خُرما (نام علمی: Phoenix dactylifera) یا رطب گیاهی تکلپهای و گرمسیری جزو تیره نخلها است که میوهاش خوراکی و دارای هستهای سخت و پوست نازک و طعم شیرین که به شکل خوشهای بزرگ از شاخه آویزان میگردد و برگهای آن بزرگ است. ارتفاع نخل به ۱۰ تا ۲۰ متر یا بیشتر میرسد.
میوه خرما جزو میوههای سته میباشد یعنی تمام قسمت بریکاری آن گوشتی و حاوی مواد غذایی است. خرما از دورانِ باستان در رژیم غذایی انسان وجود داشتهاست و یکی از قدیمیترین میوههای کشت شده توسط انسان بودهاست.
واژه خرما ریشه و بنیاد فارسی داشته و از زبان فارسی به زبانهای هندی، اردو، ترکی، اندونزیایی و مالزیایی به سوی شرقی و یونانی به سوی غربی وارد شدهاست. [نیازمند منبع]
ترکیبات شیمیایی خرما[ویرایش]
درخت خرما در نواحی گرمسیری و نیمهگرمسیری، از جمله ایران پرورش مییابد. با اینکه خاستگاه آن را میانرودان، عربستان و شمال آفریقا ذکر میکنند ولی بررسیهای علمی، آن را به گونهای به نام علمی P.H. Sivestris که در هندوستان میروید نسبت میدهند. باستانشناسان احداث نخلستانها را به پنج هزار سال پیش نسبت دادهاند زیرا نامی از آن بر لوحههای گلی ۵۰ سده پیش یافتهاند.
در ایران نخل و خرما از دوران باستان و پیش از هخامنشی کشت میشده. در ادبیات ساسانی از جمله در کتاب بندهشن از نخل یاد شدهاست. منابع چینی از ایران (در زبان ایشان بوسی، تلفظ چینی پارسی) به عنوان سرزمین نخل خرما که در نزدشان به نام عناب پارسی و عناب هزارساله مشهور بوده، یاد کردهاند. در پایان سده نهم میلادی، نخل خرما را از ایران به چین برده و در آنجا کشت کردهاند. در میان کشورهای اروپایی اسپانیا پیشینه بیشتری در کشت خرما دارد.
از برگ و شاخه درخت خرما سبد و زیرانداز تهیه میکنند. از هسته آن نان و از میوه خرما شراب و عسل. مردم صحرا هسته درخت خرما را آرد کرده و از آن نان میپزند یا در این هسته را بو داده و از آن بهعنوان قهوه استفاده میکنند زیرا دم کرده آن بسیار مطبوع است یا حتی این در را در آب برای چند روز خیس کرده و بهعنوان غذای مقوی به شترهای خود میدهند.
کشورهای تولیدکنندهٔ خرما[ویرایش]
اصطلاحات نخل و خرما[ویرایش]
در مناطق خرماخیز ایران اصطلاحات و واژههای فارسی زیادی در ارتباط با نخلکاری رواج دارد که به برخی از آنها اشاره میشود:
خرما در ایران[ویرایش]
مصرف سرانه خرما در ایران ۷ کیلوگرم است که میانگینی از مصرف سرانه ۲۵ کیلوگرمی استانهای جنوبی و ۱ کیلوگرمی سایر استانها میباشد. در ایران بهطور سالانه، ۱ میلیون تن خرما تولید میشود که عمده مصرف داخلی آن در ماه رمضان صورت میگیرد. از میان محصول خرمای هر سال ایران، ۱۰ درصد برای صادرات به کشورهای دیگر اختصاص مییابد، ۵۰ درصد به مصرف داخلی میرسد و ۴۰ درصد هم در مراحل مختلف برداشت محصول، ضایعشده و از بین میروند.
ارقام خرمای ایران[ویرایش]
جيرفت بهترين نوع خرما را داراست
پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]
Phoenix dactylifera, commonly known as date or date palm, is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit. Although its place of origin is unknown because of long cultivation, it probably originated from the Fertile Crescent region straddling between Egypt and Mesopotamia. The species is widely cultivated across Northern Africa, Middle East and South Asia, and is naturalized in many tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. P. dactylifera is the type species of genus Phoenix, which contains 12–19 species of wild date palms, and is the major source of commercial production.
Date trees typically reach about 21–23 metres (69–75 ft) in height, growing singly or forming a clump with several stems from a single root system. Date fruits (dates) are oval-cylindrical, 3–7 cm (1.2–2.8 in) long, and about an inch (2.5 cm) in diameter, ranging from bright red to bright yellow in color, depending on variety. They are very sweet, containing about 75 percent of sugar when dried.
Dates have been a staple food of the Middle East and the Indus Valley for thousands of years. There is archaeological evidence of date cultivation in Arabia from the 6th millennium BCE. The total annual world production of dates amounts to 8.5 million metric tons, countries of the Middle East and North Africa being the largest producers.
The species name dactylifera "date-bearing" comes from the Greek words daktylos (δάκτυλος), which means "date" (also "finger"), and fero (φέρω), which means "I bear". The fruit is known as a date. The fruit's English name (through Old French), as well as the Latin both come from the Greek word for "finger", dáktulos, because of the fruit's elongated shape.
Fossil records show that the date palm has existed for at least 50 million years.
Dates have been a staple food of the Middle East and the Indus Valley for thousands of years. There is archaeological evidence of date cultivation in eastern Arabia between 5530 and 5320 calBC. They are believed to have originated around what is now Iraq, and have been cultivated since ancient times from Mesopotamia to prehistoric Egypt. The Ancient Egyptians used the fruits to make date wine, and ate them at harvest.
There is archeological evidence of date cultivation in Mehrgarh around 7000 BCE, a Neolithic civilization in what is now western Pakistan. Evidence of cultivation is continually found throughout later civilizations in the Indus Valley, including the Harappan period 2600 to 1900 BCE.[page needed]
In Ancient Rome the palm fronds used in triumphal processions to symbolize victory were most likely those of Phoenix dactylifera. The date palm was a popular garden plant in Roman peristyle gardens, though it would not bear fruit in the more temperate climate of Italy. It is recognizable in frescoes from Pompeii and elsewhere in Italy, including a garden scene from the House of the Wedding of Alexander.
A date palm cultivar, probably what used to be called Judean date palm, is renowned for its long-lived orthodox seed, which successfully sprouted after accidental storage for 2000 years. The upper survival time limit of properly stored seeds remains unknown.
Date trees typically reach about 21–23 metres (69–75 ft) in height, growing singly or forming a clump with several stems from a single root system. The leaves are 4–6 metres (13–20 ft) long, with spines on the petiole, and pinnate, with about 150 leaflets. The leaflets are 30 cm (12 in) long and 2 cm (0.79 in) wide. The full span of the crown ranges from 6–10 m (20–33 ft).
The date palm is dioecious, having separate male and female plants. They can be easily grown from seed, but only 50% of seedlings will be female and hence fruit bearing, and dates from seedling plants are often smaller and of poorer quality. Most commercial plantations thus use cuttings of heavily cropping cultivars. Plants grown from cuttings will fruit 2–3 years earlier than seedling plants.
Dates are naturally wind pollinated, but in both traditional oasis horticulture and in the modern commercial orchards they are entirely pollinated manually. Natural pollination occurs with about an equal number of male and female plants. However, with assistance, one male can pollinate up to 100 females. Since the males are of value only as pollinators, this allows the growers to use their resources for many more fruit-producing female plants. Some growers do not even maintain any male plants, as male flowers become available at local markets at pollination time. Manual pollination is done by skilled labourers on ladders, or by use of a wind machine. In some areas such as Iraq the pollinator climbs the tree using a special climbing tool that wraps around the tree trunk and the climber's back (called تبلية in Arabic) to keep him attached to the trunk while climbing.
