سبزدرخش یا پرتو سبز به پدیده نوری گفته میشود که در آن تغییر رنگ یک یا دو ثانیهای نور خورشید از رنگ قرمز به رنگ سبز درهنگام طلوع یا غروب خورشید و بروی لبههای آن، رخ میدهد. برخلاف تصور عامیانه این پدیده به علت خطای چشم نیست. بهترین مکان برای دیدن این پدیده در غروب خورشید در اقیانوس، قرار گرفتن در کوه، در ساحل اقیانوس میباشد.
Green flashes and green rays are meteorological optical phenomena that sometimes occur just after sunset or right before sunrise. When the conditions are right, a distinct green spot is briefly visible above the upper rim of the Sun's disk; the green appearance usually lasts for no more than a second or two. Rarely, the green flash can resemble a green ray shooting up from the sunset (or sunrise) point.
Green flashes occur because the Earth's atmosphere can cause the light from the sun to separate out into different colors. Green flashes are a group of similar phenomena which stem from slightly different causes, and therefore some types of green flashes are more common than others.
Green flashes may be observed from any altitude. They usually are seen at an unobstructed horizon, such as over the ocean, but are possible over cloud tops and mountain tops as well. They may occur at any latitude, although at the equator the flash rarely lasts longer than a second.
A green flash also may be observed in association with the Moon and bright planets at the horizon, including Venus and Jupiter. With an unrestricted view of the horizon, green flashes are regularly seen by airline pilots, particularly when flying westwards as the sunset is slowed. If the atmosphere is layered, the green flash may appear as a series of flashes.
Green flashes are enhanced by mirages, which increase refraction. A green flash is more likely to be seen in stable, clear air, when more of the light from the setting sun reaches the observer without being scattered. One might expect to see a blue flash, since blue light is refracted most of all, and the blue component of the sun's light is therefore the very last to disappear below the horizon, but the blue is preferentially scattered out of the line of sight, and the remaining light ends up appearing green.
With slight magnification, a green rim on the top of the solar disk may be seen on most clear-day sunsets, although the flash or ray effects require a stronger layering of the atmosphere and a mirage, which serves to magnify the green from a fraction of a second to a couple of seconds.
The "green flash" description relates to a group of optical phenomena, some of which are listed below:
The majority of flashes observed are inferior-mirage or mock-mirage effects, with the others constituting only 1% of reports. Some types not listed in the table above, such as the cloud-top flash (seen as the sun sinks into a coastal fog, or at distant cumulus clouds), are not understood.
As an astronomical object sets or rises in relation to the horizon, the light it emits travels through Earth's atmosphere, which works as a prism separating the light into different colors. The color of the upper rim of an astronomical object could go from green to blue to violet depending on the decrease in concentration of pollutants, as they spread throughout an increasing volume of atmosphere. The lower rim of an astronomical object is always red.
For the explorers to have seen a green rim on and off for 35 minutes there must have been some mirage effect present.
A green rim is present at every sunset but it is too thin to be seen with the naked eye. Often a green rim changes to a green flash and back again during the same sunset. The best time to observe a green rim is about 10 minutes before sunset. That is too early to use any magnification like binoculars or a telescope to look directly at the Sun without potential harm to the eyes. (Of course, a magnified image might be projected onto a sheet of paper for safe viewing.) As the sun gets closer to the horizon, the green rim becomes fainter due to atmospheric reddening. According to the above, it is probably correct to conclude that although a green rim is present during every sunset, a green flash is rarer because of the required mirage.
In popular culture
Jules Verne's 1882 novel The Green Ray helped to popularize the green flash phenomenon. A 1986 film also called The Green Ray uses the green flash and Verne's book as a plot device. Additionally, the green flash has inspired or been mentioned in: