دانشگاه هاروارد

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به ناوبری پرش به جستجو
فارسیEnglish
دانشگاه هاروارد
Harvard shield wreath.svg
لاتین: Universitas Harvardiana
نام پیشین
کالج هاروارد
شعاروریتاس
شعار به انگلیسی
حقیقت
Truth
نوعدانشگاه خصوصی سازمان غیرانتفاعی دانشگاه
تأسیس‌شده۱۶۳۶ (۱۶۳۶)
موقوفه مالیدلار آمریکا۳۹٫۲ بیلیون (FY 2018)
رئیسLawrence S. Bacow
اعضای هیئت علمی۴٬۶۷۱
دانشجویان۲۲٬۰۰۰
کارشناسی۶٬۷۰۰
تحصیلات تکمیلی۱۵٬۲۵۰
موقعیتکمبریج، ماساچوست، ماساچوست، ایالات متحده آمریکا
پردیسمنطقه شهری
۲۱۰ acre (۸۵ هکتار)
NewspaperThe Harvard Crimson
رنگ آموزشگاهزرشکی     
ورزشکارانان‌سی‌ای‌ای بخش یکمآیوی لیگ
نام ورزشیHarvard Crimson
تعلق ورزشی بهNAICU
AICUM
انجمن دانشگاه‌های آمریکایی
URA
وبگاهharvard.edu
Harvard University logo.svg

مختصات: ۴۲°۲۲′۲۸″ شمالی ۷۱°۰۷′۰۱″ غربی / ۴۲٫۳۷۴۴۴°شمالی ۷۱٫۱۱۶۹۴°غربی / 42.37444; -71.11694

دانشگاه هاروارد (به انگلیسی: Harvard University)برترین دانشگاه آمریکا و جهان است و به عنوان دانشگاه خصوصی در شهر کمبریج ایالت ماساچوست در ایالات متحدهٔ آمریکا است. قسمت‌هایی از دانشگاه هاروارد مثل دانشکدهٔ پزشکی و دانشکدهٔ بازرگانی در شهر مجاور کمبریج یعنی بوستون قرار دارد. هاروارد در سال ۱۶۳۶ میلادی (۱۰۱۵ خورشیدی) توسط هیئت قانون‌گذاران «مهاجرنشین (کولونی) خلیج ماساچوست» ساخته شد. این دانشگاه اولین مؤسسهٔ آموزش عالی در کشور آمریکا و همچنین اولین بنیاد در آمریکای شمالی به‌شمار می‌رود. نام آن در ابتدا «دانشکدهٔ نو» یا «دانشکده در شهرک نو» بود که بعدها در ۱۳ مارس ۱۶۳۹ کشیشی به نام جان هاروارد ۴۰۰ جلد کتاب به کتابخانهٔ این دانشگاه و همچنین مبلغ ۷۷۹ پوند به این دانشگاه کمک نمود.[۱] قدیمی‌ترین مؤسسه آموزش عالی در آمریکا به تَبَع نام اولین فردی که زمین و کتاب‌های خود را وقف ساختن آن کرد، هاروارد نام گرفت.[۲]

در طول ۴۰ سال ریاست چارلز ویلیام الیوت، وی اصلاحات بزرگی را در این دانشگاه پدیدآورد که از کارهای او می‌توان به: دوره‌های انتخابی، کلاس‌های کوچک و امتحانات ورودی اشاره کرد. این اصلاحات بر روی آموزش و پرورش آمریکا تأثیر گذاشته و هم آموزش متوسطه و هم آموزش عالی آمریکا به این شیوه تغییر یافت.[۳][۴][۵]

دانشگاه هاروارد همیشه یکی از بالاترین رتبه‌های دانشگاه‌ها را در سطح جهان داشته و یکی از قدرتمندترین مؤسسه‌های مالی غیرانتفاعی است. این دانشگاه به اتفاق دانشگاه ییل، همیشه دو رقیب اصلی در مسابقات علمی، فوتبال و قایق‌رانی بوده‌اند.

تاریخچه تأسیس دانشگاه هاروارد[ویرایش]

در سال ۱۶۳۸ آن ناحیه و دانشگاه تازه تأسیس را به نام کمبریج نام‌گذاری کردند. در همان سال جان هاروارد یکی از وزیران پیوریتن و وزیر امور داخلی آمریکا که استاد یکی از شعبه‌های دانشگاه کمبریج بود در هنگام مرگ، نیمی از سرمایه و املاک خود را که ۷۸۰ پوند بود با چهارصد جلد کتاب به کالج بخشید و کالج مزبور در سال ۱۶۳۹ به‌افتخار این مرد، هاروارد نامیده شد. تاریخچهٔ هاروارد در حقیقت از سال ۱۶۴۰ آغاز می‌شود. نخستین جشن دانش‌آموختگان دانشگاه هاروارد در سال ۱۶۴۲ برگزار شد. بر سردر این دانشگاه لوحه‌ای نصب شده که متن آن چنین است:

«چون خداوند به‌سلامت ما را به سرزمین نیوانگلند رسانید، به یاری او خانه‌های خود را ساختیم و برای ادامهٔ زندگانی خود وسایلی برانگیختیم و مکان‌های مناسبی برای پرستش پروردگار پی‌افکندیم و به تشکیل یک دولت غیرنظامی همت گماشتیم. اما آرزوی بزرگی را که در قلب خود می‌پروراندیم و در پی تحقق آن روزشماری می‌کردیم، آموزش و پرورش بود که سعادت جاودانه در پی داشت. ما نمی‌خواستیم که دیو بی‌سوادی در کلیساها به جای ماند و کشیشان ما در تاریکی نادانی به‌سر برند.»

امور تشکیلاتی و اداری[ویرایش]

بر اساس منشور مورخ ۱۶۵۰ دانشگاه برای پیشرفت علم، هنر و ادبیات به آموزش جوانان انگلیسی و بومی اختصاص یافت. دومین ساختمان دانشگاه، «کالج بومیان»، در سال ۱۶۵۴ تأسیس شد و مؤسسهٔ انتشارات و مطبوعات دانشگاه که از سال ۱۶۳۸ تا آن زمان در ساختمان رئیس دانشگاه بود، به‌آن محل انتقال یافت. به‌احتمال قوی در سال‌های ۱۶۶۱ و ۱۶۶۳، ترجمه کتاب مقدس به زبان بومیان آن سرزمین، توسط جان الیوت در همین کالج به چاپ رسید. با توجه به حمایت‌های مالی که دانشگاه برای پیشرفت اهداف خود از خارج دریافت نمود، از همان آغاز تأسیس به اهمیت شایانی دست یافت. منشور مصوبه دانشگاه هاروارد تا سال ۱۷۰۷، مرجع اساسی و تغییرناپذیر ادارهٔ دانشگاه به‌شمار می‌رفت. بر مبنای این منشور، سازمانی مرکب از یک رئیس و یک خزانه‌دار و پنج استاد به‌طور رسمی مقررات اداری دانشگاه را وضع نموده و به امور مالی و هزینه کردن وجوه دریافتی، نظارت مستقیم داشتند. این سازمان به وسیله هیئت ناظرانی که در سال ۱۶۴۲ تعیین شده بود، کنترل می‌شد. کم‌کم اوضاع و احوال ایجاب کرد که هیئت اداره‌کنندهٔ دانشگاه، از استادان مقیم آن تشکیل شود. امروزه دانشکده‌های گوناگون، دارای هیئت‌های قانون‌گذاری هستند که مستقیماً عهده‌دار نظم و برقراری آرامش در محیط دانشکده هستند. در اوان تأسیس این دانشگاه، هیئت ناظران از بین نمایندگان مشترک ایالت (دولت) و کلیسا تشکیل شده و دولت که مؤسس و مدیر کالج بود سازمان هاروارد را یک بنگاه دولتی تلقی کرده که در این راستا اختلافات تنگ‌نظرانه و متعصبانه نیز نمایان بود و سرانجام این کشمکش‌ها به سود دانشگاه هاروارد پایان یافت. در سال ۱۷۸۰ کالج هاروارد به دانشگاه هاروارد تغییر یافت. نخستین مدیران و رهبران کالج طبعاً کلیسا بود، اما در پی تغییراتی که در ترکیب هیئت ناظران پدیدار شد، دانشگاه هاروارد از زیر کنترل روحانیت و سرانجام از قید سیاست‌مداران دولتی رهایی یافت. از سال ۱۸۶۵ هیئت مدیرهٔ دانشگاه از بین دانش‌آموختگان پیشین آن برگزیده شد و کنترل دانشگاه را به‌طور کامل به‌عهده گرفت.

