دجال

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به: ناوبری، جستجو
فارسی English
جستار وابسته: ضدمسیح
انتی‌کرایست یا ضدمسیح و شیطان. بخشی جزئی از اثر کامل وقایع ضدمسیح فرسکو به دست لوکا سینیورلی، سال ۱۵۰۱

مسیح دروغین (به عربی: المسیح الدجال) که به اختصار با نام دجال نیز شناخته می‌شود، یک شخصیت شیطانی در فرجام‌شناسی اسلامی ست[۱] که به باور مسلمانان در زمانی در آینده پیش از یوم القیامة (روز رستاخیز) وانمود می‌کند که مسیح است (یعنی مسیحا). باور مسلمانان به دجال در فرجام‌شناسی اسلامی با باور مسیحیان به ضد مسیح در فرجام‌شناسی مسیحی ‏(en) و باور یهودیان به آرمیلوس ‏(en) در فرجام‌شناسی یهودی قرون وسطی قابل قیاس است.

دجال در احادیث اسلامی به باور مسلمانان سنی و شیعه موجودی ست که چشم راستش کور است و مانند حبه انگور برآمده است.[۲] در باور شیعیان بر اساس حدیثی از علی بن ابی طالب چشم سالم دجال به وسط پیشانی‌اش آمده است؛ در جلو و عقب کاروان دجال کوه‌هایی از دود حرکت می‌کنند که مردم در قحطی‌های سخت انتظار غذا در آن کوه‌ها را دارند؛ همه رودخانه‌هایی که در مسیر دجال قرار می‌گیرند خشک می‌شوند و مطابق این حدیث او با صدایی بلند مردم را صدا می‌کند که «ای دوستان من به سمت من بیایید، من ارباب شما هستم که به شما دست و پا و غذا داده‌ام».[۳]

در روایات شیعه دجال در آخرالزمان و پیش از قیام مهدی از شرق و احتمالاً از خراسان ظهور می‌کند.[۴] او با انجام کارهای شگفت‌انگیز و معجزاتی جمع زیادی از مردم را می‌فریبد. دجال در اورشلیم ادعای خدایی می‌کند و سرانجام پس از حکمرانی به مدت چهل روز یا چهل سال به دست عیسی مسیح یا مهدی یا هر دوی آنها کشته می‌شود.[۴]

ضد مسیح[ویرایش]

نوشتار اصلی: ضدمسیح
صلیب پطرس (صلیب وارونه) اغلب به عنوان نماد ضد مسیح شناخته می‌شود.

عبارت «ضد مسیح» در عهد جدید پنج بار در نامه یکم یوحنا و نامه دوم یوحنا آمده است، یک بار به صورت جمع[۵] و چهار بار به صورت منفرد.[۶]

در نامه اول یوحنا آمده‌است:[مشکوک ] دروغگو کیست جز آنکه مسیح بودن عیسی را انکار کند آن دجال[نیازمند منبع] است که پدر و پسر را انکار می‌نماید. باز در همان رساله آمده‌است: «شنیده‌اید که دجال می‌آید الحال هم دجالان بسیار ظاهر شده‌اند و از این می‌دانم که ساعت آخر است.» در جای دیگر در همان رساله می‌گوید: «و هر روحی که عیسی مجسم شده را انکار کند از خدا نیست و اینست روح دجال که شنیده‌اید که او می‌آید و الان هم در جهان است.»[۷][منبع نامعتبر؟] برخی از علمای مسیحی از جمله صاحب قاموس کتاب مقدس دجال را اسم عام می‌داند و به تصور وی مراد از دجال و دجالان کسانی هستند که مسیح را تکذیب کنند و این معنا از عبارات انجیل نیز استفاده می‌شود. همچنین گفته شده دجال یا ضد مسیح شخصی است که در آخرالزمان قیام کرده و مسیح، رجعت کرده او را از پای در خواهد آورد.[۸][منبع نامعتبر؟]

دجال در اسلام[ویرایش]

در روایات اسلامی و روایاتی منتسب به محمد، پیامبر مسلمانان، یکی از نشانه‌های دوران ظهور و آخر الزمان خروج دجال است. ظهور دجال از نشانه‌های برپایی قیامت دانسته شده‌است. دجال فردی با یک چشم و صورتی کریه و موهایی تابداراست که بر پشانیش کلمه کفر حک شده است. دجال در آخرالزمان و پیش از قیام مهدی از شرق و احتمالاً از خراسان خروج می‌کند. او انجام کارهای شگفت‌انگیز و معجزاتی جمع زیادی از مردم را می‌فریبد. دجال در اورشلیم ادعای خدایی می‌کند. او سرانجام پس از حکمرانی به مدت چهل روز یا چهل سال به دست عیسی مسیح یا مهدی یا هر دوی آنها به هلاکت می‌رسد. تا زمان ظهور دجال او در جزیره‌ای در اقیانوس هند به سر می‌برد که از آن صدای موسیقی به گوش می‌رسد. روایات دیگری وجود دارد که در کوهی در جزیره‌ای در بند است و اهریمنان به او غذا می‌رسانند.[۴]

دجال در روایات اهل سنت[ویرایش]

قسمت عمده روایات در مورد دجال را «احمد حنبل» در کتاب «مسند» و «ترمذی» در «صحیح» خود و «ابن ماجه» در «سنن» و «مسلم» در «صحیح» و «ابن اثیر» در «نهایه» از عبدالله بن عمر و ابوسعیدخدری و جابر ابن عبدالله انصاری نقل کرده‌اند.

«صائد بن صید» که در زمان محمد می‌زیسته و محمد او را از مصادیق دجال معرفی کرده‌است و چون بعداً از خروج دجال در آخرالزمان نیز خبر داده بعضیها گمان کرده‌اند دجال موعود همان «صائد بن صید» است و در نتیجه به زنده ماندن و طول عمر او قائل شدند.

بعضی از نویسندگان اسلامی نیز با توجه به ریشه لغت «دجال» آن را منحصر به یک فرد بخصوص نمی‌دانند بلکه آن را عنوانی می‌دانند کلی برای افراد پر تزویر حیله گر و حقه باز که برای فریب مردم از هر وسیله‌ای استفاده می‌کنند. دجال شخصی است که حق را با باطل آمیخته و از حق برای راهبرد اهداف شیطانی خود استفاده می‌کند.

دجال در روایت‌های شیعه[ویرایش]

در روایت‌های شیعه نیز گفته‌های زیادی در مورد دجال به چشم می‌خورد و اینچنین گفته شده آست که وی در زمانی که مردم گناهان زیادی را انجام دهند و نیکی را بد و بدی را نیک بدانند، ظهور خواهد کرد.

از محمد دربارهٔ وی چنین گفته شده:[۹][۱۰]

خداوند هیچ پیامبری را به رسالت برنگزید مگر آنکه قومش را از دجال ترسانید و خداوند آن را تا به امروز بر شما تأخیر انداخته و اگر امر بر شما مشتبه شد بدانید که پروردگار شما یک چشم نیست و دجال بر الاغی که فاصله دو گوشش یک میل است خروج می‌کند و بهمراهش بهشت و دوزخ و کوهی از نان و نهری از آب است و بیشتر پیروانش یهود و زنان و اعرابند و به همه کرانه‌های زمین بجز مکه و مدینه و حومه این دو شهر، گذر می‌کند.

