دبه (ستاره)

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دبه
Ursa major star Persian2.JPG
محل دبه در صورت فلکی خرس بزرگ
اطلاعات رصدی
مبدا J2000      اعتدال J2000
صورت فلکی خرس بزرگ
بعد ۱۱h ۰۳m ۴۳.۷s
میل +۶۱° ۴۵′ ۰۳″
قدر ظاهری (V)۱.۷۹ (۱.۸۷/۴.۸۱/۷.۱۲)
مشخصات
ردهK0 III / F0 V / F8
راهنمای رنگ U-B0.92
راهنمای رنگ B-V1.07
اخترسنجی
سرعت شعاعی (Rv)−۹ km/s
حرکت مخصوص (μ) RA: −۱۳۶.۴۶ mas/yr
Dec.: −۳۵.۲۵ mas/yr
اختلاف منظر (π)۲۶.۳۸ mas
قدر مطلق (MV)−۱.۰۹/۱.۸۳/۴.۲۲
جزئیات
جرم۴/۱.۷ M
شعاع۳۰/۱.۳ R
درخشندگی۳۰۰ L
دما۴,۵۰۰/۷,۴۰۰ K
سن? سال
نام‌گذاری‌های دیگر
Dubhe, Dubb, Ak, 50 UMa, HR 4301, BD +62°1161, HD 95689, SAO 15384, FK5 417, GC 15185, ADS 8035, CCDM 11037+6145, HIP 54061.
منابع
سیمباداطلاعات

دُبّه (به انگلیسی: Dubhe) یا آلفا خرس بزرگ (Alpha Ursae Majoris، به اختصار Alpha UMa یا α UMa) از نظر درخشندگی (جدا از این که آلفا نامگذاری شده است)، دومین ستارهٔ صورت‌فلکی خرس بزرگ است. این ستاره، یک سامانهٔ ستاره‌ای چهارگانه است که در فاصلهٔ ۱۲۴ سال نوری زمین قرار گرفته است. اگرچه در روش نامگذاری بایر این ستاره آلفا نامیده شده‌است، اما قدر ظاهری دبه ۱٫۷۹ است[۱] که از ستاره جون یا اپسیلون دب‌اکبر با قدر ظاهری ۱٫۷۷ کم‌نورتر است.[۲]

نامگذاری[ویرایش]

α Ursae Majoris (لاتینِ آلفای خرس بزرگ) اسم ستاره در روش نامگذاری بایر است.

اسم سنتی این ستاره در زبان‌های اروپایی برگرفته از کلمهٔ عربی ظهر الدب الاكبر به معنی پشت خرس بزرگ‌تر است. اسم مهجورتر آن اک به معنی چشم است. [۳]

پدیداری[ویرایش]

سامانه چهارتایی[ویرایش]

سرشتاری[ویرایش]

منابع[ویرایش]

  1. Carney, Bruce W.؛ و دیگران ((March 2008)). «Rotation and Macroturbulence in Metal-poor Field Red Giant and Red Horizontal Branch Stars». Astronomical Journal 135 (3): ۸۹۲–۹۰۶. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/135/3/892. تاریخ وارد شده در |تاریخ= را بررسی کنید (کمک); پارامتر |تاریخ بازیابی= نیاز به وارد کردن |پیوند= دارد (کمک)
  2. «UBVRIJKL Photometry of the Bright Stars». Communications of the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Volume 4, Part 1, p.99-110. ۱۹۶۶. بیبکد:1966CoLPL...4...99J. پارامتر |تاریخ بازیابی= نیاز به وارد کردن |پیوند= دارد (کمک)
  3. Richard Hinckley، Allen, , (۱۹۶۳). Star names : their lore and meaning (ویراست Dover ed). New York: Dover Publications. صص. p٫ ۴۳۸. شابک ۰۴۸۶۲۱۰۷۹۰.