دوران پرآشوب[ویرایش]

در نیمه دوم قرن هفدهم میلادی هنگامی که اتحاد میان پیوریتن‌ها از نظر سیاست و مذهب عملی شد، بار دیگر عقاید روحانیون انجیلی در عقاید مذهبی دانشگاه مشکلات متعددی پدیدآورد. افراد محافظه‌کار بار دیگر در هیئت ناظران رخنه کردند. تاریخ این کالج از سال ۱۶۷۳ تا ۱۷۲۸ بسیار پرآشوب بود، یکی از عوامل مهم این ناآرامی‌ها، تأسیس دانشگاه ییل به وسیله محافظه کاران نیوانگلند بود که به‌دنبال ناکامی‌های خود در ادارهٔ دانشگاه هاروارد، اقدام به بنای این دانشگاه نمودند.

دوران نوین[ویرایش]

نخستین رئیس هیئت مدیره دانشگاه هاروارد در سال ۱۷۹۲ انتخاب و در سال ۱۸۰۵ کرسی دانشکده الهیات این دانشگاه، به استادی مؤمن و موحد واگذار شد. سرانجام در سال ۱۸۴۳، هیئت ناظران دانشگاه، به ریاست یک روحانی و مرکب از اشخاص شایسته آغاز به‌کار کرد. عبادت و نمازگذاری که تا آن زمان در دانشگاه هاروارد اجباری بود، در سال ۱۸۸۶ از صحنه دانشگاه برچیده شد. پیرو این تغییر و تحول، روند تشکیلاتی و اداری دانشگاه هاروارد از مسیر عقیدتی و سیاسی بنیان‌گذارانش خارج شد. امروزه دانشگاه هاروارد و دانش‌آموختگان آن در ارتباط و همبستگی کامل با پیشرفت‌های فکری مردم ایالات متحده آمریکا قرار دارد.

موزه‌ها و کتابخانه دانشگاه[ویرایش]

مرکز علم در کالج هاروارد

در محوطه این دانشگاه موزه‌های متعددی، ازجمله موزهٔ هنر فوگ وجود دارد که در آن تابلوهای نقاشی و مجسمه‌ها و آثار چاپ شده قرن هیجده و نوزده اروپا و آمریکا، به تماشا گذاشته‌شده‌است. کتابخانه دانشگاه هاروارد نه تنها قدیمی‌ترین مجموعه فرهنگی در آمریکا بلکه با شعبات خود، بزرگ‌ترین کتابخانه دنیاست و در حال حاضر دارای ۱۴٬۵۰۰٬۰۰۰ جلد کتاب، رساله و میکروفیلم است. بنیاد دانشگاه هاروارد با سرمایه‌ای معادل ۲۵٬۹ میلیارد دلار، ثروتمندترین دانشگاه جهان است. این دانشگاه دارای رشته‌های علوم انسانی، طبیعی، مهندسی، دندان پزشکی، الهیات، آموزش و پرورش، حقوق و پزشکی است. علاوه‌براین در مؤسسات وابسته به‌آن، دوره‌های ویژه خاورشناسی و روسیه‌شناسی، تدریس می‌شود. پروژهٔ تاریخ شفاهی ایران در مرکز ایران‌شناسی این دانشگاه به مدیریت حبیب لاجوردی انجام می‌شود. مجله مروری بر کسب و کار هاروارد که توسط این دانشگاه منتشر می‌گردد یکی از معتبرترین مجلات در زمینه مدیریت است.

پیشگامان دانش و فرهنگ در هاروارد[ویرایش]

تالار ماساچوست: محل کار رئیس دانشگاه و خوابگاه تعدادی از دانشجویان سال اول کالج
تالار یادبود در کالج هاروارد

در زمینه علوم و ادبیات و فلسفه چهره‌های شناخته شده‌ای از این دانشگاه دانش‌آموخته شده‌اند که امروزه از مشاهیر جهان محسوب می‌شوند.

  • استادان بزرگ ریاضی فیزیک

مریم میرزاخانی

هشت تن از رؤسای جمهور تاریخ آمریکا دانش‌آموختهٔ هاروارد بوده‌اند، که عبارتند از:[۶]

دانشکده‌ها[ویرایش]

هاروارد دارای نُه دانشکده با صدوشصت رشتهٔ تحصیلی است.

منابع[ویرایش]

پانویس[ویرایش]

  1. «Microsoft PowerPoint - ۱۰_00_Cover_Text_Added-.ppt» (PDF). بایگانی‌شده از اصلی (PDF) در ۱۱ ژوئن ۲۰۱۰. دریافت‌شده در ۲۴ ژوئن ۲۰۰۹.
  2. «دانشگاه هاروارد». صدای آمریکا. ۲۰۱۵-۰۶-۱۵. دریافت‌شده در ۲۰۱۵-۰۶-۱۵.
  3. «QS Top Universities - Official home of the THE - QS World University Rankings». بایگانی‌شده از اصلی در ۲۰ ژوئیه ۲۰۰۹. دریافت‌شده در ۲۴ ژوئن ۲۰۰۹.
  4. «arwu». بایگانی‌شده از اصلی در ۴ دسامبر ۲۰۰۵. دریافت‌شده در ۲۴ ژوئن ۲۰۰۹.
  5. «The Top 100 Global Universities - Newsweek: International Editions - MSNBC.com». بایگانی‌شده از روی نسخه اصلی در ۲۰ اوت ۲۰۰۶. دریافت‌شده در ۲۰ اوت ۲۰۰۶.
  6. "Obama joins list of seven presidents with Harvard degrees". Harvard Gazette. 2008-11-06. Retrieved 2019-04-07.

پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]

نگارخانه[ویرایش]

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

Harvard University
Harvard shield wreath.svg
Latin: Universitas Harvardiana
Former names
Harvard College
MottoVeritas[1][2]
Motto in English
Truth
TypePrivate nonprofit university
Established1636 (1636)[3]
Endowment$40.9 billion[4]
PresidentLawrence S. Bacow
Academic staff
2,400 (and more than 10,400 academic appointments in affiliated teaching hospitals)[5]
Students20,739 (Fall 2018)[6]
Undergraduates6,788 (Fall 2018)[6]
Postgraduates13,951 (Fall 2018)[6]
Location
42°22′28″N 71°07′01″W / 42.37444°N 71.11694°W / 42.37444; -71.11694Coordinates: 42°22′28″N 71°07′01″W / 42.37444°N 71.11694°W / 42.37444; -71.11694
CampusUrban
209 acres (85 ha)
NewspaperThe Harvard Crimson
Colors     Crimson[7]
AthleticsNCAA Division IIvy League
NicknameHarvard Crimson
AffiliationsNAICU
AICUM
AAU
URA
Websiteharvard.edu

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, with about 6,800 undergraduate students and about 14,000 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning.[8] Its history, influence, wealth, and academic reputation have made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world.[9][10][11][12][13][14]

The Harvard Corporation, chartered in 1650, is the governing body of Harvard. The early College primarily trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, although it has never been formally affiliated with any denomination. Its curriculum and student body were gradually secularized during the 18th century, and by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites.[15][16] Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure (1869–1909) transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university; Harvard was a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900.[17] A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant. James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to liberalize admissions after the war.

The university is organized into eleven principal academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area:[18] its 209-acre (85 ha) main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge, approximately 3 miles (5 km) northwest of Boston; the business school and athletics facilities, including Harvard Stadium, are located across the Charles River in the Allston neighborhood of Boston; and the medical, dental, and public health schools are in the Longwood Medical Area.[19] Harvard's endowment is worth $40.9 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution.[4] Harvard is a large, highly residential research university.[20] The nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages.[21] The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding about 20.4 million items.[22][23][24][25]

Harvard's alumni include eight U.S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 188 living billionaires, 369 Rhodes Scholars, and 252 Marshall Scholars.[26][27][28] As of October 2019, 160 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, and 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers.[29] In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes, and 108 Olympic medals (46 gold, 41 silver, and 21 bronze), as well as founded many notable companies worldwide.[30][31][32]

History

Colonial

The official seal of the Harvard Corporation. Found on Harvard diplomas, it carries the university's original motto, Christo et Ecclesiae ("For Christ and Church"),[1][2] later changed to Veritas ("Truth").[2]
Engraving of Harvard College by Paul Revere, 1767

Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press.[33][34] In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his library of some 400 volumes.[35] The charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650.

