واژه المسیح الدجال (در عربی به معنی مسیح دروغین) ۴۰۰ سال پیش از اسلام برای ترجمه (Mšīḥā Daggālā) از سریانی به عربی استفاده شدهاست؛ که معادل یونانی آن (antichristos) و معادل فارسی آن ضدمسیح است. در روایات اسلامی دجال در آخرالزمان و پیش از قیام مهدی از شرق و احتمالاً از خراسان ظهور میکند. او با انجام کارهای شگفتانگیز و معجزاتی جمع زیادی از مردم را میفریبد. دجال در اورشلیم ادعای خدایی میکند و سرانجام پس از حکمرانی به مدت چهل روز یا چهل سال به دست عیسی مسیح یا مهدی یا هر دوی آنها به هلاکت میرسد.
دجال در مسیحیت
در نامه اول یوحنا آمدهاست: دروغگو کیست جز آنکه مسیح بودن عیسی را انکار کند آن دجال است که پدر و پسر را انکار مینماید. باز در همان رساله آمدهاست: «شنیدهاید که دجال میآید الحال هم دجالان بسیار ظاهر شدهاند و از این میدانم که ساعت آخر است.» در جای دیگر در همان رساله میگوید: «و هر روحی که عیسی مجسم شده را انکار کند از خدا نیست و اینست روح دجال که شنیدهاید که او میآید و الان هم در جهان است.» برخی از علمای مسیحی از جمله صاحب قاموس کتاب مقدس دجال را اسم عام میداند و به تصور وی مراد از دجال و دجالان کسانی هستند که مسیح را تکذیب کنند و این معنا از عبارات انجیل نیز استفاده میشود. همچنین گفته شده دجال یا ضد مسیح شخصی است که در آخرالزمان قیام کرده و مسیح، رجعت کرده او را از پای در خواهد آورد.
دجال در اسلام
در روایات اسلامی و روایاتی منتسب به محمد، پیامبر مسلمانان، یکی از نشانههای دوران ظهور و آخر الزمان خروج دجال است. ظهور دجال از نشانههای برپایی قیامت دانسته شدهاست. دجال فردی با یک چشم و صورتی کریه و موهایی تابداراست که بر پشانیش کلمه کفر حک شده است. دجال در آخرالزمان و پیش از قیام مهدی از شرق و احتمالاً از خراسان خروج میکند. او انجام کارهای شگفتانگیز و معجزاتی جمع زیادی از مردم را میفریبد. دجال در اورشلیم ادعای خدایی می کند. او سرانجام پس از حکمرانی به مدت چهل روز یا چهل سال به دست عیسی مسیح یا مهدی یا هر دوی آنها به هلاکت میرسد. تا زمان ظهور دجال او در جزیره ای در اقیانوس هند به سر می برد که از آن صدای موسیقی به گوش میرسد. روایات دیگری وجود دارد که در کوهی در جزیرهای در بند است و اهریمنان به او غذا میرسانند.
دجال در روایات اهل تسنن
قسمت عمده روایات در مورد دجال را «احمد حنبل»در کتاب «مسند»و «ترمذی»در «صحیح»خود و «ابن ماجه»در «سنن»و «مسلم» در «صحیح» و «ابن اثیر»در«نهایه»از عبدالله بن عمر و ابوسعیدخدری و جابر ابن عبدالله انصاری نقل کردهاند.
«صائد بن صید» که در زمان محمد میزیسته و محمد او را از مصادیق دجال معرفی کردهاست و چون بعداً از خروج دجال در آخرالزمان نیز خبر داده بعضیها گمان کردهاند دجال موعود همان «صائد بن صید» است و در نتیجه به زنده ماندن و طول عمر او قائل شدند.
بعضی از نویسندگان اسلامی نیز با توجه به ریشه لغت «دجال» آن را منحصر به یک فرد بخصوص نمیدانند بلکه آن را عنوانی میدانند کلی برای افراد پر تزویر حیله گر و حقه باز که برای فریب مردم از هر وسیلهای استفاده میکنند. دجال شخصی است که حق را با باطل آمیخته و از حق برای راهبرد اهداف شیطانی خود استفاده میکند.