پانویس[ویرایش]

  1. Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, Al-Dajjāl, p. 43.
  2. صحیح بخاری, 3:30:105
  3. Sayed Tahir Bilgrami. «6». در Essence of Life, A translation of Ain al-Hayat by Allama Mohammad Baqir Majlisi. قم: انتشارات انصاریان، 2005. 104. 
  4. ۴٫۰ ۴٫۱ ۴٫۲ Dajjal. Encyclopedia of world religions. Britannica، 2006. 275. 
  5. «KJV Search Results for Antichrists». The Blue Letter Bible. بازبینی‌شده در 13 فوریه 2014. 
  6. «KJV Search Results for Antichrist». The Blue Letter Bible. بازبینی‌شده در 13 فوریه 2014. 
  7. First Epistle of John 4:3
  8. دوم تسالونیکیان ۲:۸
  9. کمال‌الدین و تمام‌النعمه باب 47، ترجمه فارسی جلد 2 صفحه 319
  10. بحارالانوار جلد 13 باب 29، ترجمه فارسی با نام مهدی موعود صفحه 32

منابع[ویرایش]

Al-Masih ad-Dajjal (Arabic: المسيح الدجّالAl-Masīḥ ad-Dajjāl, "the false messiah", or "the deceiver") is an evil figure in Islamic eschatology.[1] He is to appear, pretending to be the Masih (i.e. the Messiah), before Yawm al-Qiyamah (Day of Resurrection). He will be an anti-messiah figure, comparable to the Antichrist in Christian eschatology and to Armilus in medieval Jewish eschatology.

Name

Dajjāl is an adjective of Syriac origin.[2] It is also a common Arabic word (دجال) whose root is dajl meaning "lie" or "deception". Al-Masīḥ ad-Dajjāl, with the definite article al- ("the"), refers to "the deceiving Messiah", a specific end-of times deceiver. The Dajjāl is an evil being who will seek to impersonate the true Messiah.

The name Dajjal also is rooted in an Arabic word dajel, which means to gold plate or coat in gold.

Hadith

According to hadith, Muhammad is said to have prophesied that the Masih ad-Dajjal would be the last of a series of thirty Dajjal or "deceivers".[3]

  • Muhammad is reported to have said:

...Ad-Dajjal is blind in the right eye and his eye looks like a bulging out grape.[4]

Ali was reported to have said:

His right eye will be punctured, and his left eye would be raised to his forehead and will be sparkling like a star. Only the believers will be able to read the word ‘Kafir’ [disbeliever], inscribed in bold letters, on his forehead. There will be big mountains of smoke at both front and backsides of his caravan. People will anticipate food within those mountains, during the severe famine. All rivers, falling in his way, will become dry and he will call upon people in a loud voice, "O my friends come to me! I am your lord who has made your limbs and given you sustenance.[5]

  • Muhammad is reported to have said:

If he comes forth while I am among you I shall be the one who will dispute with him on your behalf, but if he comes forth when I am not among you, a man must dispute on his own behalf, and Allah will take my place in looking after every Muslim. Those of you who live up to his time should recite over him the opening verses of Surat al–Kahf, for they are your protection from his trial. We asked: How long will he remain on the earth ? He replied : Forty days, one like a year, one like a month, one like a week, and rest of his days like yours. We asked : Messenger of Allah, will one day’s prayer suffice us in this day which will be like a year ? He replied : No, you must make an estimate of its extent. Then Jesus son of Marry will descend at the white minaret to the east of Damascus. He will then catch him up at the gate of Ludd and kill him.[6]

  • Muhammad is reported to have said:

The flourishing state of Jerusalem will be when Yathrib is in ruins, the ruined state of Yathrib will be when the great war comes, the outbreak of the great war will be at the conquest of Constantinople and the conquest of Constantinople when the Dajjal (Antichrist) comes forth. He (the Prophet) struck his thigh or his shoulder with his hand and said: This is as true as you are here or as you are sitting (meaning Mu'adh ibn Jabal).[7]

Signs of coming of Al-Masih ad-Dajjal

Hadith attributed to Muhammad give many signs of the appearance of the Dajjal, and exhorted his followers to recite the first and last ten verses of Sura Al-Kahf (chapter 18 in the Qur'an), as protection from the trials and mischief of the Dajjal.[5][8] The following signs are ascribed to Ali in the coming of Dajjal:[5]