A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust";[36] in its early years trained many Puritan ministers.[37] It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model‍—‌many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge‍—‌but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches.[38]

Increase Mather served as president from 1681 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president who was not also a clergyman, marking a turning of the college away from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence.

19th century

In the 19th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will were widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties.[39]:1–4 When Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and President Joseph Willard died a year later, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, and the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency two years later, signaling the shift from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas (defined by traditionalists as Unitarian ideas).[39]:4–5[40]:24

In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences." Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena. When it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time. The popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" probably also derived from other writings to which Harvard students were exposed, including Platonic treatises by Ralph Cudworth, John Norris and, in a Romantic vein, Samuel Taylor Coleridge. The library records at Harvard reveal that the writings of Plato and his early modern and Romantic followers were almost as regularly read during the 19th century as those of the "official philosophy" of the more empirical and more deistic Scottish school.[41]

Charles W. Eliot, president 1869–1909, eliminated the favored position of Christianity from the curriculum while opening it to student self-direction. While Eliot was the most crucial figure in the secularization of American higher education, he was motivated not by a desire to secularize education, but by Transcendentalist Unitarian convictions. Derived from William Ellery Channing and Ralph Waldo Emerson, these convictions were focused on the dignity and worth of human nature, the right and ability of each person to perceive truth, and the indwelling God in each person.[42]

20th century

Richard Rummell's 1906 watercolor landscape view, facing northeast.[43]

During the 20th century, Harvard's international reputation grew as a burgeoning endowment and prominent professors expanded the university's scope. Rapid enrollment growth continued as new graduate schools were begun and the undergraduate college expanded. Radcliffe College, established in 1879 as sister school of Harvard College, became one of the most prominent schools for women in the United States. Harvard became a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900.[17]

In the early 20th century, the student body was predominantly "old-stock, high-status Protestants, especially Episcopalians, Congregationalists, and Presbyterians," a group later called "WASPs." A 1923 proposal by President A. Lawrence Lowell that Jews be limited to 15% of undergraduates was rejected, but Lowell did ban blacks from living in Harvard Yard, believing that "forcing" blacks and whites to live together "would increase a prejudice that ... is most unfortunate and probably growing."[44][45][46][47]

President James Bryant Conant reinvigorated creative scholarship to guarantee Harvard's preeminence among research institutions. He saw higher education as a vehicle of opportunity for the talented rather than an entitlement for the wealthy, so Conant devised programs to identify, recruit, and support talented youth. In 1943, he asked the faculty to make a definitive statement about what general education ought to be, at the secondary as well as at the college level. The resulting Report, published in 1945, was one of the most influential manifestos in 20th century American education.[48]

Between 1945 and 1960, admissions was opened up to bring in a more diverse group of students. No longer drawing mostly from rich alumni of select New England prep schools, the undergraduate college was now open to striving middle class students from public schools; many more Jews and Catholics were admitted, but few blacks, Hispanics, or Asians.[49] Throughout the rest of the 20th century, Harvard became more diverse.[50]

Harvard's graduate schools began admitting women in small numbers in the late 19th century. During World War II, students at Radcliffe College (which since 1879 had been paying Harvard professors to repeat their lectures for women) began attending Harvard classes alongside men.[51] Women were first admitted to Harvard Medical School in 1945.[52] Since 1971, Harvard has controlled essentially all aspects of undergraduate admission, instruction, and housing for Radcliffe women. In 1999, Radcliffe was formally merged into Harvard.[53]

21st century

Drew Gilpin Faust, previously the dean of the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, became Harvard's first woman president on July 1, 2007.[54] She was succeeded by Lawrence Bacow on July 1, 2018.[55]

Campuses

Cambridge

University seal

Harvard's 209-acre (85 ha) main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge, about 3 miles (5 km) west-northwest of downtown Boston, and extends into the surrounding Harvard Square neighborhood. Harvard Yard itself contains the central administrative offices and main libraries of the university, academic buildings including Sever Hall and University Hall, Memorial Church, and the majority of the freshman dormitories. Sophomore, junior, and senior undergraduates live in twelve residential houses, nine of which are south of Harvard Yard along or near the Charles River. The other three are located in a residential neighborhood half a mile northwest of the Yard at the Quadrangle (commonly referred to as the "Quad") which formerly housed Radcliffe College students until Radcliffe merged its residential system with Harvard. Each residential house contains rooms for undergraduates, faculty deans, and resident tutors, as well as a dining hall, library, and recreational spaces.[56] The facilities were made possible by a gift from Yale University alumnus Edward Harkness.[57]

Radcliffe Yard, formerly the center of the campus of Radcliffe College and now home to Harvard's Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study,[58] is adjacent to the Graduate School of Education and the Cambridge Common.

Memorial Church

Between 2014 and 2016, Harvard University reported crime statistics for its main Cambridge campus that included 141 forcible sex offenses, 33 robberies, 46 aggravated assaults, 151 burglaries, and 32 cases of motor vehicle theft.[59]

Harvard also has commercial real estate holdings in Cambridge and Allston, on which it pays property taxes.[60] This includes the Allston Doubletree Hotel, The Inn at Harvard, and the Harvard Square Hotel.[61]

Allston

The Harvard Business School and many of the university's athletics facilities, including Harvard Stadium, are located on a 358-acre (145 ha) campus in Allston,[62] a Boston neighborhood across the Charles River from the Cambridge campus. The John W. Weeks Bridge, a pedestrian bridge over the Charles River, connects the two campuses. Intending a major expansion, Harvard now owns more land in Allston than it does in Cambridge.[63] A ten-year plan[64] calls for 1.4 million square feet (130,000 square meters) of new construction and 500,000 square feet (50,000 square meters) of renovations, including new and renovated buildings at Harvard Business School; a hotel and conference center; a multipurpose institutional building; renovations to graduate student housing and to Harvard Stadium; new athletic facilities; new laboratories and classrooms for the John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences; expansion of the Harvard Education Portal; and a district energy facility.

Longwood

Further south, the Harvard Medical School, the Harvard School of Dental Medicine, and the Harvard School of Public Health are located on a 21-acre (8.5 ha) campus in the Longwood Medical and Academic Area about 3.3 miles (5.3 km) south of the Cambridge campus, and the same distance southwest of downtown Boston.[19] Several of Harvard's affiliated hospitals and research institutes are also located in Longwood, including Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston Children's Hospital, and Joslin Diabetes Center.

Other

Harvard also owns and operates the Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, in Washington, D.C.; the Harvard Forest in Petersham, Massachusetts; the Concord Field Station in Estabrook Woods in Concord, Massachusetts;[65] the Villa I Tatti research center[66] in Florence, Italy; the Harvard Shanghai Center in China;[67] and the Arnold Arboretum in the Jamaica Plain neighborhood of Boston.

Organization and administration

Governance

College/school Year founded
Harvard College 1636
Medicine 1782
Divinity 1816
Law 1817
Dental Medicine 1867
Arts and Sciences 1872
Business 1908
Extension 1910
Design 1914
Education 1920
Public Health 1922
Government 1936
Engineering and Applied Sciences 2007

Harvard is governed by a combination of its Board of Overseers and the President and Fellows of Harvard College (also known as the Harvard Corporation), which in turn appoints the President of Harvard University.[68] There are 16,000 staff and faculty,[69] including 2,400 professors, lecturers, and instructors.[70]

The Faculty of Arts and Sciences has primary responsibility for instruction in Harvard College, the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and the Division of Continuing Education, which includes Harvard Summer School and Harvard Extension School. There are ten other graduate and professional faculties as well as the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study.

Joint programs with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology include the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, the Broad Institute, The Observatory of Economic Complexity, and edX.

