خیشومی نرمکامی

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به ناوبری پرش به جستجو
ŋ
شماره IPA 119
کدبندی
محتوا (اعشاری) ŋ
یونیکد (شانزدهتایی) U+014B
الفبای آوایی N
کیرشنبام N

 

خیشومی نرمکامی یک صامت است که در گفتار برخی از زبان‌های جهان به کار می‌رود. نماد این همخوان در الفبای آوانگاری بین‌المللی ⟨ŋ⟩ است.[۱]

در زبان کردی جنوبی(زبان لکی، کلهری، گورانی، فیلی) نیز کاربرد دارد، واکه فوق هنگام چسبیدن "ن " و "گ " صدای نون تو دماغی فوق را دارد که نمونه انگلیسی آن مثل ring یا among تلفظ می‌شود مانند واژه‌های کردی مانْگْ، دَنْگْ

نمونه[ویرایش]

زبان واژه IPA معنی توضیحات
آلبانیایی ngaqë [ŋɡacə] 'چونکه'
آلیوتی[۲] chaang [tʃɑːŋ] 'پنج'
عربی بعضی لهجه‌ها إنکار [ʔɪŋˈkʰɑːr] 'نپذیرفتن' Allophone of /n/ before /k/; more commonly realized as [n].
ارمنی شرقی[۳] ընկեր [əŋˈkɛɾ] 'دوست' Allophone of /n/ before velar consonants
آسامی ৰং [rɔŋ] 'رنگ'
بامبارایی ŋonI [ŋoni] 'گیتار'
باشقیری мең / meñ Ba-мең.ogg [mɪ̞ŋ] 'نه'
باسکی hanka [haŋka] 'ران'
بنگالی [rɔŋ] 'رنگ'
بلغاری[۴] тънко [ˈtɤŋko] 'باریک، نازک'
کاتالانی[۵] sang[نیازمند شفاف‌سازی] [ˈsaŋ(k)] 'خون'
Chinese Cantonese [ŋɔːŋ˩] 'raise' See Cantonese phonology
Eastern Min [ŋi] 'suspect'
Gan [ŋa] 'tooth'
Hakka [ŋai] 'I'
Mandarin 北京 [peɪ˨˩tɕiŋ˥] 'Beijing' Restricted to the syllable coda. See Mandarin phonology
Northern Min [ŋui] 'outside'
Southern Min [ŋ̍] 'yellow' Only in colloquial speech.
Sichuanese [ŋɔ] 'I'
Wu [ŋ˩˧] 'five'
Xiang [ŋau] 'to boil'
Yuci dialect of Jin [ŋie] 'I'
Chukchi ӈыроӄ [ŋəɹoq] 'three'
Czech tank [taŋk] 'tank' See Czech phonology
Dinka ŋa [ŋa] 'who'
Danish sang [sɑŋˀ] 'song' See Danish phonology
Dutch[۶] angst [ɑŋst] 'fear' See Dutch phonology
English sing sing-pronunciation-audio.ogg [sɪŋ] 'sing' Restricted to the syllable coda. See English phonology
Faroese ong [ɔŋk] 'meadow'
Fijian gone [ˈŋone] 'child'
Filipino ngayón [ŋaˈjon] 'now'
Finnish kangas [ˈkɑŋːɑs] 'cloth' Occurs in native vocabulary only intervocally (as a geminate) and before /k/. See Finnish phonology
French[۷] camping [kɑ̃piŋ] 'camping' Occurs only in words borrowed from English or Chinese. See French phonology
Galician unha [ˈuŋa] 'one' (f.)
German lang [laŋ] 'long' See Standard German phonology
Greek άγχος/anchos ['aŋxo̞s] 'Stress' See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrew Standard אנגלית [aŋɡˈlit] 'English language' Allophone of /n/ before velar stops. See Modern Hebrew phonology
Sephardi עין [ŋaˈjin] 'Ayin' See Sephardi Hebrew
Hiligaynon buang [bu'äŋ] 'crazy/mentally unstable'
Hindustani रंग / رنگ [rəŋɡ] 'color' See Hindi–Urdu phonology
Hungarian ing [iŋɡ] 'shirt' Allophone of /n/. See Hungarian phonology
Icelandic ng [ˈkœy̯ŋk] 'tunnel' See Icelandic phonology
Indonesian bangun [bäŋʊn] 'wake up'
Inuktitut ᐆᖅ/puunnguuq [puːŋŋuːq] 'dog'
Inuvialuktun qamnguiyuaq [qamŋuijuaq] 'snores'
Irish a nglór [ˌə̃ ˈŋl̪ˠoːɾˠ] 'their voice' Occurs word-initially as a result of the consonantal mutation eclipsis. See Irish phonology
Italian[۸] anche [ˈaŋke] 'also' Allophone of /n/ before /k/ and /ɡ/. See Italian phonology
Itelmen қниң [qniŋ] 'one'
Japanese Standard 南極/nankyoku [naŋkʲokɯ] 'the South Pole' See Japanese phonology
Eastern dialects[۹] /kagi [kaŋi] 'key'
Kagayanen[۱۰] manang [manaŋ] 'older sister'
Kazakh мың/myń [məŋ] 'thousand'
Kyrgyz миң [miŋ] 'thousand'
Ket аяң [ajaŋ] 'to damn'
Khasi ngap [ŋap] 'honey'
Korean /bang [pɐŋ] 'room' See Korean phonology
Luxembourgish[۱۱] keng [kʰæŋ] 'nobody' See Luxembourgish phonology
Macedonian aнглиски [ˈaŋɡliski] 'English' Occurs occasionally as an allophone of /n/ before /k/ and /ɡ/. See Macedonian phonology
Luganda ŋaaŋa [ŋɑːŋɑ] 'hornbill'
Malay bangun [bäŋon] 'wake up'
Malayalam[۲] മാങ്ങ [maːŋŋɐ] 'mango'
Māori[۱۲] ngā [ŋaː] 'the'
Marathi रंग [rəŋə] 'colour' See Marathi phonology
Mari еҥ [jeŋ] 'human'
Nganasan ӈаӈ [ŋaŋ] 'mouth'
Nivkh ңамг [ŋamɡ] 'seven'
North Frisian Mooring kåchelng [ˈkɔxəlŋ] 'stove'
Norwegian gang [ɡɑŋ] 'hallway' See Norwegian phonology
Punjabi ਵੰ [vəŋ] 'bangle'
Persian رنگ [ræːŋ] 'color' See Persian phonology
Pipil nemanha [nemaŋa] 'later'
Polish[۱۳] bank [bäŋk] 'bank' Allophone of /n/ before /k, ɡ, x/; post-palatal before /kʲ, ɡʲ/.[۱۴][۱۵] See Polish phonology
Portuguese manga [ˈmɐ̃(ŋ)ɡɐ] 'mango' Occurs occasionally in slow, careful speech, as an allophone of /n/ before /ɡ/ and /k/, when the speaker does not delete the /n/ by fusing it with the preceding vowel.
Occitan Provençal vin [viŋ] 'wine'
Rapanui hanga [haŋa] 'bay' Sometimes written g in Rapanui
Romanian Țara Moților Transylvanian[۱۶] câine [kɨŋi][stress?] 'dog' Corresponds to [n] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[۱۷] stanka [stâːŋka] 'pause' Allophone of /n/ before /k, ɡ/.[۱۷] See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Seri comcáac [koŋˈkaak] 'Seri people'
Shona nanga [ŋaŋɡa] 'witch doctor'
Slovene tank [taŋk] 'tank'
Spanish[۱۸] All dialects domingo [d̪o̞ˈmĩŋɡo̞] 'Sunday' Allophone of /n/ before velar stops. See Spanish phonology
Galician Spanish, Andalusian, Canarian, and most Latin American dialects alquitrán [alkitˈɾaŋ] 'tar' Allophone of /n/ in word-final position, either before consonants other than velar stops or vowel-beginning words or before a pause.
Swahili ng'ombe [ŋombɛ] 'cow'
Swedish ingenting [ɪŋɛnˈtʰɪŋ] 'nothing' See Swedish phonology
Tamil இங்கே [iŋgeː] 'here'
Thai าน [ŋaːn] 'work'
Tuamotuan rangi/ragi [raŋi] 'sky'
Tundra Nenets ӈэва [ŋæewa] 'head'
Turkish Ankara [ˈaŋkaɾa] 'Ankara' Allophone of /n/ before /k/ and /ɡ/. See Turkish phonology
Turkmen ň [myŋ] 'thousand'
Uzbek ming [miŋ] 'thousand'
Venetian man [maŋ] 'hand'
Vietnamese[۱۹] ngà [ŋaː˨˩] 'ivory' See Vietnamese phonology
Welsh rhwng [r̥ʊŋ] 'between'
West Frisian kening [ˈkeːnɪŋ] 'king'
Yi /nga [ŋa˧] 'I'
Yup'ik ungungssiq [uŋuŋssiq] 'animal'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[۲۰] yan [jaŋ] 'neck' Word-final allophone of lenis /n/

منابع[ویرایش]

  1. Velar nasal. (2016, February 12). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 12:11, February 21, 2016, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Velar_nasal&oldid=704566293
  2. ۲٫۰ ۲٫۱ Ladefoged (2005), p. 165.
  3. Dum-Tragut (2009), p. 19.
  4. Sabev, Mitko. "Bulgarian Sound System". Retrieved 31 July 2013.
  5. Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 53.
  6. Gussenhoven (1992), p. 45.
  7. Wells (1989), p. 44.
  8. Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 118.
  9. Okada (1999), p. 118.
  10. Olson et al. (2010), pp. 206–207.
  11. Gilles & Trouvain (2013), pp. 67–68.
  12. Reed (2001).
  13. Jassem (2003), p. 103.
  14. Gussmann (1974), pp. 107, 111 and 114.
  15. Ostaszewska & Tambor (2000), pp. 35, 41 and 86.
  16. Pop (1938), p. 31.
  17. ۱۷٫۰ ۱۷٫۱ Landau et al. (1999:67)
  18. Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003), p. 258.
  19. Thompson (1959), pp. 458–461.
  20. Merrill (2008), p. 109.