  • People will stop offering the prayers
  • Dishonesty will be the way of life
  • Falsehood will become a virtue
  • People will mortgage their faith for worldly gain
  • Usury and bribery will become legitimate
  • There will be acute famine at the time
  • There will be no shame amongst people
  • Many people would worship Satan
  • There would be no respect for elderly people

Signs of emergence

Eschatology

It was narrated that Abu Bakr Siddiq said: "The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) told us: 'Dajjal will emerge in a land in the east called Khorasan, and will be followed by people with faces like hammered shields.'"[11] and will travel the whole world preaching his falsehood, but will be unable to enter Mecca and Medina.[4] Isa (Jesus) will return and the Dajjal will gather an army of 70,000 from Isfahan, of those he has deceived and lead them in a war against Jesus who shall be accompanied by an army of the righteous, along with Imam Mahdi.

Sunni

Sunni Muslims believe that Isa will descend on Mount Afeeq, on the white Eastern Minaret of Damascus. He will descend from the heavens with his hands resting on the shoulders of two angels.[12] His cheeks will be flat and his hair straight. When he lowers his head it will seem as if water is flowing from his hair, when he raises his head, it will appear as though his hair is beaded with silvery pearls.[13] He will descend during Fajr (sunrise) and the leader of the Muslims will address him thus, "O' Prophet of God, lead the prayer." Isa will decline with the words, "The virtue of this nation that follows Islam is that they lead each other." Implying that he will pray behind the imam (the man that leads the prayings (Mahdi)) as the word of God was completed after revelation of Qur'an and Muhammad being the last prophet of God.[13]

After the prayer, Isa will prepare himself to do battle and shall take up a sword. An army shall return from a campaign launched before the arrival of Isa. Isa shall set out in pursuit of Dajjal. All those who embraced the evil of Dajjal shall perish even as the breath of Isa touches them. The breath of Isa shall precede him as far as the eye can see. Dajjal will be captured at the gate of Lod. Dajjal shall begin to melt, as salt dissolves in water. The spear of Isa shall plunge into Dajjal’s chest, ending his dreaded reign.[14][15] The followers of Dajjal will be rooted out, for even the trees and rocks will speak out against them. Isa will break the cross and kill the pig (the animal). Then all battles shall cease and the world will know an age of peace. The rule of Isa will be just and all shall flock to him to enter the folds of the one true religion, Islam.

Shi'a

Shias believe that Dajjal will be killed by Muhammad al-Mahdi.[16][17]

Ahmadiyya

The Ahmadiyya take the prophecies about the Dajjal as pertaining to a collectivity of people centred upon deception instead of one individual. Ahmadiyya teachings interpret the prophecies regarding the appearance of the Dajjal (Anti-Christ) and Gog and Magog in Islamic eschatology as foretelling, in essence, the emergence of two branches or aspects of the same turmoil and trial that was to be faced by Islam in the latter days and that both emerged from Christianity or Christian nations. Hence the reason why Muhammad specifically exhorted the recitation of the first and last ten verses of Sura Al-Kahf (chapter 18 of the Quran) as protection from the Dajjal.[18][19] Its Dajjal aspect relates to deception and perversion of religious belief while its aspect to do with deception and disturbance in the realm of politics and the shattering of world peace has been called Gog and Magog. the Dajjal being blind in his right eye while being sharp and oversized in his left is seen as indicative of being devoid of religious insight and spiritual light but excelling in worldly and material attainment, with the right eye representing godliness and spirituality, and the left eye representing worldliness .[19]