Endowment

Harvard has the largest university endowment in the world, valued at about $40.9 billion as of 2019.[4] During the Great Recession, it suffered significant losses that forced large budget cuts, but the endowment has since recovered.[71][72][73][74][75][76] One of the most visible results of Harvard's attempt to re-balance its budget was their halting[75] of construction of the $1.2 billion Allston Science Complex that had been scheduled to be completed by 2011, resulting in protests from local residents.[77]

Since 2016, Narv Narvekar has been the CEO of the endowment.[78] Almost $2 billion annually is distributed from the endowment to fund operations.[78] Harvard's ability to fund its degree and financial aid programs is highly dependent on the performance of its endowment; a poor performance in fiscal year 2016 led to a 4.4% cut in the number of graduate students supported by the Faculty of Arts and Sciences.[79] Endowment income is critical as only 22% of revenue comes from student tuition.[80]

Divestment

Since the 1970s, several campaigns have sought to divest Harvard's endowment from holdings the campaigns opposed, including investments in apartheid South Africa, the tobacco industry, Sudan during the Darfur genocide, and the fossil fuel industry.[81]

During the divestment from South Africa movement in the late 1980s, student activists erected a symbolic "shantytown" on Harvard Yard and blockaded a speech given by South African Vice Consul Duke Kent-Brown.[82][83] The Harvard Management Company repeatedly refused to divest, stating that "operating expenses must not be subject to financially unrealistic strictures or carping by the unsophisticated or by special interest groups."[84] However, the university did eventually reduce its South African holdings by $230 million (out of $400 million) in response to the pressure.[82][85]

Academics

Admissions

Harvard’s undergraduate admissions process is characterized by the Carnegie Foundation as "more selective, lower transfer-in."[20] Harvard College accepted 4.5% of applicants for the class of 2023, a record low.[86] Harvard College ended its early admissions program in 2007 as the program was believed to disadvantage low-income and under-represented minority applicants applying to selective universities, but for the class of 2016 and beyond, an early action program was reintroduced.[87]

The freshman class that entered in the fall of 2017 was the first to be predominantly (50.8%) nonwhite.[88]

Harvard's undergraduate admissions policy on preference for children of alumni has been criticized as favoring white, wealthy candidates.[89][90] Admission is based on academic prowess, extracurricular activities, and personal qualities. Some allege that Harvard's admissions policies discriminate against Asians,[91][92] but a federal court found no evidence of explicit bias against Asian-American applicants.[93]

For the undergraduate class of 2022, Harvard had 42,749 applicants, accepting 2,024 (4.7%) and enrolling 1,653.[94] The middle 50% range of SAT scores of enrolled freshmen was 720-780 for reading and writing and 740-800 for math, while the middle 50% range of the ACT composite score was 33-35.[94] The average high school grade point average (GPA) was 4.18.[94]

Teaching and learning

Massachusetts Hall (1720), Harvard's oldest building[95]

Harvard is a large, highly residential research university.[20] The university has been accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges since 1929.[96] The university offers 50 undergraduate concentrations (majors),[97] 134 graduate degrees,[98] and 32 professional degrees.[99] For the 2018–2019 academic year, Harvard granted 1,665 baccalaureate degrees, 1,013 graduate degrees, and 5,695 professional degrees.[99]

The four-year, full-time undergraduate program comprises a minority of enrollments at the university and emphasizes instruction with an "arts and sciences focus."[20] Between 1978 and 2008, entering students were required to complete a core curriculum of seven classes outside of their concentration.[100] Between 2008 and 2019, undergraduate students were required to complete courses in eight General Education categories: Aesthetic and Interpretive Understanding, Culture and Belief, Empirical and Mathematical Reasoning, Ethical Reasoning, Science of Living Systems, Science of the Physical Universe, Societies of the World, and United States in the World.[101] In 2019, a new General Education program was implemented with four categories: "Aesthetics and Culture," "Ethics and Civics," "Histories, Societies, Individuals," and "Science and Technology in Society."[102] While some introductory courses have large enrollments, most courses are small: the median class size is just 12 students.[103]

Harvard's academic programs operate on a semester calendar beginning in early September and ending in mid-May.[104] Undergraduates typically take four courses per term and must maintain a four-course rate average to be considered full-time.[105] In many concentrations, students can elect to pursue a basic program or an honors-eligible program requiring a senior thesis and/or advanced course work.[106] Harvard has chapters of academic honor societies such as Phi Beta Kappa and various committees and departments also award several hundred named prizes annually.[107] Harvard, along with other universities, has been accused of grade inflation,[108] although there is evidence that the quality of the student body and its motivation have also increased.[109] Harvard College reduced the number of students who receive Latin honors from 90% in 2004 to 60% in 2005. Moreover, the honors of "John Harvard Scholar" and "Harvard College Scholar" are now given only to the top 5 percent and the next 5 percent of each class.[110][111][112][113]

University policy is to expel students engaging in academic dishonesty to discourage a "culture of cheating."[114][115][116] In 2012, dozens of students were expelled for cheating after an investigation of more than 120 students.[117] In 2013, a survey indicated that approximately 42% of incoming freshmen had cheated on homework prior to entering the university.[118] These incidents prompted the university to adopt an honor code,[116][119][120] and the number of alleged academic violations has since decreased.[121]

For the 2019-2020 academic year, Harvard College tuition was about $48,000, contributing to about $70,000 in billed costs.[21] Harvard offers one of the most generous financial aid programs in the country, with need-blind admission and 100% of demonstrated financial need met for both domestic and international students.[21] Families with incomes below $65,000 pay nothing for their children to attend, and families earning between $65,000 and $150,000 pay no more than 10% of their annual incomes.[21] Financial aid is solely based on need; no merit or athletic scholarships are offered.[21]

Research

Harvard is a founding member of the Association of American Universities[122] and remains a preeminent research university with "very high" research activity (R1) and a "comprehensive" doctoral program across the arts, sciences, engineering, and medicine according to the Carnegie Classification.[20] Research and development expenditures in 2016 totaled $1.08 billion, 8th among American universities.[123]

With Harvard Medical School consistently ranking first among medical schools for research,[124] biomedical research is an area of particular strength for the university. More than 11,000 faculty members and over 1,600 medical and graduate students contribute to research and innovation at Harvard Medical School as well as its affiliated hospitals and research institutes, which include Massachusetts General Hospital, Brigham and Women's Hospital, McLean Hospital, and Dana–Farber Cancer Institute.[125]

Research opportunities are available to undergraduates as well, as early as their freshman year.[126] Numerous mechanisms for funding and faculty mentorship are available during both term-time and the summer.[126]

Libraries and museums

Widener Library anchors the Harvard University Library system.

The Harvard Library system is centered in Widener Library in Harvard Yard and comprises nearly 80 individual libraries holding about 20.4 million items.[22][23][25] According to the American Library Association, this makes it the largest academic library in the United States, and one of the largest libraries in the world.[23]

Houghton Library, the Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, and the Harvard University Archives consist principally of rare and unique materials. America's oldest collection of maps, gazetteers, and atlases both old and new is stored in Pusey Library and open to the public. The largest collection of East-Asian language material outside of East Asia is held in the Harvard-Yenching Library.

Henry Moore's sculpture Large Four Piece Reclining Figure, near Lamont Library

The Harvard Art Museums comprise three museums. The Arthur M. Sackler Museum includes collections of ancient, Asian, Islamic and later Indian art, the Busch-Reisinger Museum, formerly the Germanic Museum, covers central and northern European art, and the Fogg Museum of Art, covers Western art from the Middle Ages to the present emphasizing Italian early Renaissance, British pre-Raphaelite, and 19th-century French art. The Harvard Museum of Natural History includes the Harvard Mineralogical Museum, Harvard University Herbaria featuring the Blaschka Glass Flowers exhibit, and the Museum of Comparative Zoology. Other museums include the Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, designed by Le Corbusier, housing the film archive, the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, specializing in the cultural history and civilizations of the Western Hemisphere, and the Semitic Museum featuring artifacts from excavations in the Middle East.

Rankings

University rankings
National
ARWU[127] 1
Forbes[128] 1
Times/WSJ[129] 1
U.S. News & World Report[130] 2
Washington Monthly[131] 2
Global
ARWU[132] 1
QS[133] 3
Times[134] 7
U.S. News & World Report[135] 1

Among overall rankings, the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) has ranked Harvard as the world's best university every year since it was first released.[138] When QS and Times Higher Education (THE) were published in partnership as the THE-QS World University Rankings during 2004–2009, Harvard held the top spot every year, and continued to hold the top spot on THE World Reputation Rankings ever since it was released in 2011.[139] In 2019, it ranked 1st among universities around the world by SCImago Institutions Rankings.[140]

Regarding rankings of specific indicators, Harvard topped both University Ranking by Academic Performance 2015–2016 and Mines ParisTech: Professional Ranking of World Universities (2011), which measured universities' numbers of alumni holding CEO positions in Fortune Global 500 companies.[141] According to annual polls done by The Princeton Review, Harvard is consistently among the top two most commonly named "dream colleges" in the United States, both for students and parents.[142][143][144] Additionally, having made significant investments in its engineering school in recent years, Harvard was ranked third worldwide for Engineering and Technology in 2019 by Times Higher Education.[145]

Student life

Demographics of student body (Fall 2019)[146][147][148][149]
Undergrad Grad/prof US census
Asian 21% 13% 5%
Black 9% 5% 12%
Hispanic or Latino 11% 7% 16%
White 37% 38% 64%
Two or more races 8% 3% 9%
International 12% 32% N/A

Student government

The Harvard Undergraduate Council and Harvard Graduate Council are the chief organs of student government.

