخلاص, romanized: al-khalāṣ) is being saved or protected from harm or being saved or delivered from a dire situation. In religion, salvation is the saving of the soul from sin and its consequences.
The academic study of salvation is called soteriology.
In religion, salvation is the saving of the soul from sin and its consequences. It may also be called "deliverance" or "redemption" from sin and its effects. Historically, salvation is considered to be caused either by the grace of a deity (i.e. unmerited and unearned); by the independent choices of a free will and personal effort (i.e. earned and/or merited); or by some combination of the two. Religions often emphasize the necessity of both personal effort—for example, repentance and asceticism—and divine action (e.g. grace).
Judaism holds that adherents do not need personal salvation as Christians believe. Jews do not subscribe to the doctrine of original sin. Instead, they place a high value on individual morality as defined in the law of God — embodied in what Jews know as the Torah or The Law, given to Moses by God on biblical Mount Sinai.
In Judaism, salvation is closely related to the idea of redemption, a saving from the states or circumstances that destroy the value of human existence. God, as the universal spirit and Creator of the World, is the source of all salvation for humanity, provided an individual honours God by observing his precepts. So redemption or salvation depends on the individual. Judaism stresses that salvation cannot be obtained through anyone else or by just invoking a deity or believing in any outside power or influence.
When examining Jewish intellectual sources throughout history, there is clearly a spectrum of opinions regarding death versus the afterlife. Possibly an over-simplification, one source says salvation can be achieved in the following manner: Live a holy and righteous life dedicated to Yahweh, the God of Creation. Fast, worship, and celebrate during the appropriate holidays. By origin and nature, Judaism is an ethnic religion. Therefore, salvation has been primarily conceived in terms of the destiny of Israel as the elect people of Yahweh (often referred to as “the Lord”), the God of Israel. In the biblical text of Psalms, there is a description of death, when people go into the earth or the "realm of the dead" and cannot praise God. The first reference to resurrection is collective in Ezekiel's vision of the dry bones, when all the Israelites in exile will be resurrected. There is a reference to individual resurrection in the Book of Daniel (165 BCE), the last book of the Hebrew Bible. It was not until the 2nd century BCE that there arose a belief in an afterlife, in which the dead would be resurrected and undergo divine judgment. Before that time, the individual had to be content that his posterity continued within the holy nation.
The salvation of the individual Jew was connected to the salvation of the entire people. This belief stemmed directly from the teachings of the Torah. In the Torah, God taught his people sanctification of the individual. However, he also expected them to function together (spiritually) and be accountable to one another. The concept of salvation was tied to that of restoration for Israel.
Christianity’s primary premise is that the incarnation and death of Jesus Christ formed the climax of a divine plan for humanity’s salvation. This plan was conceived by God consequent on the Fall of Adam, the progenitor of the human race, and it would be completed at the Last Judgment, when the Second Coming of Christ would mark the catastrophic end of the world.
For Christianity, salvation is only possible through Jesus Christ. Christians believe that Jesus' death on the cross was the once-for-all sacrifice that atoned for the sin of humanity.
The Christian religion, though not the exclusive possessor of the idea of redemption, has given to it a special definiteness and a dominant position. Taken in its widest sense, as deliverance from dangers and ills in general, most religions teach some form of it. It assumes an important position, however, only when the ills in question form part of a great system against which human power is helpless.
According to Christian belief, sin as the human predicament is considered to be universal. For example, in Romans 1:18-3:20 the Apostle Paul declared everyone to be under sin—Jew and Gentile alike. Salvation is made possible by the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus, which in the context of salvation is referred to as the "atonement". Christian soteriology ranges from exclusive salvation:p.123 to universal reconciliation concepts. While some of the differences are as widespread as Christianity itself, the overwhelming majority agrees that salvation is made possible by the work of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, dying on the cross.
Variant views on salvation are among the main fault lines dividing the various Christian denominations, both between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism and within Protestantism, notably in the Calvinist–Arminian debate, and the fault lines include conflicting definitions of depravity, predestination, atonement, but most pointedly justification.
Salvation, according to most denominations, is believed to be a process that begins when a person first becomes a Christian, continues through that person's life, and is completed when they stand before Christ in judgment. Therefore, according to Catholic apologist James Akin, the faithful Christian can say in faith and hope, "I have been saved; I am being saved; and I will be saved."
Christian salvation concepts are varied and complicated by certain theological concepts, traditional beliefs, and dogmas. Scripture is subject to individual and ecclesiastical interpretations. While some of the differences are as widespread as Christianity itself, the overwhelming majority agrees that salvation is made possible by the work of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, dying on the cross.