Date fruits are oval-cylindrical, 3–7 cm (1.2–2.8 in) long, and 2–3 cm (0.79–1.18 in) diameter, and when ripe, range from bright red to bright yellow in colour, depending on variety. Dates contain a single stone about 2–2.5 cm (0.8–1.0 in) long and 6–8 mm (0.2–0.3 in) thick. Three main cultivar groups of date exist: soft (e.g. 'Barhee', 'Halawy', 'Khadrawy', 'Medjool'), semi-dry (e.g. 'Dayri', 'Deglet Noor', 'Zahdi'), and dry (e.g. 'Thoory'). The type of fruit depends on the glucose, fructose, and sucrose content.
Parthenocarpic cultivars are available but the seedless fruit is smaller and of lower quality. Dates ripen in four stages, which are known throughout the world by their Arabic names kimri (unripe), khlal (full-size, crunchy), rutab (ripe, soft), tamr (ripe, sun-dried).
Dates are an important traditional crop in Iraq, Arabia, and north Africa west to Morocco. Dates (especially Medjool and Deglet Noor) are also cultivated in America in southern California, Arizona and southern Florida in the United States and in Sonora and Baja California in Mexico.
Date palms can take 4 to 8 years after planting before they will bear fruit, and start producing viable yields for commercial harvest between 7 and 10 years. Mature date palms can produce 150–300 lb (70–140 kg) of dates per harvest season, although they do not all ripen at the same time so several harvests are required. In order to get fruit of marketable quality, the bunches of dates must be thinned and bagged or covered before ripening so that the remaining fruits grow larger and are protected from weather and pests such as birds.
Date palms require well-drained deep sandy loam soils with pH 8-11. The soil should have the ability to hold the moisture. The soil should also be free from calcium carbonate.
A large number of date cultivars are grown. The most important are:
Several types of dates can be found in Arabia, some of them are listed here.
Diseases and pests
Date palms are susceptible to Bayoud disease, which is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. This disease, which kills many of the popular older cultivars like Deglet Noor, has led to a major decline in production where it is present, notably Morocco and western Algeria. However, new cultivars resistant to the disease are being developed.
A major palm pest, the red palm beetle (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) currently poses a significant threat to date production in parts of the Middle East as well as to iconic landscape specimens throughout the Mediterranean world.
In the 1920s, eleven healthy Madjool palms were transferred from Morocco to the United States where they were tended by members of the Chemehuevi tribe[which?] in a remote region of Nevada. Nine of these survived and in 1935, cultivars were transferred to the "U.S. Date Garden" in Indio, California. Eventually this stock was reintroduced to Africa and led to the U.S. production of dates in Yuma, Arizona and the Bard Valley in California.
Dry or soft dates are eaten out-of-hand, or may be pitted and stuffed with fillings such as almonds, walnuts, pecans, candied orange and lemon peel, tahini, marzipan or cream cheese. Pitted dates are also referred to as stoned dates. Partially dried pitted dates may be glazed with glucose syrup for use as a snack food. Dates can also be chopped and used in a range of sweet and savory dishes, from tajines (tagines) in Morocco to puddings, ka'ak (types of Arab cookies) and other dessert items. Date nut bread, a type of cake, is very popular in the United States, especially around holidays. Dates are also processed into cubes, paste called "'ajwa", spread, date syrup or "honey" called "dibs" or "rub" in Libya, powder (date sugar), vinegar or alcohol. Vinegar made from dates is a traditional product of the Middle East. Recent innovations include chocolate-covered dates and products such as sparkling date juice, used in some Islamic countries as a non-alcoholic version of champagne, for special occasions and religious times such as Ramadan. When Muslims break fast in the evening meal of Ramadan, it is traditional to eat a date first.