Athletics

The Harvard Crimson fields 42 intercollegiate sports teams in the NCAA Division I Ivy League. Harvard has an intense athletic rivalry with Yale University culminating in The Game, although the Harvard–Yale Regatta predates the football game. This rivalry is put aside every two years when the Harvard and Yale Track and Field teams come together to compete against a combined Oxford University and Cambridge University team, a competition that is the oldest continuous international amateur competition in the world.[150]

Harvard's athletic rivalry with Yale is intense in every sport in which they meet, coming to a climax each fall in the annual football meeting, which dates back to 1875 and is usually called simply "The Game." While Harvard's football team is no longer one of the country's best as it often was a century ago during football's early days (it won the Rose Bowl in 1920), both it and Yale have influenced the way the game is played. In 1903, Harvard Stadium introduced a new era into football with the first-ever permanent reinforced concrete stadium of its kind in the country. The stadium's structure actually played a role in the evolution of the college game. Seeking to reduce the alarming number of deaths and serious injuries in the sport, Walter Camp (former captain of the Yale football team), suggested widening the field to open up the game. But the stadium was too narrow to accommodate a wider playing surface. So, other steps had to be taken. Camp would instead support revolutionary new rules for the 1906 season. These included legalizing the forward pass, perhaps the most significant rule change in the sport's history.[151][152]

Harvard men's eight crew at Henley, 2004

As of 2013, there were 42 Division I intercollegiate varsity sports teams for women and men at Harvard, more than at any other NCAA Division I college in the country.[153] As with other Ivy League universities, Harvard does not offer athletic scholarships.[154]

Even older than Harvard–Yale football rivalry, the Harvard–Yale Regatta is held each June on the Thames River in eastern Connecticut. The Harvard crew is typically considered to be one of the top teams in the country in rowing. Other sports in which Harvard teams are particularly strong are Harvard Crimson men's ice hockey, squash, and even recently won NCAA titles in Men's and Women's Fencing. Harvard also won the Intercollegiate Sailing Association National Championships in 2003.

Harvard's men's ice hockey team won the school's first NCAA Championship in any team sport in 1989. Harvard was also the first Ivy League institution to win an NCAA championship title in a women's sport when its women's lacrosse team won the NCAA Championship in 1990.

Harvard Undergraduate Television has footage from historical games and athletic events including the 2005 pep-rally before the Harvard-Yale Game.

The school color is crimson, which is also the name of the Harvard sports teams and the daily newspaper, The Harvard Crimson. The color was unofficially adopted (in preference to magenta) by an 1875 vote of the student body, although the association with some form of red can be traced back to 1858, when Charles William Eliot, a young graduate student who would later become Harvard's 21st and longest-serving president (1869–1909), bought red bandanas for his crew so they could more easily be distinguished by spectators at a regatta.

Fight songs

Harvard has several fight songs, the most played of which, especially at football, are "Ten Thousand Men of Harvard" and "Harvardiana." While "Fair Harvard" is actually the alma mater, "Ten Thousand Men" is better known outside the university. The Harvard University Band performs these fight songs and other cheers at football and hockey games. These were parodied by Harvard alumnus Tom Lehrer in his song "Fight Fiercely, Harvard," which he composed while an undergraduate.

Notable people

Alumni

Faculty

Harvard's faculty includes renowned scholars such as biologist E. O. Wilson, psychologist Steven Pinker, physicist Lisa Randall, chemists Elias Corey, Dudley R. Herschbach and George M. Whitesides, computer scientists Michael O. Rabin and Leslie Valiant, Shakespeare scholar Stephen Greenblatt, writer Louis Menand, critic Helen Vendler, historians Henry Louis Gates, Jr. and Niall Ferguson, economists Amartya Sen, N. Gregory Mankiw, Robert Barro, Stephen A. Marglin, Don M. Wilson III and Michael Kremer, political philosophers Harvey Mansfield, Baroness Shirley Williams and Michael Sandel, Fields Medalist mathematician Shing-Tung Yau, political scientists Robert Putnam, Joseph Nye, scholar/composers Robert Levin and Bernard Rands, astrophysicist Alyssa A. Goodman, legal scholars Alan Dershowitz and Lawrence Lessig, and physician William Kaelin.

Past faculty members include Stephen Jay Gould, Robert Nozick, Stephan Thernstrom, Sanford J. Ungar, Michael Walzer, Martin Feldstein, Roy Glauber, and Stanley Hoffmann.

Literature and popular culture

Tower at the University of Puerto Rico, showing (right) the emblem of Harvard University‍—‌the oldest in the United States‍—‌and (left) that of National University of San Marcos, Lima‍—‌the oldest in the Americas

The perception of Harvard as a center of either elite achievement, or elitist privilege, has made it a frequent literary and cinematic backdrop. "In the grammar of film, Harvard has come to mean both tradition, and a certain amount of stuffiness," film critic Paul Sherman has said.[155]