The purpose of salvation is debated, but in general most Christian theologians agree that God devised and implemented his plan of salvation because he loves them and regards human beings as his children. Since human existence on Earth is said to be "given to sin",[Jn 8:34] salvation also has connotations that deal with the liberation of human beings from sin, and the suffering associated with the punishment of sin—i.e., "the wages of sin are death."[Rom. 6:23]
Christians believe that salvation depends on the grace of God. Stagg writes that a fact assumed throughout the Bible is that humanity is in, "serious trouble from which we need deliverance…. The fact of sin as the human predicament is implied in the mission of Jesus, and it is explicitly affirmed in that connection". By its nature, salvation must answer to the plight of humankind as it actually is. Each individual's plight as sinner is the result of a fatal choice involving the whole person in bondage, guilt, estrangement, and death. Therefore, salvation must be concerned with the total person. "It must offer redemption from bondage, forgiveness for guilt, reconciliation for estrangement, renewal for the marred image of God".
According to doctrine of the Latter Day Saint movement, the plan of salvation is a plan that God created to save, redeem, and exalt humankind. The elements of this plan are drawn from various sources, including the Bible, Book of Mormon, Doctrine & Covenants, Pearl of Great Price, and numerous statements made by the leadership of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). The first appearance of the graphical representation of the plan of salvation is in the 1952 missionary manual entitled A Systematic Program for Teaching the Gospel.
In Islam, salvation refers to the eventual entrance to Paradise. Islam teaches that people who die disbelieving in God do not receive salvation. It also teaches that non-Muslims who die believing in the God but disbelieving in his message (Islam), are left to his will. Those who die believing in the One God and his message (Islam) receive salvation.
Narrated Anas that Muhammad said,
Islam teaches that all who enter into Islam must remain so in order to receive salvation.
For those who have not been granted Islam or to whom the message has not been brought;
Belief in the “One God”, also known as the Tawhid (التَوْحيدْ) in Arabic, consists of two parts (or principles):
Sin and repentance
Islam also stresses that in order to gain salvation, one must also avoid sinning along with performing good deeds. Islam acknowledges the inclination of humanity towards sin. Therefore, Muslims are constantly commanded to seek God's forgiveness and repent. Islam teaches that no one can gain salvation simply by virtue of their belief or deeds, instead it is the Mercy of God, which merits them salvation. However, this repentance must not be used to sin any further. Islam teaches that God is Merciful.
Al-Agharr al-Muzani, a companion of Mohammad, reported that Ibn 'Umar stated to him that Mohammad said,
Sin in Islam is not a state, but an action (a bad deed); Islam teaches that a child is born sinless, regardless of the belief of his parents, dies a Muslim; he enters heaven, and does not enter hell. Sahih al-Bukhari, 2:23:467
There are acts of worship that Islam teaches to be mandatory. Islam is built on five principles. Narrated Ibn 'Umar that Muhammad said,
Not performing the mandatory acts of worship may deprive Muslims of the chance of salvation.
Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism share certain key concepts, which are interpreted differently by different groups and individuals. In these religions one is not liberated from sin and its consequences, but from the saṃsāra (cycle of rebirth) perpetuated by passions and delusions and its resulting karma. They differ however on the exact nature of this liberation. Salvation is called moksha or mukti which mean liberation and release respectively. This state and the conditions considered necessary for its realization is described in early texts of Indian religion such as the Upanishads and the Pāli Canon, and later texts such the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali and the Vedanta tradition. Moksha can be attained by sādhanā, literally "means of accomplishing something". It includes a variety of disciplines, such as yoga and meditation.
Nirvana is the profound peace of mind that is acquired with moksha (liberation). In Buddhism and Jainism, it is the state of being free from suffering. In Hindu philosophy, it is union with the Brahman (Supreme Being). The word literally means "blown out" (as in a candle) and refers, in the Buddhist context, to the blowing out of the fires of desire, aversion, and delusion, and the imperturbable stillness of mind acquired thereafter.
In Theravada Buddhism the emphasis is on one's own liberation from samsara. The Mahayana traditions emphasize the bodhisattva path, in which "each Buddha and Bodhisattva is a redeemer", assisting the Buddhist in seeking to achieve the redemptive state. The assistance rendered is a form of self-sacrifice on the part of the teachers, who would presumably be able to achieve total detachment from worldly concerns, but have instead chosen to remain engaged in the material world to the degree that this is necessary to assist others in achieving such detachment.
In Jainism, salvation, moksa and nirvana are one and the same. When a soul (atman) achieves moksa, it is released from the cycle of births and deaths, and achieves its pure self. It then becomes a siddha (literally means one who has accomplished his ultimate objective). Attaining Moksa requires annihilation of all karmas, good and bad, because if karma is left, it must bear fruit.