دجال در روایتهای شیعه
در روایتهای شیعه نیز گفتههای زیادی در مورد دجال به چشم میخورد و اینچنین گفته شده آست که وی در زمانی که مردم گناهان زیادی را انجام دهند و نیکی را بد و بدی را نیک بدانند، ظهور خواهد کرد.
For other uses, see Antichrist (disambiguation).
The Antichrist is primarily a Christian concept based on interpretation of passages in the New Testament, in which the term "antichrist" occurs five times in 1 John and 2 John, once in plural form and four times in the singular.
In some Christian belief systems, Jesus the Messiah will appear in his Second Coming to Earth to face the emergence of the Antichrist figure, who will be the greatest false messiah in Christianity. Just as Christ is the savior and the ideal model for humanity, his opponent in the end time will be a single figure of concentrated evil, according to Bernard McGinn.
In Islam, Masih ad-Dajjal (the False messiah in Islam) is an anti-Messiah figure (similar to the Christian concept of Antichrist), who will appear to deceive humanity before the second coming of "Isa", as Jesus is known by Arabic-speaking Muslims.
The word "antichrist" is made up of two roots: αντί (anti) + Χριστός (Khristos). "Αντί" can mean not only "against" and "opposite of", but also "in place of", "Χριστός", translated "Christ", is Greek for the Hebrew "Messiah". Both literally mean "Anointed One", and refer to Jesus of Nazareth within Christian, Islamic and Messianic Jewish theology.
Whether the New Testament contains an individual Antichrist or not is disputed. The five uses of the term "antichrist" or "antichrists" in the Epistles of John do not clearly present a single latter-day individual Antichrist. The articles "the deceiver" or "the antichrist" are usually seen as marking out a certain category of persons, rather than an individual.
Although the word "antichrist" (Greek antikhristos) is used only in the Epistles of John, the similar word "pseudochrist" (Greek pseudokhristos, meaning "false messiah") is used by Jesus in the gospels:
See also: Early Christianity
The only one of the late 1st/early 2nd Century Apostolic Fathers to use the term is Polycarp (ca. 69 – ca. 155) who warned the Philippians that everyone who preached false doctrine was an antichrist. His use of the term Antichrist follows that of the New Testament in not identifying a single personal Antichrist, but a class of people.
Irenaeus (2nd century AD – c. 202) wrote Against Heresies to refute the teachings of the Gnostics. In Book V of Against Heresies he addresses the figure of the Antichrist referring to him as the "recapitulation of apostasy and rebellion." He uses "666", the Number of the Beast from Revelation 13:18, to numerologically decode several possible names. Some names that he loosely proposed were "Evanthos", "Lateinos" ("Latin" or pertaining to the Roman Empire). In his exegesis of Daniel 7:21, he stated that the ten horns of the beast will be the Roman empire divided into ten kingdoms before the Antichrist's arrival. However, his readings of the Antichrist were more in broader theological terms rather than within a historical context.
Tertullian (ca.160 – ca.220 AD) held that the Roman Empire was the restraining force written about by Paul in 2 Thessalonians 2:7-8. The fall of Rome and the disintegration of the ten provinces of the Roman Empire into ten kingdoms were to make way for the Antichrist.
Hippolytus of Rome (c. 170-c. 236) held that the Antichrist would come from the tribe of Dan and would rebuild the Jewish temple on the Temple Mount in order to reign from it. He identified the Antichrist with the Beast out of the Earth from the book of Revelation.
See also: First seven Ecumenical Councils
Cyril of Jerusalem, in the mid-4th century, delivered his 15th Catechetical Lecture about the Second Coming of Jesus Christ, in which he also lectures about the Antichrist, who will reign as the ruler of the world for three and a half years, before he is killed by Jesus Christ right at the end of his three-and-a-half-year reign, shortly after which the Second Coming of Jesus Christ will happen.
Athanasius of Alexandria (c. 298 – 373), writes that Arius of Alexandria is to be associated with the Antichrist, saying, "And ever since [the Council of Nicaea] has Arius's error been reckoned for a heresy more than ordinary, being known as Christ's foe, and harbinger of Antichrist."
