خُرما گیاهی تکلپهای و گرمسیری جزو تیره نخلها است که میوهاش خوراکی و دارای هستهای سخت و پوست نازک و طعم شیرین که به شکل خوشهای بزرگ از شاخه آویزان میگردد و برگهای آن بزرگ است. ارتفاع نخل به ۱۰ تا ۲۰ متر یا بیشتر میرسد.
میوه خرما جزو میوههای سته میباشد یعنی تمام قسمت بریکاری آن گوشتی و محتوی مواد غذایی است. خرما از دورانِ باستان در رژیم غذایی انسان وجود داشته است و یکی از قدیمیترین میوههای کشت شده توسط انسان بوده است.
واژه خرما ریشه و بنیاد فارسی داشته و از زبان فارسی به زبانهای هندی، اردو، ترکی، اندونزیایی و مالزیایی به سوی شرقی و یونانی به سوی غربی وارد شده است.[نیازمند منبع]
ترکیبات شیمیایی خرما[ویرایش]
خرما دارای ۲۵ درصد ساکاروز، ۵۰درصد گلوکز، و مواد آلبومینوئیدی، پکتین و آب میباشد. بهعلاوه دارای ویتامینهای مختلف مانند ویتامین A،B،C،E و مقداری املاح معدنی میباشد.
درخت خرما در نواحی گرمسیری و نیمهگرمسیری، از جمله ایران پرورش مییابد. با اینکه خاستگاه آن را میانرودان، عربستان و شمال آفریقا ذکر میکنند ولی بررسیهای علمی، آن را به گونهای به نام علمی P.H. Sivestris که در هندوستان میروید نسبت میدهند. باستانشناسان احداث نخلستانها را به پنج هزار سال پیش نسبت دادهاند زیرا نامی از آن بر لوحههای گلی ۵۰ سده پیش یافتهاند.
در ایران نخل و خرما از دوران باستان و پیش از هخامنشی کشت میشده. در ادبیات ساسانی از جمله در کتاب بندهشن از نخل یاد شدهاست. منابع چینی از ایران (در زبان ایشان بوسی، تلفظ چینی پارسی) به عنوان سرزمین نخل خرما که در نزدشان به نام عناب پارسی و عناب هزارساله مشهور بوده، یاد کردهاند. در پایان سده نهم میلادی، نخل خرما را از ایران به چین برده و در آنجا کشت کردهاند. در میان کشورهای اروپایی اسپانیا پیشینه بیشتری در کشت خرما دارد.
از برگ و شاخه درخت خرما سبد و زیرانداز تهیه میکنند. از هسته آن نان و از میوه خرما شراب و عسل. مردم صحرا هسته درخت خرما را آرد کرده و از آن نان میپزند یا در این هسته را بو داده و از آن بهعنوان قهوه استفاده میکنند زیرا دم کرده آن بسیار مطبوع است و یا حتی این در را در آب برای چند روز خیس کرده و بهعنوان غذای مقوی به شترهای خود میدهند.
کشورهای تولیدکننده خرما[ویرایش]
اصطلاحات نخل و خرما[ویرایش]
در مناطق خرماخیز ایران اصطلاحات و واژههای فارسی زیادی در ارتباط با نخلکاری رواج دارد که به برخی از آنها اشاره میشود:
خرما در ایران[ویرایش]
مصرف سرانه خرما در ایران ۷ کیلوگرم است که میانگینی از مصرف سرانه ۲۵ کیلوگرمی استانهای جنوبی و ۱ کیلوگرمی سایر استانها میباشد. در ایران به طور سالانه، ۱ میلیون تن خرما تولید میشود که عمده مصرف داخلی آن در ماه رمضان صورت میگیرد. از میان محصول خرمای هر سال ایران، ۱۰ درصد برای صادرات به کشورهای دیگر اختصاص مییابد، ۵۰ درصد به مصرف داخلی میرسد و ۴۰ درصد هم در مراحل مختلف برداشت محصول، ضایعشده و از بین میروند.