Literature

Film

Harvard's policy since 1970 has been to permit filming on its property only rarely, so most scenes set at Harvard (especially indoor shots, but excepting aerial footage and shots of public areas such as Harvard Square) are in fact shot elsewhere.[161][162]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Harvard's Veritas appears on the university's arms; heraldically speaking, however, a 'motto' is a word or phrase displayed on a scroll in conjunction with a shield of arms. Since 1692, University seals have borne Christo et Ecclesiae (for Christ and the Church) in this manner, arguably making that phrase the university's motto in a heraldic sense. This legend is otherwise not in general use today.
  2. ^ a b c Julie A. Reuben (1996). The Making of the Modern University: Intellectual Transformation and the Marginalization of Morality. University of Chicago Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-226-71020-4.
  3. ^ An appropriation of £400 toward a "school or college" was voted on October 28, 1636 (OS), at a meeting which convened on September 8 and was adjourned to October 28. Some sources consider October 28, 1636 (OS) (November 7, 1636 NS) to be the date of founding. Harvard's 1936 tercentenary celebration treated September 18 as the founding date, though 1836 bicentennial was celebrated on September 8, 1836. Sources: meeting dates, Quincy, Josiah (1860). History of Harvard University. 117 Washington Street, Boston: Crosby, Nichols, Lee and Co., p. 586, "At a Court holden September 8th, 1636 and continued by adjournment to the 28th of the 8th month (October, 1636)... the Court agreed to give £400 towards a School or College, whereof £200 to be paid next year...." Tercentenary dates: "Cambridge Birthday". Time. September 28, 1936. Archived from the original on December 5, 2012. Retrieved September 8, 2006.: "Harvard claims birth on the day the Massachusetts Great and General Court convened to authorize its founding. This was Sept. 8, 1637 under the Julian calendar. Allowing for the ten-day advance of the Gregorian calendar, Tercentenary officials arrived at Sept. 18 as the date for the third and last big Day of the celebration;" "on Oct. 28, 1636 ... £400 for that 'school or college' [was voted by] the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony." Bicentennial date: Marvin Hightower (September 2, 2003). "Harvard Gazette: This Month in Harvard History". Harvard University. Archived from the original on September 8, 2006. Retrieved September 15, 2006., "Sept. 8, 1836 – Some 1,100 to 1,300 alumni flock to Harvard's Bicentennial, at which a professional choir premieres "Fair Harvard." ... guest speaker Josiah Quincy Jr., Class of 1821, makes a motion, unanimously adopted, 'that this assembly of the Alumni be adjourned to meet at this place on September 8, 1936.'" Tercentary opening of Quincy's sealed package: The New York Times, September 9, 1936, p. 24, "Package Sealed in 1836 Opened at Harvard. It Held Letters Written at Bicentenary": "September 8th, 1936: As the first formal function in the celebration of Harvard's tercentenary, the Harvard Alumni Association witnessed the opening by President Conant of the 'mysterious' package sealed by President Josiah Quincy at the Harvard bicentennial in 1836."
  4. ^ a b c https://www.thecrimson.com/article/2019/9/27/harvard-endowment-returns-2019/
  5. ^ "Harvard at a Glance". Harvard University.
  6. ^ a b c "Harvard Common Data Set 2018-2019, Part B" (PDF). Harvard University.
  7. ^ "Harvard at a Glance". Harvard University. Retrieved December 6, 2019.
  8. ^ Rudolph, Frederick (1961). The American College and University. University of Georgia Press. p. 3. ISBN 0-8203-1285-1.
  9. ^ Keller, Morton; Keller, Phyllis (2001). Making Harvard Modern: The Rise of America's University. Oxford University Press. pp. 463–481. ISBN 0-19-514457-0. Harvard's professional schools... won world prestige of a sort rarely seen among social institutions. [...] Harvard's age, wealth, quality, and prestige may well shield it from any conceivable vicissitudes.
  10. ^ Spaulding, Christina (1989). "Sexual Shakedown". In Trumpbour, John (ed.). How Harvard Rules: Reason in the Service of Empire. South End Press. pp. 326–336. ISBN 0-89608-284-9. ... [Harvard's] tremendous institutional power and prestige [...] Within the nation's (arguably) most prestigious institution of higher learning ...
  11. ^ David Altaner (March 9, 2011). "Harvard, MIT Ranked Most Prestigious Universities, Study Reports". Bloomberg. Retrieved March 1, 2012.
  12. ^ Collier's Encyclopedia. Macmillan Educational Co. 1986. Harvard University, one of the world's most prestigious institutions of higher learning, was founded in Massachusetts in 1636.
  13. ^ Newport, Frank. "Harvard Number One University in Eyes of Public Stanford and Yale in second place". Gallup.
  14. ^ "The Week in Review: Harvard Ends Early Admissions and Guess Who Wins". The New York Times. September 17, 2006. The most prestigious college in the world, of course, is Harvard, and the gap between it and every other university is often underestimated.
  15. ^ Story, Ronald (1975). "Harvard and the Boston Brahmins: A Study in Institutional and Class Development, 1800–1865". Journal of Social History. 8 (3): 94–121. doi:10.1353/jsh/8.3.94.
  16. ^ Farrell, Betty G. (1993). Elite Families: Class and Power in Nineteenth-Century Boston. State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-1593-7.
  17. ^ a b "Member Institutions and years of Admission". Association of American Universities. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
  18. ^ "Faculties and Allied Institutions" (PDF). Office of the Provost, Harvard University. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 11, 2010. Retrieved August 27, 2010.
  19. ^ a b "Faculties and Allied Institutions" (PDF). Office of the Provost, Harvard University. 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 23, 2013. Retrieved June 15, 2013.
  20. ^ a b c d e "Carnegie Classifications – Harvard University". The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
  21. ^ a b c d e "How Aid Works". Retrieved December 8, 2019.
  22. ^ a b "Harvard Library Annual Report FY 2013". Harvard University Library. 2013. Archived from the original on June 9, 2016. Retrieved January 3, 2015.
  23. ^ a b c "The Nation's Largest Libraries: A Listing By Volumes Held". American Library Association. May 2009. Retrieved August 19, 2009.
  24. ^ "Speaking Volumes". Harvard Gazette. The President and Fellows of Harvard College. February 26, 1998. Archived from the original on September 9, 1999.
  25. ^ a b Harvard Media Relations. "Quick Facts". Retrieved December 12, 2019.
  26. ^ "Five Harvard students named Rhodes Scholars". The Harvard Gazette. Retrieved November 24, 2019.
  27. ^ Kathleen Elkins (May 18, 2018). "More billionaires went to Harvard than to Stanford, MIT and Yale combined". CNBC. Retrieved October 1, 2019.
  28. ^ "Statistics". www.marshallscholarship.org.
  29. ^ "The complete list of Fields Medal winners". areppim AG. 2014. Retrieved September 10, 2015.
  30. ^ "Pulitzer Prize Winners". Harvard University. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  31. ^ "Harvard Olympians". gocrimson.com. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  32. ^ "Companies - Entrepreneurship - Harvard Business School". entrepreneurship.hbs.edu. Retrieved March 28, 2019.
  33. ^ "The instrument behind New England's first literary flowering". Harvard University. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  34. ^ "Rowley and Ezekiel Rogers, The First North American Printing Press" (PDF). Maritime Historical Studies Centre, University of Hull. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  35. ^ "John Harvard Facts, Information". The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2008. Retrieved July 17, 2009. He bequeathed £780 (half his estate) and his library of 320 volumes to the new established college at Cambridge, Mass., which was named in his honor.
  36. ^ Wright, Louis B. (2002). The Cultural Life of the American Colonies. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-486-42223-7.
  37. ^ Grigg, John A.; Mancall, Peter C. (2008). British Colonial America: People and Perspectives. ABC-CLIO. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-59884-025-4.
  38. ^ Harvard Office of News and Public Affairs (July 26, 2007). "Harvard guide intro". Harvard University. Archived from the original on July 26, 2007. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  39. ^ a b Gary J. Dorrien. The Making of American Liberal Theology: Imagining Progressive Religion, 1805–1900, Volume 1. Westminster John Knox Press, 2001
  40. ^ Peter S. Field Ralph Waldo Emerson: The Making of a Democratic Intellectual Rowman & Littlefield, 2003 ISBN 978-0847688425
  41. ^ Nartonis, David K. (2005). "Louis Agassiz and the Platonist Story of Creation at Harvard, 1795–1846". Journal of the History of Ideas. 66 (3): 437–449. doi:10.1353/jhi.2005.0045. JSTOR 3654189.
  42. ^ Shoemaker, Stephen P. (2006–2007). "The Theological Roots of Charles W. Eliot's Educational Reforms". Journal of Unitarian Universalist History. 31: 30–45.
  43. ^ "Arader Galleries Iconic College Views", Rummell, Richard, Littig & Co. 1915
  44. ^ Jerome Karabel (2006). The Chosen: The Hidden History of Admission and Exclusion at Harvard, Yale, and Princeton. p. 23. ISBN 9780618773558.
  45. ^ Steinberg, Stephen (September 1, 1971). "How Jewish Quotas Began". Commentary. Retrieved September 10, 2017.
  46. ^ Johnson, Dirk (March 4, 1986). "YALE'S LIMIT ON JEWISH ENROLLMENT LASTED UNTIL EARLY 1960'S, BOOK SAYS". The New York Times.
  47. ^ "Lowell Tells Jews Limits at Colleges Might Help Them". The New York Times. June 17, 1922.
  48. ^ Anita Fay Kravitz, "The Harvard Report of 1945: An historical ethnography", Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1994, 367 pages; AAT 9427558
  49. ^ Malka A. Older. (1996). Preparatory schools and the admissions process. The Harvard Crimson, January 24, 1996
  50. ^ Powell, Alvin (October 1, 2018). "An update on Harvard's diversity, inclusion efforts". The Harvard Gazette.
  51. ^ Schwager, Sally (2004). "Taking up the Challenge: The Origins of Radcliffe". In Laurel Thatcher Ulrich (ed.). Yards and Gates: Gender in Harvard and Radcliffe History. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 115. ISBN 1-4039-6098-4.
  52. ^ First class of women admitted to Harvard Medical School, 1945 (Report). Countway Repository, Harvard University Library. Retrieved May 2, 2016.
  53. ^ Radcliffe Enters Historic Merger With Harvard (Report). Retrieved May 6, 2016.
  54. ^ Associated Press (February 11, 2007). "Harvard Board Names First Woman President". NBC News. Retrieved August 8, 2015. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  55. ^ "Harvard University names Lawrence Bacow its 29th president". Fox News. February 11, 2018. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  56. ^ "The Houses". Harvard College Dean of Students Office. Retrieved December 13, 2019.
  57. ^ "History of Harkness: The Men Behind the Plan" (PDF).
  58. ^ Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard. Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard. President and Fellows of Harvard College. 2016. Retrieved October 10, 2016
  59. ^ "17 asr final cambridge criminal statistics rev 102017.pdf" (PDF). Harvard University Police Department. Retrieved March 28, 2018.
  60. ^ "Institutional Ownership Map – Cambridge Massachusetts" (PDF).
  61. ^ "Harvard Purchases Doubletree Hotel Building – News – The Harvard Crimson". www.thecrimson.com.
  62. ^ Harvard continues its march into Allston, with science complex Tim Logan. Boston Globe. April 14, 2016. Retrieved September 30, 2016
  63. ^ "Allston Planning and Development / Office of the Executive Vice President". Harvard University. Retrieved September 7, 2016.
  64. ^ Harvard unveils big campus expansion Svea Herbst-Bayliss. Reuters. January 12, 2007. Retrieved September 30, 2016
  65. ^ "Concord Field Station". mcz.harvard.edu. Harvard University. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
  66. ^ "Villa I Tatti: The Harvard University Center for Italian Renaissance Studies". Itatti.it. Retrieved June 30, 2010.
  67. ^ "Shanghai Center". Harvard.edu.
  68. ^ Bethell, John T.; Hunt, Richard M.; Shenton, Robert (2009). Harvard A to Z. Harvard University Press. pp. 166–. ISBN 978-0-674-02089-4.
  69. ^ Burlington Free Press, June 24, 2009, page 11B, ""Harvard to cut 275 jobs" Associated Press
  70. ^ Office of Institutional Research (2009). Harvard University Fact Book 2009–2010 (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 23, 2011. ("Faculty")
  71. ^ "Harvard Endowment Rises $4.4 Billion to $32 Billion". Harvard Magazine. Vol. November–December. 2011. Retrieved December 13, 2011.
  72. ^ "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2013 Endowment Market Value and Change in Endowment Market Value from FY 2012 to FY 2013" (PDF). National Association of College and University Business Officers and Commonfund Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 1, 2014. Retrieved January 29, 2014.
  73. ^ Beth Healy (January 28, 2010). "Harvard endowment leads others down". The Boston Globe. Retrieved September 2, 2010.
  74. ^ Hechinger, John (December 4, 2008). "Harvard Hit by Loss as Crisis Spreads to Colleges". Wall Street Journal. p. A1.