John Chrysostom (c. 347–407) warned against speculating about the Antichrist, saying, "Let us not therefore enquire into these things". He preached that by knowing Paul's description of the Antichrist in 2 Thessalonians, Christians would avoid deception.
Jerome (c. 347-420) warned that those substituting false interpretations for the actual meaning of Scripture belonged to the "synagogue of the Antichrist". "He that is not of Christ is of Antichrist," he wrote to Pope Damasus I. He believed that "the mystery of lawlessness" written about by Paul in 2 Thessalonians 2:7 was already in action when "every one chatters about his views." To Jerome, the power restraining this mystery of lawlessness was the Roman Empire, but as it fell this restraining force was removed. He warned a noble woman of Gaul:
In his Commentary on Daniel, Jerome noted, "Let us not follow the opinion of some commentators and suppose him to be either the Devil or some demon, but rather, one of the human race, in whom Satan will wholly take up his residence in bodily form." Instead of rebuilding the Jewish Temple to reign from, Jerome thought the Antichrist sat in God’s Temple inasmuch as he made "himself out to be like God." He refuted Porphyry’s idea that the "little horn" mentioned in Daniel chapter 7 was Antiochus Epiphanes by noting that the "little horn" is defeated by an eternal, universal ruler, right before the final judgment. Instead, he advocated that the "little horn" was the Antichrist:
Pope Gregory I wrote to Emperor Maurice in A.D. 597, concerning the titles of bishops, "I say with confidence that whoever calls or desires to call himself ‘universal priest’ in self-exaltation of himself is a precursor of the Antichrist."
Pre-Reformation Western Church Accusers
Arnulf (archbishop of Reims) disagreed with the policies and morals of Pope John XV. He expressed his views while presiding over the Council of Reims in A.D. 991. Arnulf accused John XV of being the Antichrist while also using the 2 Thessalonians passage about the "man of lawlessness" (or "lawless one"), saying, "Surely, if he is empty of charity and filled with vain knowledge and lifted up, he is Antichrist sitting in God's temple and showing himself as God." This incident is history's earliest record of anyone identifying a pope with the Antichrist (See Antichrist (historicism)).
Pope Gregory VII (c. 1015 or 29 – 1085), struggled against, in his own words, "a robber of temples, a perjurer against the Holy Roman Church, notorious throughout the whole Roman world for the basest of crimes, namely, Wilbert, plunderer of the holy church of Ravenna, Antichrist, and arch-heretic."
Cardinal Benno, on the opposite side of the Investiture Controversy, wrote long descriptions of abuses committed by Gregory VII, including necromancy, torture of a former friend upon a bed of nails, commissioning an attempted assassination, executions without trials, unjust excommunication, doubting the Real Presence in the Eucharist, and even burning it. Benno held that Gregory VII was "either a member of Antichrist, or Antichrist himself."
Eberhard II von Truchsees, Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg in 1241, denounced Pope Gregory IX at the Council of Regensburg as "that man of perdition, whom they call Antichrist, who in his extravagant boasting says, I am God, I cannot err." He argued that the ten kingdoms that the Antichrist is involved with were the "Turks, Greeks, Egyptians, Africans, Spaniards, French, English, Germans, Sicilians, and Italians who now occupy the provinces of Rome." He held that the papacy was the "little horn" of Daniel 7:8:
Many Protestant reformers, including Martin Luther, John Calvin, Thomas Cranmer, John Thomas, John Knox, and Cotton Mather, identified the Roman Papacy as the Antichrist. The Centuriators of Magdeburg, a group of Lutheran scholars in Magdeburg headed by Matthias Flacius, wrote the 12-volume "Magdeburg Centuries" to discredit the papacy and identify the pope as the Antichrist. The fifth round of talks in the Lutheran-Roman Catholic dialogue notes,
William Tyndale, an English Protestant reformer, held that while the Roman Catholic realms of that age were the empire of Antichrist, any religious organization that distorted the doctrine of the Old and New Testaments also showed the work of Antichrist. In his treatise The Parable of the Wicked Mammon, he expressly rejected the established Church teaching that looked to the future for an Antichrist to rise up, and he taught that Antichrist is a present spiritual force that will be with us until the end of the age under different religious disguises from time to time. Tyndale's translation of 2 Thessalonians, chapter 2, concerning the "man of lawlessness" reflected his understanding, but was significantly amended by later revisers, including the King James Bible committee, which followed the Vulgate more closely.
