دره شهر در دوره ساسانی یکی از پایتختهای ایران بوده واز دوره مس سنگی سابقه سکونت و شهری داشتهاست. این منطقه به لحاظ زمینشناسی یکی از بزرگترین ژئوپارکهای دنیا محسوب میشود و همچنین بزرگترین شهر تاریخی غرب کشور در این منطقه واقع شدهاست. دره شهر دومین شهر بزرگ استان بعد از شهر ایلام (به لحاظ گستره شهری) میباشد.[نیازمند منبع]به دلیل تعدد و فراوانی قلعههای تاریخی در محدوده شهرستان، این شهر به شهر قلعههای ایران نیز شهرت دارد.
درهشهر در زمانهای مختلف تاریخی به علل متعدد بارها ویران و آباد گشته، از جمله عوامل مؤثر در ویرانی آن میتوان لشکر کشی سپاهیان آشور و اعراب را نام برد. دره شهر محل شهر باستانی ماداکتو پایتخت عیلامیان بودهاست.[نیازمند منبع] به نظر میرسد که این شهر اولین شهر عیلامی بودهاست که در حمله آشور بانی پال ویران شده و در زمان حکومت هخامنشیان یا اهمیت گذشته را نداشته یا همچنان در ویرانی به سر میبردهاست، ولی در زمان اشکانیان دوره تجدید حیات آن بوده و در عهد ساسانیان نیز مجدداً آباد گردیده و رونق یافتهاست.
در ویرانههای به جای مانده از این شهر در زمان ساسانیان، آثار شهرسازی که در آن دوره معمول بوده به چشم میخورد. سکههای یافت شده در خرابههای دره شهر به خسرو سوم و جانشینان او متعلق است. شهر کنونی دره شهر در دامنه کبیرکوه و در امتداد ضلع شمالی شهر باستانی آن دوره خود (دوره ساسانی) و در ساحل جنوبی رودخانه سیمره قرار دارد، و از استعداد کشاورزی، منابع آب غنی، مراتع سبز و جنگلهای انبوهی برخوردار است.
براساس بخشنامه وزارت کشوربه شهرداری در سال ۱۳۶۵ مبنی برضرورت تقسیمبندی مناطق نواحی و محلات شهری و ابلاغ دستورالعمل چگونگی انجام این طرح درسال۱۳۶۷ و همچنین پیرو طرح جامع شهر دره شهر به ۶ منطقه: ۱.اسدآباد، ۲.قلعه گل، ۳.سرخآباد، ۴.شهید مدنی، ۵.بهمنآباد ۶. ناحیه مرکزی و جنوبی (بالاشهر)، متشکل از محلات: سرخآباد، بهمنآباد، چال زغال، اراضی شهری، اردوگاه، هزاردر، زالوآب (ایثارگران-جانبازان)، طالقانی، مطهری، شهیدمدنی، فرهنگیان فاز۱+ماهپاره، فرهنگیان فاز۲، رزمندگان-بسیجیان و شهرکهای جدیدالاحداث مسکن مهر و شفا تقسیمبندی و تشکیل شدهاست. این تقسیمبندی به منظور تحقق مدیریت یکپارچه شهری و بهبود کیفیت و افزایش سطح خدمات رسانی به همه قسمتهای شهر انجام شدهاست.
Darreh Shahr (Persian: درهشهر) is a city, and seat of Darreh Shahr County, located in the south-eastern part of Ilam Province, in the northern foothills of Kabir Kuh ranges. According to the 2016 census there are 21,900 residents, making it the second-largest city in the province.
It is believed that Darreh Shahr was once Madaktu, an important city in the Anshan Province of Elamite Kingdom with a population of about 74,000. The Elmite Kingdom had three important cities: Susa, Hidali and Madaktu. Madaktu served as an advance post toward Mesopotamia. The city was destroyed in 693 BC by Ashurbanipal during the Assyrian conquest of Elam.
Madaktu saw many ups and down during centuries. After the Assyrian conquest, the city went into ruins and lost its significance. It did not regain its prosperity in the Achaemenid Empire. The Parthians era was a period of relative revival but it was during the Sasanian Empire that the city, then a settlement of about 5000 household and renamed to Seymareh, saw its utmost restoration and success. Nowadays, the ruins of Madaktu is abound with artifacts from that era, most of which are in display in Darreh Shahr Museum.
The modern-day Darreh Shahr was part of Lorestan Province. In 1964, some areas of Lorestan and Khuzestan provinces were annexed to create Ilam Governorate-General and was declared a province ten years later in 1974. For the same reason, most of the people of Darreh Shahr speak Laki and Luri as opposed to Kurdish, the main spoken language of the province.
Darreh Shahr has very hot and dry summers and mild and wet winters with long-term average of 455.2 mm (17.92 in) precipitation, almost all of which come in form of rain during winter.
In ancient times, Elamites governed the Lorestan mountains and constructed several strong buildings. Darreh Shahr was the first Elamite city attacked and destroyed by Assyrians in addition to the massacre of people. In Seymareh Valley the remains of the Sassanid monuments are still present; hence Darreh Shahr might have been a thriving city in the Sassanid and the Parthian periods. Furthermore, some foreign experts call the unearthed city as the second and lost capital of the Seleucids while some Iranian archaeologists believe that the monuments are part of the state of Sirvan. Referencing some resources and texts, Darreh Shahr may be the same as Mihrajanqadhaq, Saabzaan, Seymareh or the city of Khosrau II in the late Sassanid period completely leveled to earth from an earthquake in the years 248 and 344 A.H.
Despite the fact that there is no strong and reliable evidence to show the first time human being settled in this are, most historians believe that Madakto Ancient City as a city in Sassanid era and because of its proximity to Ctesiphon was in fact a summer capital for kings in that era. Historians also believe the city was founded by Khosrau II. The great and impregnable fortress in east of Ctesiphon mountains that Khosrau II built to protect his family when threatened is believed to be in Darreh Shahr as well.
Hormozan, a ruling king of Sassanid era was from Mehrgan Kade. The city gained its popularity again in Islamic era and was known as Seymareh. There are several archaeological sites round the city that are clear evidences of the importance of this city in ancient times: Bahram Choobin Gorge, Darreh Shahr Fire Temple, Gavmishan Bridge, Jam Namesht Bridge, Koozeh Garan Hill, Majeen Ancient City, Majeen Gorge, Sassanid Bridge, Sheikh Makan Fort and Tikhan Hill.
Darreh Shahr is situated at the transition zone between Kabir Kuh foothills and Seymareh River and alongside Darreh Shahr River which flows from Sarab-e Darreh Shahr to Seymareh river through the town. The town lies within the foothills of eastern side of Kabir Kuh. Its average elevation is 660 m (2,170 ft) above sea level. The city covers a land of about 3.5 km2 (1.4 sq mi).
Darreh Shahr experiences mild winters and very hot summers. Due to being in Subtropical high pressure zone, Ilam province including Darreh Shahr experiences a relatively static thermal condition but proximity to large deserts like Arabian Desert and Iraqi Desert brings several heat waves in summers. However, Mediterranean and Sudan low pressure air masses bring intense precipitation and thundershowers in winters. The long-term average annual precipitation is about 402 mm (15.8 in).
The city resides in the lower valleys of the Kabir Kuh ranges and has been built on the banks of the Darreh Shahr river. Due to these factors, the city is prone to flooding. There has been severe incidents of flooding in the past.
The most recent case happened on April 1, 2019 following an extensive period of flooding all around the country. There were four major incidents: Golestan; Fars; Lorestan and Ilam; and Khuzestan provinces, respectively.
There are four parks in and around the city:
Darreh Shahr is divided into many small neighborhoods. Many of these areas used to be small separated communities, becoming part of the city as it grew over years. The oldest neighborhood are Asad-Abad, City Center and Ghale-Ghol.
List of all the neighborhoods:
According to the 2016 national census, 21,900 people, 5,998 households resided in the city. In the city, population is distributed as 30.7% under the age of 19, 7.9% from 19 to 24, 39.3% from 24 to 45, 17.7% from 45 to 65 and 4.3% over the age of 65.
Darreh Shahr economy is mainly based on agriculture, orchards and ranching. Water for agriculture purposes is supplied from wells, springs and the Seymareh river. Agricultural products include: wheat, barley, cucumber, cantaloupe, honeydew, watermelon, legume, corn, fodder, rice, sesame, vegetables, pomegranate, grapes, and fig.