Ahmadis consider the widespread Christian missionary activity that was aggressively active in the 18th and 19th centuries and whose spread was propelled by the Industrial Revolution as being part of the prophesied Dajjal (Antichrist) and view Gog and Magog as emerging in modern times out of predominantly Christian nations.[19] Accordingly, the emergence of Russia and the USA as superpowers and the conflict between the two nations (i.e., the rivalry between communism and capitalism and their influence over the nations of the world) are seen as having occurred in accordance with certain prophecies regarding Gog and Magog.[20] Thus, Ahmadis believe that prophecies and sayings about the Antichrist are not to be understood literally, they have deeper meanings. Masih ad-Dajjal is then a name given to latter day Christianity and the west.[21]

Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, the founder of the Ahmadiyya movement whom Ahmadis believe to be the Promised Messiah and Mahdi, writes extensively about dajjal in his books, in Shahādat-ul-Qurān, which is briefly mentioned in a topic-based, five-volume collection of his writings titled "Essence of Islam", he states:

The Holy Qur’an then specifies that in the latter days the Christians will dominate the earth, and they shall be the cause of all kinds of mischief running rampant. Waves of calamities will rise on all sides and will race down from every height ... They will possess great material strength and dominion, against which all other powers and states will seem powerless. They will also enjoy supremacy in all kinds of knowledge and sciences and establish new and wonderful industries. They will also be dominant in their policies, projects, and good administration, and will show great resolve in their worldly enterprises and will also excel in their endeavour to spread their faith. They will leave behind all other nations in their social, agricultural and commercial policies, as indeed in everything else.

— Shahādat-ul-Qurān, page 361-362[22]

Mirza Ghulam Ahmad gives a more direct definition of the meaning of Dajjal:

As to the Antichrist, now listen, I will explain to you the reality on the basis of the clear and pure revelation that I have received. Then understand, my dear ones, that it has been disclosed to me that the reference to the Antichrist as one individual is not designed to indicate his personal individuality, but his unity as a class, meaning thereby that in that class there will be a unity of ideas as is, indeed, indicated by the word Dajjal itself and in this name there are many Signs for those who reflect. The meaning of the word Dajjal is a chain of deceptive ideas, the links of which are so attached to each other as if it was a structure of equal-sized bricks of the same colour, quality and strength, some of them firmly overlapping others and further strengthened by being plastered from outside.[23]

Thus essentially the Dajjal is not believed to be a physical person or an individual but as representing a collectivity of people who would pose a great challenge to Islam; it is, essentially, a name given to the European nations of the latter days. In contrast to the Christians and mainstream Muslims who believe Jesus to be still alive and one who would return himself towards the end of time, Ahmadis believe that Jesus is not alive but survived crucifixion and died a natural death.[24][25] The prophecies concerning the second coming of Jesus are thus interpreted as the coming of one from within Islam in the likeness of Jesus, who will correct the doctrines of Christianity which from the perspective of Islam are deemed erroneous and establish the truth of Islam to the world especially as against western scientific and philosophical ideals. Ahmadis believe their founder Ghulam Ahmad to have fulfilled in his person the prophecies of the second advent of Jesus by representing Islam in its pristine form and having revived the high morals it inculcates. Moreover, Ahmadi Muslims also believe the "Promised Messiah" and the "Mahdi" are the same person, and that it is through his teachings, influence and prayers – and those of his successors and followers – that Islam will eventually overcome the Anti-Christ or Dajjal in a period similar to the period of time it took for nascent Christianity to rise (see also: Ahmadiyya relationship with Christianity); and that the Dajjal's power will slowly fade away, heralding the prophecised final victory of Islam and the age of peace. They also believe that the 'Gate of Lud' mentioned in certain hadith refers to Ludgate where St Paul is thought to have preached the message of Christianity according to the Sonnini Manuscript of the Acts of the Apostles.[26]

See also

References

  1. ^ Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, Al-Dajjāl, p. 43.
  2. ^ The Continuum History of Apocalypticism, edited by Bernard McGinn et al, The Continuum International publishing group Inc., 15 East 26th Street, New York, NY 10010, Published 2003, ISBN 0-8264-1520-2, 677 pages, page 387.
  3. ^ Hughes, Patrick T. (1996). A Dictionary of Islam. Laurier Books. p. 64. ISBN 9788120606722. Retrieved 2012-04-20. 
  4. ^ a b Sahih al-Bukhari, 3:30:105
  5. ^ a b c Bilgrami, Sayed Tahir (2005). "6". Essence of Life, A translation of Ain al-Hayat by Allama Mohammad Baqir Majlisi. Qum: Ansarian Publications. p. 104. 
  6. ^ Sunan Abi Dawud 4321, In-book reference: Book 39, Hadith 31, English translation: Book 38, Hadith 4307
  7. ^ Sunan Abi Dawud 4294, In-book reference: Book 39, Hadith 4, English translation: Book 38, Hadith 4281, Hasan
  8. ^ Collected by Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj Nishapuri Sahih Muslim Sahih Muslim, 41:7007
  9. ^ Sahih Muslim English reference : Book 41, Hadith 7028; Arabic reference : Book 55, Hadith 7573, http://www.hadithcollection.com/sahihmuslim/169-Sahih%20Muslim%20Book%2041.%20Turmoil%20And%20Portents%20Of%20The%20Last%20Hour/15268-sahih-muslim-book-041-hadith-number-7028.html
  10. ^ Sunan Abi Dawud 4294, In-book reference: Book 39, Hadith 4, English translation: Book 38, Hadith 4281, Hasan
  11. ^ http://sunnah.com/ibnmajah/36/147
  12. ^ Elias, Mufti A.H. "Jesus (Isa) A.S. in Islam, and his Second Coming". Islam.tc. Retrieved 2012-04-20. 
  13. ^ a b "The descension of Sayyidena Eesa". Muslimaccess.com. Retrieved 2012-04-20. 
  14. ^ Sahih Muslim, 41:7023
  15. ^ Ali, Mohammed Ali Ibn Zubair. "Who is the evil Dajjal (the "anti-Christ")?". Islam.tc. Retrieved 2012-04-20. 
  16. ^ Bilgrami, Sayed Tahir (2005). "6". Essence of Life, A translation of Ain al-Hayat by Allama Mohammad Baqir Majlisi. Qum: Ansarian Publications. p. 105. 
  17. ^ al-Qarashi, Allama Baqir Sharif (2006). The Life of Imam al-Mahdi Peace Be Upon Him. Qum: Ansarian Publications. p. 343. 
  18. ^ "Chapter 18, Sura al-Kahf (the Cave), English, 5 volume commentary". Retrieved 20 September 2015. 
  19. ^ a b c "The Anti-Christ of the Latter Days (al-Masih al-Dajjal)". Retrieved 20 September 2015. 
  20. ^ Islam and Communism
  21. ^ "Unveiling of the 'Unseen' by the Quran" in "Knowledge Revelation, Rationality and Truth" by Mirza Tahir Ahmad, hosted on Al Islam, the official Website of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community.
  22. ^ http://www.alislam.org/library/browse/book/The_Essence_of_Islam/?p=3#page/283/mode/1up
  23. ^ Tadhkirah, Translated by Muhammad Zafrullah Khan, Islam International Publications, "Islamabad" Sheephatch Lane, Tilford, Surrey GU10 2AQ UK, 1976, ISBN 978-1-84880-051-9, 1366 pages, p. 288
  24. ^ "Jesus, a Humble Prophet of God". Al Islam. 
  25. ^ "Death of Jesus", by Shahid Aziz, Bulletin October 2001, Ahmadiyya Anjuman Ishaat Islam Lahore (UK)
    The Promised Mehdi and Messiah, p. 50, "Jesus Migrated to India", by Aziz Ahmad Chaudhry, Islam International Publications Limited
  26. ^ Ahmad, Hadhrat Mirza Tahir - Khalifatul Masih IV Friday Sermon 17 January 2003

External links