The view of Futurism, a product of the Counter-Reformation, was advanced beginning in the 16th century in response to the identification of the Papacy as Antichrist. Francisco Ribera, a Jesuit priest, developed this theory in In Sacrum Beati Ioannis Apostoli, & Evangelistiae Apocalypsin Commentarij, his 1585 treatise on the Apocalypse of John. Saint Robert Bellarmine codified this view, giving in full the Catholic theory set forth by the Greek and Latin Fathers, of a personal Antichrist to come just before the end of the world and to be accepted by the Jews and enthroned in the temple at Jerusalem — thus endeavoring to dispose of the exposition which saw Antichrist in the pope. Most premillennial dispensationalists now accept Bellarmine's interpretation in modified form. Widespread Protestant identification of the Papacy as the Antichrist persisted in the USA until the early 1900s when the Scofield Reference Bible was published by Cyrus Scofield. This commentary promoted Futurism, causing a decline in the Protestant identification of the Papacy as Antichrist.
Some US Futurists hold that sometime prior to the expected return of Jesus, there will be a period of "great tribulation" during which the Antichrist, indwelt and controlled by Satan, will attempt to win supporters with false peace, supernatural signs. He will silence all that defy him by refusing to "receive his mark" on their right hands or forehead. This "mark" will be required to legally partake in the end-time economic system. Some Futurists believe that the Antichrist will be assassinated half way through the Tribulation, being revived and indwelt by Satan. The Antichrist will continue on for three and a half years following this "deadly wound".
After Patriarch Nikon of Moscow reformed the Russian Orthodox Church during the second half of the 17th century, a large number of Old Believers held that Peter the Great, the Tsar of the Russian Empire until his death in 1725, was the Antichrist because of his treatment of the Orthodox Church, namely subordinating the church to the state, requiring clergymen to conform to the standards of all Russian civilians (shaved beards, being fluent in French), and requiring them to pay state taxes.
Age of Enlightenment
Bernard McGinn noted that complete denial of the Antichrist was rare until the Age of Enlightenment. Following frequent use of "Antichrist" laden rhetoric during religious controversies in the 17th century, the use of the concept declined in the 18th century. Subsequent eighteenth-century efforts to cleanse Christianity of "legendary" or "folk" accretions effectively removed the Antichrist from discussion in mainstream Western churches.
In Mormonism, the "Antichrist" is anyone or anything that counterfeits the true gospel or plan of salvation and that openly or secretly is set up in opposition to Christ. The great antichrist is Lucifer, but he has many assistants both as spirit beings and as mortals." Latter-day Saints use the New Testament scriptures, 1 John 2:18, 22; 1 John 4:3-6; 2 John 1:7 and the Book of Mormon, Jacob 7:1-23, Alma 1:2-16, Alma 30:6-60, in their exegesis or interpretation of the Antichrist.
Other Christian interpretations
As "Man of Lawlessness"
Main article: Man of Lawlessness
The Antichrist has been equated with the "man of lawlessness" or "lawless one" of 2 Thessalonians 2:3, though commentaries on the identity of the "man of lawlessness" greatly vary. The "man of lawlessness" has been identified with Caligula, Nero, and the end times Antichrist. Some scholars believe that the passage contains no genuine prediction, but represents a speculation of the apostle's own, based on Dan 8:23ff; 11:36ff, and on contemporary ideas of the Antichrist.
As "being in league with other figures"
Several American evangelical and fundamentalist theologians, including Cyrus Scofield, have identified the Antichrist as being in league with (or the same as) several figures in the Book of Revelation including the Dragon (or Serpent), the Beast, the False Prophet, and the Whore of Babylon. Others, for example, Rob Bell, reject the identification of the Antichrist with any one person or group. They believe a loving Christ would not view anyone as an enemy.
