دانشگاه وریج بروکسل
مختصات: دانشگاه آزاد بروکسل (به فلامان:Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB): فریه اونیورسیتِت بروسِل) یکی از دانشگاههای هلندی زبان کشور بلژیک است که در شهر بروکسل واقع شدهاست. این دانشگاه در سال ۱۸۳۴ پایهگذاری شده و دارای دو پردیس به نام ایکسِل و یِته است. این دانشگاه شامل ۸ دانشکده میباشد و مأموریت این دانشکدهها آموزش، تحقیق و خدمات به جامعه است. دانشکدهها طیف گستردهای از زمینههای علمی را که شامل علوم طبیعی، کلاسیک، علوم زیستی، علوم اجتماعی، علوم انسانی و مهندسی میباشد را ارائه میدهند. این دانشگاه در سال ۲۰۱۹، تعداد ۱۰۸۱۵ دانشجو دارد که از این میان ۴۸ درصد آن را دانشجویان کارشناسی و ۵۲ در صد را دانشجویان تحصیلات تکمیلی تشکیل میدهند. این دانشگاه در زمینه تحقیقات بسیار قوی میباشد به طوریکه در میان دانشگاههای برتر تحقیقاتی در سال ۲۰۱۹ رتبه ۱۸۸ را از آن خود کردهاست. مقالات پژوهشی این دانشگاه بهطور متوسط بیش از مقالاتی است که توسط هر دانشگاه دیگری در فلاندر منتشر شدهاست.
دانشکدههای دانشگاه آزاد بروکسل عبارتند از:
اکثر دانشکدهها در پردیس Etterbeek واقع شدهاند. این پردیس دارای تعداد زیادی آزمایشگاه و تالار کنفرانس میباشد. علاوه بر این این پردیس مجهز به یک مرکز ورزشی مدرن، زمین فوتبال و استخر شنا، رستوران، کافه و… میباشد. پردیس دانشگاه در Jette نیز یک پردیس جامع است. بیمارستان دانشگاه در همسایگی این پردیس قراردارد و همه دورهها و تحقیقات در پزشکی، داروسازی، دندانپزشکی، علوم زیست پزشکی و پیرا پزشکی در این پردیس انجام میشود. پردیس Kaai در سال ۲۰۱۳ در آندرلشت تأسیس شد و دانشکده مهندسی و آزمایشگاههای صنعتی این دانشگاه در این پردیس واقع شدهاند.
در رتبهبندی مؤسسه QS در سال ۲۰۱۹ دانشگاه آزاد بروکسل در رتبه ۱۸۸ برترین دانشگاههای جهان و چهارم بلژیک قرار دارد. در رتبهبندی برترین دانشگاههای جهان در سال ۲۰۱۹ که توسط مؤسسه عالی تایمز صورت گرفته این دانشگاه در رده ۳۰۰–۲۵۱ دانشگاههای جهان قرار گرفتهاست.
The Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) listen (help·info) (English: Free University of Brussels-VUB) is a Dutch- and English-speaking research university located in Brussels, Belgium. It has four campuses: Brussels Humanities, Science and Engineering Campus (in Ixelles), Brussels Health Campus (in Jette), Brussels Technology Campus (in Anderlecht) and Brussels Photonics Campus (in Gooik).
The Vrije Universiteit Brussel was formed by the splitting in 1970 of the Université libre de Bruxelles (English: Free University of Brussels-ULB), which was founded in 1834 by the Flemish-Brussels lawyer Pierre-Théodore Verhaegen. He wanted to establish a university independent from state and church, where academic freedom would be prevalent. This is today still reflected in the university's motto Scientia vincere tenebras, or Conquering darkness by science, and in its more recent slogan Redelijk eigenzinnig (in Dutch), or Reasonably opinionated. Accordingly, the university is pluralistic — it is open to all students on the basis of equality regardless of their ideological, political, cultural or social background – and it is managed using democratic structures, which means that all members – from students to faculty – participate in the decision-making processes.
The university is organised into 8 faculties that accomplish the three central missions of the university: education, research, and service to the community. The faculties cover a broad range of fields of knowledge including the natural sciences, classics, life sciences, social sciences, humanities, and engineering. The university provides bachelor, master, and doctoral education to about 8,000 undergraduate and 1,000 graduate students. It is also a strongly research-oriented institute, which has led to its top-189th position among universities worldwide. Its research articles are on average more cited than articles by any other Flemish university.
Establishment of a university in Brussels
The history of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel is closely linked with that of Belgium itself. At the time of the declaration of independence of Belgium in 1830, three state universities existed in the cities of Ghent, Liège and Leuven. In Brussels, the capital of the newly established country, a university was lacking. A group of leading intellectuals in the fields of arts, science, and education – amongst whom Auguste Baron and the astronomer and mathematician Adolphe Quetelet — pointed out the advantages of a university to the new capital and country. Initially, they sought for the establishment of a state university, but the Belgian government showed little enthusiasm due to the onerous financial burden of yet another state university.
In 1834, the Belgian episcopate decided to establish a Catholic university in Mechelen with the aim of regaining the influence of the Catholic Church on the academic scene in Belgium, and the Belgian government had the intent to close the state university at Leuven and donate the buildings to the Catholic institution. The liberals in Belgium strongly opposed to this decision, and furthered their ideas for a university in Brussels as a counterbalance to the Catholic institution. At the same time, Auguste Baron had just become a member of the freemasonic lodge "Les Amis Philantropes", as had a large number of other intellectuals with enlightened ideas. Baron was able to convince Pierre-Théodore Verhaegen, the president of the lodge, to support the idea for a new university. On 24 June 1834, Verhaegen presented his plan to establish a free university.
After sufficient funding was collected among advocates, the Université libre de Bruxelles was inaugurated on 20 November 1834, in the Gothic room of the city hall of Brussels. After its establishment, the Université libre de Bruxelles faced difficult times, since it did receive no subsidies or grants from the government; yearly fundraising events and tuition fees provided the only financial means. Verhaegen, who became a professor and later head of the new university, gave it a mission statement which he summarized in a speech to King Leopold I: the principle of free inquiry and academic freedom uninfluenced by any political or religious authority.
Splitting of the university
In the nineteenth century, courses at the Université libre de Bruxelles were taught exclusively in French, the language of the upper class in Belgium at that time. However, with the Dutch-speaking population asking for more rights in Belgium, some courses were already taught in Dutch at the Faculty of Law as early as 1935. Nevertheless, it was not until 1963 that all faculties offered their courses in Dutch. On 1 October 1969, the university was finally split in two sister institutions: the French-speaking Université libre de Bruxelles and the Dutch-speaking Vrije Universiteit Brussel. This splitting became official by the law of 28 May 1970, of the Belgian parliament, by which the Vrije Universiteit Brussel and the Université libre de Bruxelles became two separate legal entities.
The Vrije Universiteit Brussel is an independent institution. The members of all its governing entities are elected by the entire academic community – including faculty staff, researchers, personnel, and students. This system guarantees the democratic process of decision-making and the independence from state and outside organisations. Nevertheless, the university receives significant funding from the Flemish government, although less than other Flemish universities. Other important funding sources are grants for research projects (mostly from Belgian and European funding agencies), scholarships of academic members, revenues from cooperation with industry, and tuition fees to a lesser extent.
These faculties benefit a wide autonomy over how they structure their educational programmes and research efforts, although their decisions need to comply with the university's statutes and must be approved by the central administration.
The central administration is formed by the Governing Board, which is currently presided by Eddy Van Gelder. It decides the university's long-term vision and must approve all decisions made by the faculties. The Governing Board is supported by three advising bodies: the Research Council, the Education Council, and the Senate. These bodies provide advice to the Governing Board on all issues regarding research, education, and the academic excellence of faculty staff, and may also propose changes to the university's strategy. The daily management of the university is the responsibility of the Rector and three Vice-Rectors. The current Rector of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel is Prof. Dr. Caroline Pauwels 
The Vrije Universiteit Brussel offers courses in a large variety of modern disciplines: law, economics, social sciences, management, psychology, physical sciences, life sciences, medical sciences, pharmaceutical sciences, humanities, engineering, physical education. About 12,000 students follow one of its 128 educational programmes. All programmes are taught in Dutch, but 59 are also taught in English. In agreement with the Bologna process, the university has implemented the so-called bachelor-master system. It therefore issues four types of degrees: bachelor's, master's, master after master's, and doctoral degrees.
Admission to the programmes is generally not restricted; anyone can subscribe to the programme of his/her choice. However, prerequisite degrees may be mandatory for advanced programmes, e.g., a bachelor's degree is required to subscribe to a master's programme, and a master's degree is required to subscribe to a master after master's or doctoral programme. An exception to this is the admission exam to the bachelor in medicine, which is required following ruling of the Flemish government. Tuition fees are low, and even decreased or eliminated for some students with less financial means.
The academic year is divided into two semesters, each spanning thirteen course weeks: the first semester lasts from October to January, the second semester from February to June. Students take exams in January and June. Apart from the Christmas and Easter holidays (both lasting two weeks) that are normally used to prepare for the exams, students are free the week between both semesters and during the summer vacations from July to September.
The university has implemented several quality control schemes in order to preserve the high quality of its educational programmes. Each semester, all students evaluate the courses they have followed. All programmes are also regularly assessed by internal panels and by external international visitation committees. Furthermore, all programmes are accredited by the Nederlands-Vlaamse Accreditatie Organisatie, an independent accreditation organisation charged with the accreditation of higher education programmes in both Flanders and the Netherlands.
The Vrije Universiteit Brussel considers itself an open-minded and tolerant university. Its central principles are the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in particular the principle of free inquiry for the progress of humanity. The latter includes the dismissal of any argument of authority and the right of free opinion. The Vrije Universiteit Brussel is the only Flemish university that has incorporated such principle in its statutes. The principle of free inquiry is often described by a quotation of the French mathematician and philosopher Henri Poincaré:
This principle is also reflected in the university's motto Scientia vincere tenebras, or Conquering darkness by science, and in its seal. The seal of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel displays a beggar's wallet and joined hands on the orange-white-blue (the colours of the Prince of Orange) escutcheon in the emblem, referring to the struggle of the Protestant Geuzen and the Prince of Orange against the oppressive Spanish rule and the Inquisition in the sixteenth century.
Another basic principle of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel – also incorporated in the university's statutes – is that the institution must be managed according to the model of democracy. Practically, this means that all members of the academic community — faculty staff, researchers, personnel, and students – are represented in all governing bodies. In this way, the university ensures that everyone has a voice in its decision-making processes and participates in its management. This principle must also guarantee the independence of the university and the academic freedom.
Campus and facilities
Brussels Humanities, Sciences & Engineering Campus
Brussels Health Campus
Brussels Technology Campus
Brussels Photonics Campus in Gooik.
The Vrije Universiteit Brussel cooperates with several institutions of higher education. They are:
Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiology
The Heart Rhythm Management Centre started its activities at the University Hospital UZ Brussel during spring 2007. The clinical activities soon rocketed to the #1 position in Belgium, and has been paralleled by important scientific production. Emerging fields of activity are multidisciplinary (clinical) and translational (research) programs in collaboration with the departments of Genetics, Pediatrics, Neonatology, Geriatrics, Neurology, as well as a fundamental research program in Physiology. The large scope of clinical activities, fuelled by increasing patient demand in Belgium and elsewhere, together with the presence of a state-of-the-art infrastructure and a research-stimulating multidisciplinary academic environment unique in Europe, as well as the intrinsic qualities of Professor Prof. Dr. Pedro Brugada and his team, are a unique opportunity for the Vrije Universiteit Brussel to implement this academic training program.
This Postgraduate course in Cardiac Electrophysiology and Pacing – is offered within the Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy – after a specialization in Cardiology, and is supported by the Institute for Postgraduate Training of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (iPAVUB). The core faculty for the Postgraduate program includes Prof. Dr. Pedro Brugada, who directs the EP fellowship training and the Cardiovascular Department, Prof. Dr. Carlo de Asmundis, Director of the Heart rhythm Management Centre, Prof. Dr. Gian Battista Chierchia, Director of Atrial Fibrillation Program, Prof. Dr. Marc La Meir and Prof. Dr. Francis Wellens, Director of Cardiac Surgery Service. Additional faculty who participate in the program includes: Prof. Dr. Bonduelle Mary-Louise and Prof. Dr. Ramon Brugada, who trains fellows in cardiac genetics, Prof. Dr. Joel Smets, University of Nijmegen, Nederland, who trains fellows in electrocardiography and basic electrophysiology.
Every student that enrolls at the VUB, automatically becomes a member of the Brussels Studentengenootschap (BSG – Brussels Student Society), unless they refuse to be. This means that every student has the right to vote and participate in the annual elections for the BSG committee. The BSG is the umbrella organisation for all other student organizations and acts as the defender of the moral interests of the students. Together with their French-speaking counterparts ACE at the ULB, they organise the annual St V memorial.
These are some of the student organizations at the VUB:
Members of these organizations (except VUBMUN) wear a klak (Dutch) or penne (French).
Furthermore, the VUB has student organizations for students with a specific regional background. They are: Antverpia (Antwerp), Westland (Westhoek), WUK (West Flanders), KBS (Brussels and Flemish Brabant), Campina (Campine), Kinneke Baba (East Flanders), Limburgia (Limburg), VSKM (Mechelen) and Hesbania (Haspengouw). There are also several organizations for specific majors within a faculty, such as Infogroep (computer science), Biotecho (bio-engineering), bru:tecture (previously Pantheon) (architecture) and Promeco (economics). Last but not least there are organizations centered around a common interest, such as the Society of Weird And Mad People (SWAMP, for all kinds of games) and BierKultuur (based on the rich beer culture in Belgium).
In 2017 and 2018, it was reported  that the Vrije Universiteit Brussels did unscrupulous practices of not fully refunding deposit monies of international applicants who decided not to attend or who were not able to attend for some reason (e.g. chose another university, or student visa was denied, etc.), thereby not honoring the deposit contracts with applicant students. The university was reported to use undisclosed and excessively favorable exchange rates for the university to hold up to 7-10% of the deposit amounts within a few months, which amounted to 600-900 Euros or approximately $700-$1000 per applicant; so it was estimated that the university was making equivalent of millions of Euros from hundreds of international applicants this way in the past couple of years.
Scientists & Academics
Notable recipients of honorary doctorates (doctor honoris causa) at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel include:
Notes and references