ارقام خرمای ایران[ویرایش]
عالی مِهتِری، شِکَری (این دو از زودرس ترین گونه های خرما هستند که بیشتر مصرف محلی دارند)، کلوته(کلیته)، مرداسنگ ،هلیلی، خَنیزی، رُوغنی، شاهانی ،زاهدی ،خضراوی ،رَبی ،نگار(میوه هایی بسیار کشیده دارد) ،گاردیال
لیلوئی، برحی، زاهدی، دیری، اشکر و بریم، حلاوی، بلیانی، سویدانی، هداک، شکر، بنت السب، دگل زرد، خضراوی، استعمران، بوبکی، چبچاب، مشتوم، جهرمی، عموبحری، دگل سرخ، فرسی، هدل، خصاب، حمراوی، حساوی، اسحاق، جوزی و گنتار
مضافتی (مرغوب ترین رطب جهان)، کروت، قندشکن(سنگ شکن)، ربی، خریک، هلیله ای
پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]
For other uses, see List of plants known as date palm.
Phoenix dactylifera (date or date palm) is a flowering plant species in the palm family Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit. Although its place of origin is unknown because of long cultivation, it probably originated from lands around Iraq. The species is widely cultivated and is reportedly naturalized in Australia, Spain, North Africa, the Canary Islands, Madeira, Cape Verde, the Sahel region of Africa, Mauritius, Réunion, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Israel, Iran, China, (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan), Fiji, New Caledonia, the United States (California, Nevada, Arizona, Florida, Puerto Rico), northern Mexico, El Salvador, the Leeward Islands, the Cayman Islands, and the Dominican Republic.
Phoenix dactylifera grows 70–75 feet (21–23 m) in height, growing singly or forming a clump with several stems from a single root system. The leaves are 4–6 metres (13–20 ft) long, with spines on the petiole, and pinnate, with about 150 leaflets; the leaflets are 30 cm (12 in) long and 2 cm (0.79 in) wide. The full span of the crown ranges from 6–10 m (20–33 ft).
Dates contain 20–70 calories each, depending on size and variety.
History of dates
Dates have been a staple food of the Middle East and the Indus Valley for thousands of years. They are believed to have originated around Iraq, and have been cultivated since ancient times from Mesopotamia to prehistoric Egypt, possibly as early as 4000 BCE. The Ancient Egyptians used the fruits to make date wine, and ate them at harvest. There is archaeological evidence of date cultivation in eastern Arabia in 6000 BCE. (Alvarez-Mon 2006).[full citation needed]
There is also archeological evidence of date cultivation in Mehrgarh around 7000 BCE, a Neolithic civilization in what is now western Pakistan. Evidence of cultivation is continually found throughout later civilizations in the Indus Valley, including the Harappan period 2600 to 1900 BCE.[page needed]
A date palm cultivar, known as Judean date palm is renowned for its long-lived orthodox seed, which successfully sprouted after accidental storage for 2000 years. This particular seed is presently reputed to be the oldest viable seed but the upper survival time limit of properly stored seeds remains unknown.
Fossil records show that the date palm has existed for at least 50 million years.
The fruit is known as a date. The fruit's English name (through Old French), as well as the Latin species name dactylifera, both come from the Greek word for "finger", dáktulos, because of the fruit's elongated shape. Dates are oval-cylindrical, 3–7 cm long, and 2–3 cm (0.79–1.18 in) diameter, and when ripe, range from bright red to bright yellow in colour, depending on variety. Dates contain a single stone about 2–2.5 cm (0.79–0.98 in) long and 6–8 mm (0.24–0.31 in) thick. Three main cultivar groups of date exist: soft (e.g. 'Barhee', 'Halawy', 'Khadrawy', 'Medjool'), semi-dry (e.g. 'Dayri', 'Deglet Noor', 'Zahdi'), and dry (e.g. 'Thoory'). The type of fruit depends on the glucose, fructose and sucrose content.
The date palm is dioecious, having separate male and female plants. They can be easily grown from seed, but only 50 percent of seedlings will be female and hence fruit bearing, and dates from seedling plants are often smaller and of poorer quality. Most commercial plantations thus use cuttings of heavily cropping cultivars. Plants grown from cuttings will fruit 2–3 years earlier than seedling plants.
Dates are naturally wind pollinated but in both traditional oasis horticulture and in the modern commercial orchards they are entirely pollinated manually. Natural pollination occurs with about an equal number of male and female plants. However, with assistance, one male can pollinate up to 100 females. Since the males are of value only as pollinators, this allows the growers to use their resources for many more fruit producing female plants. Some growers do not even maintain any male plants as male flowers become available at local markets at pollination time. Manual pollination is done by skilled labourers on ladders. In some areas such as Iraq the pollinator climbs the tree using a special climbing tool that wraps around the tree trunk and the climber's back to keep him attached to the trunk while climbing. Less often the pollen may be blown onto the female flowers by a wind machine.
Dates ripen in four stages, which are known throughout the world by their Arabic names kimri (unripe), khlal (full-size, crunchy), rutab (ripe, soft), tamr (ripe, sun-dried).
Dates are an important traditional crop in Iraq, Arabia, and north Africa west to Morocco. Dates are also mentioned more than 50 times in the Bible and 20 times in the Qur'an. In Islamic culture, dates and yogurt or milk are traditionally the first foods consumed for Iftar after the sun has set during Ramadan. Dates (especially Medjool and Deglet Noor) are also cultivated in America in southern California, Arizona and southern Florida in the United States and in Sonora and Baja California in Mexico.
Date palms can take 4 to 8 years after planting before they will bear fruit, and produce viable yields for commercial harvest between 7 to 10 years. Mature date palms can produce 68 to 176 kilograms (150 to 300 lb) of dates per harvest season, although they do not all ripen at the same time so several harvests are required. In order to get fruit of marketable quality, the bunches of dates must be thinned and bagged or covered before ripening so that the remaining fruits grow larger and are protected from weather and pests such as birds.
A large number of date cultivars are grown. The most important are:
The Gaza Strip, especially Deir al-Balah ("Village of Dates"), is known for its exceptionally sweet red dates. There are more than 100 known cultivars in Iraq.[clarification needed] It should be noted, however, that a cultivar can have several names depending on the locality.
Fruit food uses
Dry or soft dates are eaten out-of-hand, or may be pitted and stuffed with fillings such as almonds, walnuts, pecans, candied orange and lemon peel, tahini, marzipan or cream cheese. Pitted dates are also referred to as stoned dates. Partially dried pitted dates may be glazed with glucose syrup for use as a snack food. Dates can also be chopped and used in a range of sweet and savory dishes, from tajines (tagines) in Morocco to puddings, ka'ak (types of Arab cookies) and other dessert items. Date nut bread, a type of cake, is very popular in the United States, especially around holidays. Dates are also processed into cubes, paste called "'ajwa", spread, date syrup or "honey" called "dibs" or "rub" in Libya, powder (date sugar), vinegar or alcohol. Vinegar made from dates is a traditional product of the Middle East. Recent innovations include chocolate-covered dates and products such as sparkling date juice, used in some Islamic countries as a non-alcoholic version of champagne, for special occasions and religious times such as Ramadan. When Muslims break fast in the evening meal of Ramadan, it is traditional to eat a date first.
Dates can also be dehydrated, ground and mixed with grain to form a nutritious stockfeed. Dried dates are fed to camels, horses and dogs in the Sahara. In northern Nigeria, dates and peppers added to the native beer are believed to make it less intoxicating.
In Israel date syrup is used while cooking chicken and also for sweet and desserts.
It is also used to make Jallab.
Dates provide a wide range of essential nutrients, and are a very good source of dietary potassium. The sugar content of ripe dates is about 80%; the remainder consists of protein, fiber, and trace elements including boron, cobalt, copper, fluorine, magnesium, manganese, selenium, and zinc. The glycemic index for three different varieties of dates are 35.5 (khalas), 49.7 (barhi) and 30.5 (bo ma'an).
A 2008 study suggests that consumption of dates by women in the final four weeks of pregnancy has positive effects regarding labor. Women who had six dates daily were compared to women who did not eat dates. The date-consuming group had greater mean cervical dilation, higher proportion of intact membranes, higher proportion of spontaneous labor, lower use of prostin/oxytocin, and shorter latent phase of labor.
Other uses of the fruits
In Pakistan, a viscous, thick syrup made from the ripe fruits is used as a coating for leather bags and pipes to prevent leaking.
Uses of other parts of the plant
Where craft traditions still thrive, such as in Oman, the palm tree is the most versatile of all indigenous plants, and virtually every part of the tree is utilized to make functional items ranging from rope and baskets to beehives, fishing boats, and traditional dwellings.
Date seeds are soaked and ground up for animal feed. Their oil is suitable for use in soap and cosmetics. Date palm seeds contain 0.56–5.4% lauric acid. They can also be processed chemically as a source of oxalic acid. The seeds are also burned to make charcoal for silversmiths, and can be strung in necklaces. Date seeds are also ground and used in the manner of coffee beans, or as an additive to coffee. Experimental studies have shown that feeding mice with the aqueous extract of date pits exhibit anti-genotoxic and reduce DNA damage induced by N-Nitroso-N-methylurea.
Stripped fruit clusters are used as brooms.
In large parts of Northern India the local species of wild date palm, Phoenix sylvestris, is tapped for palm wine, while in Pakistan and other countries in the region it is now mostly tapped for jaggery and palm syrup production. Wild date palms are also tapped in large parts of Africa for palm wine. The process of palm tapping involves the cutting of the unopened flower stalk and then fastening a bottle gourd, clay or plastic vessel on to it. The palm sap then collects in the vessel and is harvested in the early morning hours. If a few drops of lime juice are added to the palm sap, fermentation can be stopped and the sap can then be boiled to form palm syrup, palm sugar, jaggery and numerous other edible products derived from the syrup. In India and Pakistan, North Africa, Ghana, and Côte d'Ivoire, date palms are tapped for the sweet sap, which is converted into palm sugar (known as jaggery or gur), molasses or alcoholic beverages. In North Africa the sap obtained from tapping palm trees is known as lāgbī. If left for a sufficient period of time (typically hours, depending on the temperature) lāgbī easily becomes an alcoholic drink. Special skill is required when tapping the palm tree so that it does not die.
Date palm leaves are used for Palm Sunday in the Christian religion. In North Africa, they are commonly used for making huts. Mature leaves are also made into mats, screens, baskets and fans. Processed leaves can be used for insulating board. Dried leaf petioles are a source of cellulose pulp, used for walking sticks, brooms, fishing floats and fuel. Leaf sheaths are prized for their scent, and fibre from them is also used for rope, coarse cloth, and large hats. The leaves are also used as a lulav in the Jewish holiday of Sukkot.
Young date leaves are cooked and eaten as a vegetable, as is the terminal bud or heart, though its removal kills the palm. The finely ground seeds are mixed with flour to make bread in times of scarcity. The flowers of the date palm are also edible. Traditionally the female flowers are the most available for sale and weigh 300–400 grams. The flower buds are used in salad or ground with dried fish to make a condiment for bread.
Date palm wood is used for posts and rafters for huts; it is lighter than coconut and not very durable. It is also used for construction such as bridges and aqueducts, and parts of dhows. Leftover wood is burnt for fuel.
For more details on this topic, see Palm branch (symbol).
The date palm represents the provincial tree of Balochistan (Pakistan) (unofficial).
Diseases and pests
Main article: List of date palm diseases
Date Palms are susceptible to a disease called Bayoud disease, which is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. This disease, which kills many of the popular older cultivars like Deglet Noor, has led to a major decline in production where it is present, notably Morocco and western Algeria. However, new cultivars resistant to the disease are being developed. A major palm pest, the red palm beetle (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) currently poses a significant threat to date production in parts of the Middle East as well as to iconic landscape specimens throughout the Mediterranean world.
In the 1920s, eleven healthy Madjool palms were transferred from Morocco to the United States where they were tended by members of the Chemehuevi tribe[which?] in a remote region of Nevada. Nine of these survived and in 1935, cultivars were transferred to the US Date Garden in Indio, California. Eventually this stock was reintroduced to Africa and led to the US production of dates in Yuma, Arizona and the Bard Valley in California.
Date palm genome
Types of dates
Several types of dates can be found in Arabia, some of them are listed here.