Bernard McGinn described multiple traditions detailing the relationship between the Antichrist and Satan. In the dualist approach, Satan will become incarnate in the Antichrist, just as God became incarnate in Jesus. However, in Orthodox Christian thought, this view was problematic because it was too similar to Christ's incarnation. Instead, the "indwelling" view became more accepted. It stipulates that the Antichrist is a human figure inhabited by Satan, since the latter’s power is not to be seen as equivalent to God’s.
The term antikhristos originates in 1 John. The similar term pseudokhristos ("False Messiah") is also first found in the New Testament, and, for example, never used by Josephus in his accounts of various false messiahs. The concept of an antikhristos is not found in Jewish writings in the period 500 BC–50 AD. However, Bernard McGinn conjectures that the concept may have been generated by the frustration of Jews subject to often-capricious Seleucid or Roman rule, who found the nebulous Jewish idea of a Satan who is more of an opposing angel of God in the heavenly court insufficiently humanised and personalised to be a satisfactory incarnation of evil and threat.
Influenced by Christian and Muslim interpretation, an anti-Messiah type figure known as Armilus appears in some schools of Jewish eschatology, such as the 7th century CE Sefer Zerubbabel and 11th century CE Midrash Vayosha. He is described as "bald-headed, with one large and one small eye, deaf in the right ear and maimed in the right arm, while the left arm is two and one-half ells long.".
Masih ad-Dajjal (Arabic: الدّجّال, literally "The Deceiving Messiah"), is an evil figure in Islamic eschatology. Although not mentioned anywhere in the Quran, some Muslims believe he is to appear pretending to be Allah at a time in the future, before "Yawm al-Qiyamah" (The Day of Resurrection, Judgement Day). He will travel around the globe entering every city except Mecca and Medina obliging people to believe in him as Allah. Then Isa (Jesus) will descend from the sky to the white minaret (commonly held as being in the Umayyad Mosque) east of Damascus (as referred to in hadith), placing his hands on the backs of two angels, at the time of Fajr (dawn). This will happen at the time of the Dajjal and Isa (Jesus) will be the one to eventually defeat the Dajjal, killing him with his spear.
The Ahmadiyya teachings interpret the prophecies regarding the appearance of the Dajjal (Anti-Christ) and Gog and Magog in Islamic eschatology as foretelling the emergence of two branches or aspects of the same turmoil and trial that was to be faced by Islam in the latter days and that both emerged from Christianity or Christian nations. Its Dajjal aspect relates to deception and perversion of religious belief while its aspect to do with disturbance in the realm of politics and the shattering of world peace has been called Gog and Magog. Thus Ahmadis consider the widespread Christian missionary activity that was aggressively active in the 18th and 19th centuries as being part of the prophesied Dajjal (Antichrist) and Gog and Magog emerging in modern times. The emergence of the Soviet Union and the USA as superpowers and the conflict between the two nations (i.e., the rivalry between communism and capitalism) are seen as having occurred in accordance with certain prophecies regarding Gog and Magog. Ahmadis believe that prophecies and sayings about the Antichrist are not to be interpreted literally and hold deeper meanings. Masih ad-Dajjal is then a name to given to latter-day Christianity and the West.
Use in popular culture
Main article: List of fictional Antichrists
The term "Antichrist" is widely used in popular culture, and most prominently in punk subculture. This trend was spurred by the Sex Pistols' song, "Anarchy in the U.K.", in which lead singer Johnny Rotten proclaimed that he was an antichrist. After the release of the song, adherents of the punk culture began to use the word as a term to describe someone who is very vulgar, crude, or rebellious. However, after Johnny Rotten's denunciation of useless violence in his years with Public Image Ltd, this trend began to subside with those who had used it for the sheer sake of being "punk". It is now used in the fringe groups of anarcho-punks and is most commonly used to describe those who practise violent and sensational forms of anarchy. The term Antichrist also features heavily in the earlier work of Marilyn Manson, with the 1996 album, "Antichrist Superstar", being the most famous.