α Ursae Majoris
Ursa Major constellation map.svg
Red circle.svg
Location of α Ursae Majoris (circled)
Observation data
Epoch J2000      Equinox J2000
Constellation Ursa Major
Right ascension  11h 03m 43.67152s[1]
Declination +61° 45′ 03.7249″[1]
Apparent magnitude (V) 1.79[2]
Characteristics
Spectral type K0III[3] + F0V[4]
U−B color index +0.93[2]
B−V color index +1.07[2]
Variable type Suspected[5]
Astrometry
Radial velocity (Rv)–9[6] km/s
Proper motion (μ) RA: –134.11[1] mas/yr
Dec.: –34.70[1] mas/yr
Parallax (π)26.54 ± 0.48[1] mas
Distance123 ± 2 ly
(37.7 ± 0.7 pc)
Absolute magnitude (MV)–1.10 ± 0.04[7]
Orbit[4]
Companionα UMa B
Period (P)44.4 yr
Semi-major axis (a)0.603″
Eccentricity (e)0.4
Inclination (i)180°
Longitude of the node (Ω)2000°
Periastron epoch (T)1958.000
Details
α UMa A
Mass4.25[3] M
Luminosity316[3] L
Surface gravity (log g)2.46[8] cgs
Temperature4,660[8] K
Metallicity [Fe/H]–0.20 ± 0.07[8] dex
Rotational velocity (v sin i)2.6 ± 1.0[7] km/s
α UMa B
Mass~1.6[3] M
Other designations
Dubhe, Ak, α Ursae Majoris, α UMa, Alpha UMa, 50 UMa, BD+62°1161, CCDM J11037+6145AB, FK5 417, GC 15185, HD 95689, HIP 54061, HR 4301, PPM 17705, SAO 15384, WDS J11037+6145AB[9]
Database references
SIMBADdata

Alpha Ursae Majoris (Latinised from α Ursae Majoris, abbreviated Alpha UMa, α UMa), formally named Dubhe /ˈdʌb/,[10][11] is, despite being designated "α" (alpha), the second-brightest object in the constellation of Ursa Major.

Stellar system

Dubhe A & B
α Ursae Majoris A and faint companion binaries

Alpha Ursae Majoris forms part of the Big Dipper (also known as the Plough or the Great Bear), and is the northern of the 'pointers' (or 'guards'), the two stars of Ursa Major which point towards Polaris, the North Star.

α Ursae Majoris is about 123 light years from the Sun. It is a spectroscopic binary made up of the stars α Ursae Majoris A and α Ursae Majoris B. α Ursae Majoris A is the primary star, and it is a giant star that has evolved away from the main sequence after consuming the hydrogen at its core. The secondary star, α Ursae Majoris B, is a main sequence star that has a stellar classification of F0V. It orbits at a mean separation of about 23 astronomical units (AU) and completes an orbit every 44.4 years.[4]

There is another spectroscopic binary 8 arcminutes distant, a 7th magnitude pair showing an F8 spectral type. It is sometimes referred to as Alpha Ursae Majoris C, but is separately catalogued as HD 95638.[4]

α Ursae Majoris has been reported to vary in brightness by about a thousandth of a magnitude. Ten radial oscillation modes have been detected, with periods between 6.4 hours and 6.4 days.[12]

Although it is part of the constellation of Ursa Major, it is not part of the Ursa Major Moving Group of stars that have a common motion through space.[13]

Nomenclature

α Ursae Majoris (Latinised to Alpha Ursae Majoris) is the star system's Bayer designation.

It bore the traditional names Dubhe and Ak. Dubhe derives from the Arabic for 'bear', dubb, from the phrase ظهر الدب الاكبر żahr ad-dubb al-akbar 'the back of the Greater Bear'. The rarer Ak means 'The Eye'.[14] In 2016, the International Astronomical Union organized a Working Group on Star Names (WGSN)[15] to catalog and standardize proper names for stars. The WGSN's first bulletin of July 2016[16] included a table of the first two batches of names approved by the WGSN; which included Dubhe for the star α Ursae Majoris A.