  75. ^ a b Munk, Nina (August 2009). "Nina Munk on Hard Times at Harvard". Vanity Fair. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  76. ^ Andrew M. Rosenfield (March 4, 2009). "Understanding Endowments, Part I". Forbes. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  77. ^ Vidya B. Viswanathan and Peter F. Zhu (March 5, 2009). "Residents Protest Vacancies in Allston". Harvard Crimson. Retrieved February 10, 2011.
  78. ^ a b "A Singular Mission". Retrieved December 14, 2019.
  79. ^ "Admissions Cuts Concern Some Graduate Students". Retrieved December 14, 2019.
  80. ^ "Financial Report" (PDF). Retrieved December 14, 2019.
  81. ^ Alli Welton (November 20, 2012). "Harvard Students Vote 72 Percent Support for Fossil Fuel Divestment". The Nation. Retrieved July 27, 2015.
  82. ^ a b Michael C. George; David W. Kaufman (May 23, 2012). "Students Protest Investment in Apartheid South Africa". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved July 27, 2015.
  83. ^ Anjali Cadambi (September 19, 2010). "Harvard University community campaigns for divestment from apartheid South Africa, 1977–1989". Global Nonviolent Action Database. Retrieved July 27, 2015.
  84. ^ John Trumpbour (1989). How Harvard Rules: Reason in the Service of Empire. South End Press. pp. 402–418. ISBN 978-0-89608-283-0.
  85. ^ Robert Anthony Waters Jr. (March 20, 2009). Historical Dictionary of United States-Africa Relations. Scarecrow Press. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-8108-6291-3.
  86. ^ "Record-Low 4.5 Percent of Harvard College Applicants Accepted to Class of 2023". Retrieved September 23, 2019.
  87. ^ Finder, Alan; Arenson, Karen W. (September 12, 2006). "Harvard Ends Early Admission". The New York Times.
  88. ^ Fernandes, Deirdre (August 3, 2017). "The majority of Harvard's incoming class is nonwhite". The Boston Globe. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
  89. ^ Golden, Daniel (January 15, 2003). "Admissions Preferences Given to Alumni Children Draws Fire". The Wall Street Journal.
  90. ^ Golden, Daniel (2006). The Price of Admission: How America's Ruling Class Buys Its Way into Elite Colleges—and Who Gets Left Outside the Gates. ISBN 1-4000-9796-7.
  91. ^ "Harvard's Ongoing Anti-Asian-American Micro-Aggression". National Review. June 19, 2018. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  92. ^ "A lawsuit reveals how peculiar Harvard's definition of merit is". The Economist. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  93. ^ "Harvard Won a Key Affirmative Action Battle. But the War's Not Over". New York Times. October 2, 2019. Retrieved December 14, 2019.
  94. ^ a b c "Harvard Common Data Set 2018-2019" (PDF). Harvard University.
  95. ^ Harvard College. "A Brief History of Harvard College". Harvard College. Retrieved July 25, 2011.
  96. ^ "Roster of Institutions". Commission on Institutions of Higher Education, New England Association of Schools and Colleges. Archived from the original on August 28, 2013. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
  97. ^ "Liberal Arts & Sciences". Harvard College. Retrieved December 12, 2019.
  98. ^ "Degree Programs" (PDF). Graduate School of Arts and Sciences Handbook. pp. 28–30. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 9, 2015. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
  99. ^ a b . Office of Institutional Research, Harvard University https://oir.harvard.edu/fact-book/degrees-awarded-summary. Retrieved December 13, 2019. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  100. ^ "Academic Information: The Core Curriculum Requirement". Handbook for Students. Harvard College. Archived from the original on December 5, 2010. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
  101. ^ "Academic Information: Program in General Education Requirement". Handbook for Students. Harvard College. Archived from the original on December 5, 2010. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
  102. ^ "Requirements". Retrieved November 22, 2019.
  103. ^ "How large are classes?". Harvard College. Retrieved December 14, 2019.
  104. ^ "5 Year Academic Calendar". Harvard University. Archived from the original on September 1, 2006. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
  105. ^ "The Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science Degrees". Harvard College. Retrieved December 8, 2019.
  106. ^ "Academic Information: The Concentration Requirement". Handbook for Students. Harvard College. Archived from the original on December 5, 2010. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
  107. ^ "Prizes". Faculty of Arts & Sciences. Harvard University. 2010.
  108. ^ Primack, Phil (October 5, 2008). "Doesn't Anybody Get a C Anymore?". The Boston Globe.
  109. ^ Kohn, A (November 8, 2002). "The Dangerous Myth of Grade Inflation". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Archived from the original on April 9, 2006.
  110. ^ No author given. (2003). Brevia Archived March 26, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. Harvard Magazine, January–February 2003.
  111. ^ Milzoff, R. M., Paley, A. R., & Reed, B. J. (2001). Grade Inflation is Real. Fifteen Minutes March 1, 2001.
  112. ^ Bombardieri, M. & Schweitzer, S. (2006). "At Harvard, more concern for top grades." The Boston Globe, February 12, 2006. p. B3 (Benedict Gross quotes, 23.7% A/25% A- figures, characterized as an "all-time high.").
  113. ^ Associated Press. (2004). Princeton becomes first to formally combat grade inflation. USA Today, April 26, 2004.
  114. ^ Davis, Kevin S. (February 15, 1994). "How Does Harvard Define Cheating?". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved September 15, 2013. ...Cheating incidences that appear before the Ad Board almost always result in requirement to withdraw by the student...
  115. ^ Curry, Coleen (August 31, 2012). "Harvard Students Accused of Cheating on Final Exam Reflects 'Culture of Cheating,' Grad Says". ABC News. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
  116. ^ a b Hu, Melody Y.; Newcomer, Eric P. (March 24, 2010). "Administrators Discuss College Honor Code". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved September 15, 2013. "...one thing remains certain: many College administrators are looking for a way to combat academic dishonesty at Harvard—which Harris recently called a real problem"...
  117. ^ Perez-Pena, Richard (February 1, 2013). "Students Disciplined in Harvard Scandal". The New York Times. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
  118. ^ Moya-Smith, Simon (September 6, 2013). "Survey: 42 percent of Harvard's incoming freshman class cheated on homework". NBC News. Retrieved September 6, 2013.
  119. ^ Harrington, Rebecca (September 14, 2012). "Song of the Cheaters". The New York Times. Retrieved September 15, 2013. "...an honor code, a system ... Harvard has long resisted
  120. ^ "Harvard College's Honor Code". Harvard Magazine. May 7, 2014. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
  121. ^ "Honor Council Reports Drop in Academic Violation Cases". December 11, 2019.
  122. ^ "Member Institutions and Years of Admission". Association of American Universities. Archived from the original on October 28, 2012. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
  123. ^ "Highest Research & Development Funding". Retrieved December 7, 2019.
  124. ^ "Best Medical Schools: Research". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved December 8, 2019.
  125. ^ "Research at Harvard Medical School". Harvard Medical School. Retrieved December 9, 2019.
  126. ^ a b "Research". Harvard College. Retrieved December 8, 2019.
  127. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2019: USA". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
  128. ^ "America's Top Colleges 2019". Forbes. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  129. ^ "U.S. College Rankings 2020". Wall Street Journal/Times Higher Education. Retrieved September 26, 2019.
  130. ^ "Best Colleges 2020: National University Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved September 8, 2019.
  131. ^ "2019 National University Rankings". Washington Monthly. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
  132. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2019". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2019. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
  133. ^ "QS World University Rankings® 2020". Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. 2019. Retrieved June 24, 2019.
  134. ^ "World University Rankings 2020". THE Education Ltd. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  135. ^ "Best Global Universities Rankings: 2020". U.S. News & World Report LP. Retrieved October 22, 2019.
  136. ^ "Harvard University – U.S. News Best Grad School Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved September 11, 2019.
  137. ^ "Harvard University – U.S. News Global University Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved December 9, 2019.
  138. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities——Harvard University Ranking Profile". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Retrieved July 29, 2018.
  139. ^ "World Reputation Rankings 2016". Times Higher Education. 2016. Retrieved September 7, 2016.
  140. ^ "SCImago Institutions Rankings - Higher Education - All Regions and Countries - 2019 - Overall Rank". www.scimagoir.com.
  141. ^ "2015-2016 WORLD RANKING (1-250)". University Ranking by Academic Performance (URAP) Research Laboratory. 2015. Retrieved September 7, 2016.
  142. ^ "College Hopes & Worries Press Release". PR Newswire. 2016. Retrieved September 7, 2016.
  143. ^ "Princeton Review's 2012 "College Hopes & Worries Survey" Reports on 10,650 Students' & Parents' Top 10 "Dream Colleges" and Application Perspectives". PR Newswire. 2012. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
  144. ^ "2019 College Hopes & Worries Press Release". 2019. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
  145. ^ "Harvard is #3 in World University Engineering Rankings". 2019. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
  146. ^ "Degree Student Head Count: Fall 2010" (PDF). Harvard University. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 18, 2013. Retrieved March 11, 2013.
  147. ^ See Demographics of the United States for references.
  148. ^ "Fall Headcount Enrollment, 2008–2012" (PDF). The Office of the Provost. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 16, 2013. Retrieved December 16, 2013.
  149. ^ "Student Enrollment Data". Office of Institutional Research. Retrieved December 14, 2019.
  150. ^ "Yale and Harvard Defeat Oxford/Cambridge Team". Yale University Athletics. Retrieved September 13, 2011.
  151. ^ "History of American Football". Newsdial.com. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  152. ^ Nelson, David M., Anatomy of a Game: Football, the Rules, and the Men Who Made the Game, 1994, pp. 127–128
  153. ^ "Harvard : Women's Rugby Becomes 42nd Varsity Sport at Harvard University". Gocrimson.com. August 9, 2012. Retrieved July 5, 2013.
  154. ^ "The Harvard Guide: Financial Aid at Harvard". Harvard University. September 2, 2006. Archived from the original on September 2, 2006. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  155. ^ Thomas, Sarah (September 24, 2010). "'Social Network' taps other campuses for Harvard role". Boston.com. 'In the grammar of film, Harvard has come to mean both tradition, and a certain amount of stuffiness.... Someone from Missouri who has never lived in Boston ... can get this idea that it's all trust fund babies and ivy-covered walls.'
  156. ^ King, Michael (2002). Wrestling with the Angel. p. 371. ...praised as an iconic chronicle of his generation and his WASP-ish class.
  157. ^ Halberstam, Michael J. (February 18, 1953). "White Shoe and Weak Will". Harvard Crimson. The book is written slickly, but without distinction.... The book will be quick, enjoyable reading for all Harvard men.
  158. ^ Yardley, Jonathan (December 23, 2009). "Second Reading". The Washington Post.  '...a balanced and impressive novel...' [is] a judgment with which I [agree].
  159. ^ Du Bois, William (February 1, 1953). "Out of a Jitter-and-Fritter World". The New York Times. p. BR5. exhibits Mr. Phillips' talent at its finest
  160. ^ "John Phillips, The Second Happiest Day". Southwest Review. 38. p. 267. So when the critics say the author of "The Second Happiest Day" is a new Fitzgerald, we think they may be right.
  161. ^ Schwartz, Nathaniel L. (September 21, 1999). "University, Hollywood Relationship Not Always a 'Love Story'". Harvard Crimson. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
  162. ^ Sarah Thomas (September 24, 2010). "'Social Network' taps other campuses for Harvard role". boston.com.
  163. ^ "Never Having To Say You're Sorry for 25 Years..." Harvard Crimson. June 3, 1996. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
  164. ^ Vinciguerra, Thomas (August 20, 2010). "The Disease: Fatal. The Treatment: Mockery". The New York Times.
  165. ^ Gewertz, Ken (February 8, 1996). "A Many-Splendored 'Love Story'. Movie filmed at Harvard 25 years ago helped to define a generation". Harvard University Gazette.
  166. ^ Walsh, Colleen (October 2, 2012). "The Paper Chase at 40". Harvard Gazette.
  167. ^ https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0111732/?ref_=ttls_li_tt

Bibliography

  • Abelmann, Walter H., ed. The Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology: The First 25 Years, 1970–1995 (2004). 346 pp.
  • Beecher, Henry K. and Altschule, Mark D. Medicine at Harvard: The First 300 Years (1977). 569 pp.
  • Bentinck-Smith, William, ed. The Harvard Book: Selections from Three Centuries (2d ed.1982). 499 pp.
  • Bethell, John T.; Hunt, Richard M.; and Shenton, Robert. Harvard A to Z (2004). 396 pp. excerpt and text search
  • Bethell, John T. Harvard Observed: An Illustrated History of the University in the Twentieth Century, Harvard University Press, 1998, ISBN 0-674-37733-8
  • Bunting, Bainbridge. Harvard: An Architectural History (1985). 350 pp.
  • Carpenter, Kenneth E. The First 350 Years of the Harvard University Library: Description of an Exhibition (1986). 216 pp.
  • Cuno, James et al. Harvard's Art Museums: 100 Years of Collecting (1996). 364 pp.
  • Elliott, Clark A. and Rossiter, Margaret W., eds. Science at Harvard University: Historical Perspectives (1992). 380 pp.
  • Hall, Max. Harvard University Press: A History (1986). 257 pp.
  • Hay, Ida. Science in the Pleasure Ground: A History of the Arnold Arboretum (1995). 349 pp.
  • Hoerr, John, We Can't Eat Prestige: The Women Who Organized Harvard; Temple University Press, 1997, ISBN 1-56639-535-6
  • Howells, Dorothy Elia. A Century to Celebrate: Radcliffe College, 1879–1979 (1978). 152 pp.
  • Keller, Morton, and Phyllis Keller. Making Harvard Modern: The Rise of America's University (2001), major history covers 1933 to 2002 online edition
  • Lewis, Harry R. Excellence Without a Soul: How a Great University Forgot Education (2006) ISBN 1-58648-393-5
  • Morison, Samuel Eliot. Three Centuries of Harvard, 1636–1936 (1986) 512pp; excerpt and text search
  • Powell, Arthur G. The Uncertain Profession: Harvard and the Search for Educational Authority (1980). 341 pp.
  • Reid, Robert. Year One: An Intimate Look inside Harvard Business School (1994). 331 pp.
  • Rosovsky, Henry. The University: An Owner's Manual (1991). 312 pp.
  • Rosovsky, Nitza. The Jewish Experience at Harvard and Radcliffe (1986). 108 pp.
  • Seligman, Joel. The High Citadel: The Influence of Harvard Law School (1978). 262 pp.
  • Sollors, Werner; Titcomb, Caldwell; and Underwood, Thomas A., eds. Blacks at Harvard: A Documentary History of African-American Experience at Harvard and Radcliffe (1993). 548 pp.
  • Trumpbour, John, ed., How Harvard Rules. Reason in the Service of Empire, Boston: South End Press, 1989, ISBN 0-89608-283-0
  • Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher, ed., Yards and Gates: Gender in Harvard and Radcliffe History, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. 337 pp.
  • Winsor, Mary P. Reading the Shape of Nature: Comparative Zoology at the Agassiz Museum (1991). 324 pp.
  • Wright, Conrad Edick. Revolutionary Generation: Harvard Men and the Consequences of Independence (2005). 298 pp.

External links