Reflecting the maritime trading heritage of Britain, imported chopped dates are added to, or form the main basis of a variety of traditional dessert recipes including sticky toffee pudding, Christmas pudding and date and walnut loaf. They are particularly available to eat whole at Christmas time. Dates and tamarind are ingredients in a commercial condiment, HP Sauce.
Dates can also be dehydrated, ground and mixed with grain to form a nutritious stockfeed.
In Israel date syrup, termed "silan", is used while cooking chicken and also for sweet and desserts, and as a honey substitute.
It is also used to make Jallab.
In Pakistan, a viscous, thick syrup made from the ripe fruits is used as a coating for leather bags and pipes to prevent leaking.
Dates provide a wide range of essential nutrients, and are a very good source of dietary potassium. The sugar content of ripe dates is about 80%; the remainder consists of protein, fiber, and trace elements including boron, cobalt, copper, fluorine, magnesium, manganese, selenium, and zinc. The glycemic index for three different varieties of dates are 35.5 (khalas), 49.7 (barhi), and 30.5 (bo ma'an).
Where craft traditions still thrive, such as in Oman, the palm tree is the most versatile of all indigenous plants, and virtually every part of the tree is utilized to make functional items ranging from rope and baskets to beehives, fishing boats, and traditional dwellings.
Date seeds are soaked and ground up for animal feed. Their oil is suitable for use in soap and cosmetics. Date palm seeds contain 0.56–5.4% lauric acid. They can also be processed chemically as a source of oxalic acid. The seeds are also burned to make charcoal for silversmiths, and can be strung in necklaces. Date seeds are also ground and used in the manner of coffee beans, or as an additive to coffee. Experimental studies have shown that feeding mice with the aqueous extract of date pits exhibit anti-genotoxic and reduce DNA damage induced by N-nitroso-N-methylurea.
Stripped fruit clusters are used as brooms. Recently the floral stalks have been found to be of ornamental value in households.
The process of palm tapping involves the cutting of the unopened flower stalk and then fastening a bottle gourd, clay or plastic vessel on to it. The palm sap then collects in the vessel and is harvested in the early morning hours. If a few drops of lime juice are added to the palm sap, fermentation can be stopped and the sap can then be boiled to form palm syrup, palm sugar, jaggery and numerous other edible products derived from the syrup. If left for a sufficient period of time (typically hours, depending on the temperature) the sap easily ferments into palm wine.
Date palm leaves are used for Palm Sunday in the Christian religion. In North Africa, they are commonly used for making huts. Mature leaves are also made into mats, screens, baskets and fans. Processed leaves can be used for insulating board. Dried leaf petioles are a source of cellulose pulp, used for walking sticks, brooms, fishing floats and fuel. Leaf sheaths are prized for their scent, and fibre from them is also used for rope, coarse cloth, and large hats. The leaves are also used as a lulav in the Jewish holiday of Sukkot.
Young date leaves are cooked and eaten as a vegetable, as is the terminal bud or heart, though its removal kills the palm. The finely ground seeds are mixed with flour to make bread in times of scarcity. The flowers of the date palm are also edible. Traditionally the female flowers are the most available for sale and weigh 300–400 grams (11–14 oz). The flower buds are used in salad or ground with dried fish to make a condiment for bread.
Dates are mentioned more than 50 times in the Bible and 20 times in the Qur'an. In Islamic culture, dates and yogurt or milk are traditionally the first foods consumed for Iftar after the sun has set during Ramadan.
The date palm represents the provincial tree of Balochistan (Pakistan) (unofficial).
Phoenix dactylifera held great significance in early Judaism and subsequently in Christianity, in part because the tree was heavily cultivated as a food source in ancient Israel. In the Bible palm trees are referenced as symbols of prosperity and triumph. In Psalm 92:12 "The righteous shall flourish like the palm tree". Palm branches occurred as iconography in sculpture ornamenting the Second Jewish Temple in Jerusalem, on Jewish coins, and in the sculpture of synagogues. They are also used as ornamentation in the Feast of the Tabernacles.