The Hindus refer to the star as Kratu, one of the Seven Rishis.[14]

In Chinese, 北斗 Běi Dǒu, meaning Northern Dipper, refers to an asterism equivalent to the Big Dipper. Consequently, the Chinese name for Alpha Ursae Majoris itself is 北斗一 Běi Dǒu yī, (English: the First Star of Northern Dipper) and 天樞 Tiān Shū, (English: Star of Celestial Pivot).[17]

In culture

Dubhe is the official star of the State of Utah.[citation needed]

Dubhe was a ship in the United States Navy. The Danish National Home Guard Navy ship MHV806 is also named Dubhe.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e van Leeuwen, F. (November 2007). "Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 474 (2): 653–664. arXiv:0708.1752. Bibcode:2007A&A...474..653V. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078357.
  2. ^ a b c Johnson, H. L.; et al. (1966), "UBVRIJKL photometry of the bright stars", Communications of the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, 4 (99): 99, Bibcode:1966CoLPL...4...99J
  3. ^ a b c d Guenther, D. B.; Demarque, P.; Buzasi, D.; Catanzarite, J.; Laher, R.; Conrow, T.; Kreidl, T. (2000). "Evolutionary Model and Oscillation Frequencies for α Ursae Majoris: A Comparison with Observations". The Astrophysical Journal. 530 (1): L45–L48. Bibcode:2000ApJ...530L..45G. doi:10.1086/312473. PMID 10642202.
  4. ^ a b c d Tokovinin, A. A. (1997). "MSC - a catalogue of physical multiple stars". Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement Series. 124: 75. Bibcode:1997A&AS..124...75T. doi:10.1051/aas:1997181.
  5. ^ Samus, N. N.; Durlevich, O. V.; et al. (2009). "VizieR Online Data Catalog: General Catalogue of Variable Stars (Samus+ 2007-2013)". VizieR On-line Data Catalog: B/gcvs. Originally published in: 2009yCat....102025S. 1. Bibcode:2009yCat....102025S.
  6. ^ Wilson, Ralph Elmer (1953), "General catalogue of stellar radial velocities", Washington, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Bibcode:1953GCRV..C......0W
  7. ^ a b Carney, Bruce W.; et al. (March 2008), "Rotation and Macroturbulence in Metal-Poor Field Red Giant and Red Horizontal Branch Stars", The Astronomical Journal, 135 (3): 892–906, arXiv:0711.4984, Bibcode:2008AJ....135..892C, doi:10.1088/0004-6256/135/3/892
  8. ^ a b c McWilliam, Andrew (December 1990), "High-resolution spectroscopic survey of 671 GK giants. I - Stellar atmosphere parameters and abundances", Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 74: 1075–1128, Bibcode:1990ApJS...74.1075M, doi:10.1086/191527
  9. ^ "DUBHE -- Spectroscopic binary", SIMBAD, Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg, retrieved 2011-12-23
  10. ^ Kunitzsch, Paul; Smart, Tim (2006). A Dictionary of Modern star Names: A Short Guide to 254 Star Names and Their Derivations (2nd rev. ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Sky Pub. ISBN 978-1-931559-44-7.
  11. ^ "IAU Catalog of Star Names". Retrieved 28 July 2016.
  12. ^ Buzasi, D.; Catanzarite, J.; Laher, R.; Conrow, T.; Shupe, D.; Gautier, T. N.; Kreidl, T.; Everett, D. (2000). "The Detection of Multimodal Oscillations on α Ursae Majoris". The Astrophysical Journal. 532 (2): L133. arXiv:astro-ph/0002512. Bibcode:2000ApJ...532L.133B. doi:10.1086/312573. PMID 10715242.
  13. ^ Motz, Lloyd; Nathanson, Carol (1988). The Constellations: An Enthusiast's Guide To The Night Sky. Doubleday. p. 39. ISBN 978-0385176002.
  14. ^ a b Allen, R. H. (1963). Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning (Reprint ed.). New York: Dover Publications Inc. p. 438. ISBN 0-486-21079-0. Retrieved 2012-09-04.
  15. ^ "IAU Working Group on Star Names (WGSN)". Retrieved 22 May 2016.
  16. ^ "Bulletin of the IAU Working Group on Star Names, No. 1" (PDF). Retrieved 28 July 2016.
  17. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Chinese) AEEA (Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy) 天文教育資訊網 2006 年 6 月 15 日