Handicraft is the main industry in Ilam province included Darreh Shahr. "Ilam carpet is one of the most distinguished carpets of our country." Alikhani, head of Iranian National Carpet Company said addressing the head of Ilam Industry, Mine and Trade Organization.
"Ilam includes top provinces in terms of the number of weavers. Its carpet is of optimum condition that is going to be developed more than ever by more protection." "Ilam carpet has a historic precedence and favorable capacities." Head of Ilam Industry, Mine and Trade Organization said.
Darreh Shahr is known as the tourism center of Ilam province due to a wealth of nearby historical attraction and its rather warm climate in spring which brought as many as 244,000 tourists in spring of 2016.
Darreh Shahr also hosts the only archaeological museum in the Ilam province. The Darreh Shahr Museum is located on Imam Khomeini Blvd between the Darreh Shahr Ancient City entrance and the Darreh Shahr Public Library. Most of the articles in the Darreh Shahr Museum belong to Parthian Empire, Sasanian Empire, 1st millennium BCE and the Islamic era.
The most prominent attractions in and around the city are:
Darreh Shahr Ancient City is located in south-eastern part of the present Darreh Shahr. It is among the largest historical sites in Ilam province. It is about 200 acres and is one of the first places registered on National Historical Places of Iran. It belongs to Sassanids era. There are remains of buildings, walls, fortresses and bazaars in the area. Walls mostly consist of stone, concrete and plaster. based on the shape of buildings, materials and earthenware in and around the area, Darreh Shahr Ancient City belongs to late Sassanid era. It is believed that the city was destroyed on 334 AH (945-946) due to a catastrophic earthquake.
Darreh Shahr Public Library was founded in 1995 (1374 AP). It is home to more than 13,000 books and magazines. The library has about 1000 members.
Arts and Culture
Darreh Shahr is host to the National Sornawa Festival, an annual music festival for Iranian folklore music. The festival is held each year in March. The name of the festival come from the word Sorna, an ancient woodwind instrument common between Iranian folkloric music of many areas. It is the most important music event in the country with focus on Sorna.
Darreh Shahr Archaeological Museum is the only archeological museum in western Iran. The museum is home to 300 artifacts, pottery, coins, Stucco and many more belonging to eras of Achaemenid, Sassanid, Safavid, Qajar, etc.
There are two major named surface routes in the city; the Nirooye Havaee boulevard which serves as the main arterial route into the city center running south-west connecting the Asad Abad, Ordoogah, Arazi Shahri and Sorkh Abad neighborhoods and merging into the Darreh Shahr-Abdanan road; and, the Fahmideh-Seymareh boulevards which merge into roads running north-west to Ilam and south-east into Pol-e Dokhtar.
The Darreh Shahr–Ilam route has been undergoing development projects but remains incomplete. Since the beginning of the project about 62 km (39 mi) have been upgraded into 2+1 highway with reversible lane. The state government has spent $21M so far and it still requires $35M more to finish the project.
The city has no inland navigable waterways. A disused small tarmac airstrip exists nearby which was used by agricultural aircraft. Nowadays it is mostly used by people who want to learn driving and farmers as a drying surface for their crops.
In TKD, the most renowned figures are Seyed Ali Seydi and Jalal Yari with silver and bronze medals in national taekwondo competitions and many gold medals at provincial level. According to Ilam Province Taekwondo Board, Seyed Ali Seyedi and Jalal Yari are the 1st and 3rd best trainers in the province.
Darreh Shahr is home to three football schools: Perspolis, Shahin and Madakto. In May 2005, Darreh Shahr Perspolis U'14 Football team won the national league after defeating Zob Ahan SC U'14 team in Ahvaz Naft Stadium. Among the most successful football players are Jahangir Asgari who currently plays for Shahrdari Mahshahr C.S.C., Reza Ayyar, Reza Karami and Arian Darvishi.
Shahid Kulivand Stadium is the only football venue in the city and is currently under renovation.
In Wrestling, there have been national accomplishments. Amir Karami and Saeed Judaki, national silver and bronze medalists in Greco-Roman style and Hossein Karami, gold medalist in national junior wrestling championship.
Darreh Shahr County Education Administration supervises all the schools in the county.
High schools in the city are as follows: