خدای جنگ (مجموعه بازی)
خدای جنگ (به انگلیسی: God of War) یک سری بازی ویدئویی به سبک اکشن ماجرایی که توسط شرکت سرگرمی کامپیوتری سونی بر اساس اساطیر یونان ساخته شدهاست. سری خدای جنگ با انتشار در سال ۲۰۰۵ برای کنسولهای پلیاستیشن شرکت سونی آغاز شدهاست. تا به حال هفت نسخه از این بازی منتشر عرضه شدهاست; خدای جنگ ۱، ۲، ۳ و معراج توسط استودیوی سانتا مونیکای سونی ساخته شدهاند، و بوسیله سرگرمی کامپیوتری سونی برای کنسولهای پلیاستیشن ۲ و پلیاستیشن ۳ منتشر شدهاند. ردی ات داون ساخت نسخههای کنسول بازی دستی پلیاستیشن همراه، شامل خدای جنگ: زنجیرهای المپ و خدای جنگ: روح اسپارتا را بر عهده داشتهاست.
روند بازی در این سری، ترکیبی از سبکهای اکشن ماجرایی، سکوبازی و معمایی است. دوربین در بازیهای مجموعه خدای جنگ به صورت دید سوم شخص است. (البته در برخی از صحنههای بازی همچون شماره سوم شاهد نوعی دوربین با نمای دید اول شخص هستیم.
بازیکن کنترل شخصیت کریتوس را بر عهده دارد و باید برای رسیدن به اهداف هر مرحله، از یک مجموعه نبردها، معماها و چالشها عبور کند. سلاحهای اصلی کریتوس در طول بازیهای این مجموعه، شامل یک شمشیر دو زنجیره میشود و در کنار آن، کریتوس میتواند در هر شماره، سلاحهای خاصی را بدست آورد. کریتوس همچنین قابلیت ویژهای به نام خشم خدایان دارد که به او آسیب ناپذیری موقت میبخشد و آسیب حملات او را افزایش میدهد. این توانایی تنها در مواردی قابل استفاده میشود که او ضربات و آسیبهای متوالی را از دشمنان دریافت کند و سلامتیاش رو به اتمام برود.
داستان خدای جنگ ۱[ویرایش]
کریتوس و برادرش در یکی از دهکدههای کوچک یونان قدیم به نام اسپارتا بهدنیا آمدند. بهخاطر ناشناس بودن پدر کریتوس خانواده کوچک او همیشه مورد توهین و اذیت سایر مردم قرار میگرفت. وقتی دو برادر کمی بزرگتر شدند کریتوس به علت تواناییهایش در جنگیدن به خدمت ارتش اسپارتان درآمد ولی برعکس او برادرش به علت مریضحالی و ناتوانی به کوههای اسپارتا برای گذران باقی عمرش فرستاده شد. برادر کریتوس در همانجا مرد و به دنیای مردگان رفت. کریتوس بعد از مدت کوتاهی فرماندهی یک لشکر ۵۰ نفره را به عهده گرفت که بعدها این تعداد به چند هزار نفر افزایش یافت و همه برای فتخار اسپارتان میجنگیدند. تا اینکه روز جنگ با لشکر عظیم بارباریان فرا رسید. این جنگ شروع ماجراهای پرفراز و نشیب کراتوس و اسپارتان بود. جنگی که سرنوشت اسپارتانیها و کراتوس را تغییر داد. کریتوس در میدان نبرد دریافت که لشکر بارباریان چندین برابر عظیمتر از اسپارتانیهاست ولی راه برگشتی وجود نداشت. کراتوس عازم جنگ شد ولی قدرت بسیار لشکر مقابل باعث از پای درآمدن کراتوس شد. لشکریان باربارها خیلی زود تمام اسپارتانیها را تار و مار کردند. سرنوشت کریتوس تا بدینجا این بود که شاه باربارها روی سینه او بایستد و پتک عظیم خود را برای فرود آوردن روی کراتوس بالا ببرد ولی... کریتوس وقتی خود را مقابل قدرت دشمن ناتوان و عاجز دید از خدای جنگ کمک خواست. او نام خدای جنگ آرس را صدا زد تا به او کمک کند.
او در ازای کمک آرس و شکست دادن دشمنانش، در مقابل آرس سجده کرد که از این به بعد بنده او خواهد بود و به فرمان او هرکجا را که بخواهد به آتش خواهد کشید. آرس هدیهای به او داد و این هدیه یک شمشیر دوتایی با قدرت خدای جنگ به نام «Blade of chaos» بود. این شمشیر به دستهای او زنجیر شد تا فقط آرس بتواند آنها را از دست او رها کند. کریتوس قبل از اینکه بنده خدای جنگ شود ازدواج کرده بود صاحب یک دختر بود. زن او دقیقاً نقطه مخالف کریتوس بود و با اعمال او به شدت مخالف بود. به این علت که حتی کریتوس فراموش کرده بود که خانوادهای دارد و فقط به فکر شکوه اسپارتا بود. کریتوس به قدری جاه طلب بود که حتی به درخواست آرس مبنی بر حمله به دهکده اسپارتان هم تن داد. دهکدهای که در آن متولد شده بود. او وارد دهکده شد و دستور تخریب و کشتن همه افراد دهکده را صادر کرد. بعد از تخریب کامل دهکده کریتوس به جلوی معبد اسپارتان رسید. در جلوی معبد پیرزنی پیشگو جلوی او را گرفت و به او اخطار کرد که در داخل معبد سرنوشت شومی در انتظار اوست و او را منع کرد. ولی کریتوس پیشگو را کنار زد و داخل شد و شروع به قتل و عام کردن افراد داخل معبد گردید، اما وقتی دست از کشتنشان کشید متوجه بدن بیجان زن و دخترش در زیر پاهایش شد. آرس به او گفت ناراحت نباشد چون او بزودی جنگجوی بزرگی خواهد شد. وقتی کریتوس از معبد خارج شد پیشگو نزد او آمد و او را به این صورت سحر کرد که خاکستر زن و فرزندانش همیشه بروی بدن او بماند تا وقتی هرکس او را ببیند متوجه جنایات و اعمال زشت او شود. و از آن به بعد رنگ او سفید شد.
بعد از این ماجرا بود که روح اسپارتا بوجود آمد و هر کسی که او را میدید از او فرار میکرد. بعد از آن واقعه افسردگی به سراغش آمد و پیش الهه عقل و خرد آتنا رفت. آتنا دختر پادشاه ایزدان زئوس و خواهر آرس بود که آرس به شهر او یعنی آتن حمله کرده بود. کریتوس از آتنا خواست تا عذاب را از وجود او پاک کند. آتنا به او گفت اگر آرس را شکست داده و شهر او را از دست او نجات دهد، خدایان گناهان او را خواهند بخشید. کریتوس به آتن رفت و آرس را دید که مشغول تخریب شهر بود. آتنا به او گفت که تنها راه شکست یک خدا به دست یک انسان استفاده از جعبه پاندورا است. جعبه پاندورا جعبهای جادویی در معبد پاندوراست که هر یک از خدایان قدرتی از قدرتهای خود را در آن قرار داده و آن را در معبد پاندورا قرار دادهاند.
معبد پاندورا در دشت ارواح گمشده و توسط زئوس به پشت پدرش کرونوس زنجیر شده بود. آتنا به او گفت که فقط معجزه آتن که یک زن است میتواند درب دشت ارواح گمشده را باز کند. او به معبد معجزه رفت و معجزه آتن را نجات داد و او درب صحرای ارواح گمشده را برای کریتوس باز کرد در معبد معجزه پیرمردی را دید که مشغول کندن قبری بود. کریتوس به آنجا رفت. آتنا به او گفت که برای ورود به عمیقترین جاهای صحرا از موانعی بگذرد و اولین آنها از بین بردن سایرنها است. کریتوس به راهش در دشت ادامه داد تا به صوری رسید. بر آن دمید و کرونوس به سمت او آمد. کرونوس به حدی بزرگ بود که کریتوس به زحمت نصف یکی از دندانهای او میشد. ۳ روز طول کشید تا کریتوس به معبد رسید. حالا باید به بالاترین مکان معبد میرفت. وقتی جلوی دروازه معبد رسید نگهبان دروازه را دید او به کریتوس گفت که تا بحال هیچکس زنده از آنجا برنگشته است. نگهبان دروازه را برای او باز کرد و کراتوس وارد شد. لوحی را مشاهده کرد که نام معمار خدایان و سازنده معبد را نوشته بود. پاتروس وردس سوم. بالاخره کریتوس بعد از پشت سرگذاشتن موانع و معماهای معبد به جعبه پاندورا دست یافت. جعبهای که سه قدرت از سه خدای اصلی یونان را در خود داشت. زئوس، پوزیدون و هادس. کراتوس بعد از ۱۰۰۰ سال رنگ خورشید را بر جعبه پاندورا تاباند. ولی آرس که متوجه قضیه شد چوبی را از آتن به سمت او پرتاب کرد و دست کریتوس را از جعبه کوتاه کرد. کریتوس به دنیای مردگان رفت. در آنجا ناخدای کشتی که هیدرا به آن حمله کرده بود جان او را نجات داد. خود کریتوس باعث مرگ او شده بود ولی اینبار توسط او نجات یافت و برای بار دوم ناخدا را به اعماق دنیای زیر زمین فرستاد. کریتوس با خوششناسی تمام نجات یافته بود. او به بالاترین مکان دنیای زیر زمین رفت. طنابی از بالا به پایین افتاد و کریتوس از آن بالا رفت. او از همان قبری که پیرمرد در معبد معجزه میکند بیرون آمد.
خدای خدایان و پدر کریتوس به شکل پیرمردی جان او را نجات داده بود ولی کریتوس هنوز نمیدانست که حتی زئوس پدر اوست. او به داخل شهر رفت و آرس را دید. آرس جعبه را در دست داشت و رو به زئوس میگفت: "میبینی پدر. تو خواستی آتن رو نجات بدی ولی حال هم آتن در چنگ من است و هم جعبه پاندورا..." کراتوس با صاعقه زئوس جعبه را از دست او جدا کرد و بعد از گذشت هزار سال برای اولین بار قدرت خدایان نمایان شد. کریتوس صاحب این قدرت شد و به حدی بزرگ شد که به اندازه آرس رسید. انسانی با قدرت خدایی. جنگ آخر آغاز شد و کراتوس در راند اول! توانست آریس را شکست دهد ولی شمشیرها افسونی شده بود که نمیتوانست آریس را نابود کند. آرس کریتوس را به عالم توهم برد تا با نشان دادن کشته شدن دختر و همسر به دست خودش او را عذاب دهد. چندین موجود به شکل کریتوس به دختر و همسرش حمله کردند ولی کریتوس جانانه در مقابل آنها ایستاد و خانوادهاش را نجات داد. او رو به آرس کرد و گفت من خانوادهام را نجات دادم ولی آرس شمشیرها را از او گرفت و دختر و فرزندش را کشت. کریتوس به عالم واقعیت برگشت بدون شمشیرهای دگرگونی. این یعنی اینکه آرس اشتباه بزرگی کرده بود و به دست خودش زنجیرهای اسارت را از دست کریتوس باز کرده بود. و بعد خدایان آخرین هدیه خود را به کریتوس اهدا کردند، یعنی شمشیر خدایان. کریتوس با تمام وجود شمشیر را در سینه آرس فرو کرد و خدای جنگ نابود شد. بعد از آن واقعه کریتوس نزد آتنا آمد و از او خواهش کرد این عذاب را از وجود او پاک کند ولی آتنا به او گفت نه انسان نه خدا هیچ کس نمیتواند خاطره اعمال را از ذهن او پاک کند. کریتوس به بالاترین صخره کوه المپ رفت و خود را از آن به پایین پرتاب کرد. ولی خدایان او را بالا آوردند و آتنا به او گفت یک تخت در عرش المپ خالی است، و آن چیزی نیست جز تاج و تخت خدای جنگ. آتنا شمشیر Blade of Athena را به او داد و او را به عنوان خدای جنگ معرفی کرد.
حضور کریتوس در بازیهای دیگر[ویرایش]
کریتوس علاوه بر حضور در مجموعه بازیهای خدای جنگ، در ۵ بازی دیگر هم به عنوان شخصیت قابل کنترل حضور داشته است. از جمله این بازیها می توان به بزرگ سیاره کوچک، ضربههای داغ گلف: خارج از مرزها، سول کالیبر: سرنوشت شکسته، مادنیشن ریسرز و نسخههای پلی استیشن ۳ و پلیاستیشن ویتا بازی مورتال کامبت در سال ۲۰۱۱ اشاره کرد.
This article is about the video game series. For the comic book series, see God of War (comics).
God of War is an action-adventure video game series loosely based on Greek mythology, created by David Jaffe. Debuting in 2005, the series has become a flagship title for the PlayStation brand, consisting of seven games across multiple platforms with an eighth in development. The series' story centers around its playable character, Kratos, a Spartan warrior tricked into killing his wife and child by his former master, the God of War Ares. Kratos kills Ares at the behest of the goddess Athena and takes his place as the new God of War, but is still haunted by the nightmares of his past. Revealed to be a demigod and the son of Zeus, the King of the Olympian Gods who betrays Kratos, the Spartan then seeks revenge against the gods for their machinations. What follows is a series of attempts to free himself from the influence of the gods and the Titans and exact revenge. Each game chapter forms part of a saga with vengeance as a central motif.
The main trilogy—God of War (2005), God of War II (2007), and God of War III (2010)—was developed by Sony's Santa Monica Studio and published by Sony Computer Entertainment (SCE) for the PlayStation 2 (PS2) and PlayStation 3 (PS3) video game consoles. Ready at Dawn developed the PlayStation Portable (PSP) installments, Chains of Olympus (2008) and Ghost of Sparta (2010), which were also published by SCE. The mobile phone Java ME installment, Betrayal (2007), was developed by Javaground and Sony Online Entertainment's Los Angeles division, and published by Sony Pictures Digital. Santa Monica and SCE released the main trilogy's prequel, Ascension, for the PS3 in 2013, which introduced multiplayer to the series.
In addition to the individual games, two collections featuring remastered versions of both PS2 installments, God of War Collection (2009), and both PSP installments, Origins Collection (2011), were released on the PS3 by Bluepoint Games and Ready at Dawn, respectively. Another collection, God of War Saga (2012), was released for the PS3 and features God of War Collection, Origins Collection, and God of War III. Sanzaru Games ported God of War Collection to the PlayStation Vita in 2014. In celebration of the franchise's tenth anniversary, God of War III Remastered was released on PlayStation 4 (PS4) in 2015 and was ported by Wholesale Algorithms.
Games in the series have been praised for being the best action games for the PlayStation brand, and some of the best action games of all time. In June 2012, Sony reported that the series had sold more than 21 million copies worldwide. Strong sales and support of the series led to the franchise's expansion into other media, such as a comic book series—God of War (2010–11)—two novels—God of War (2010) and God of War II (2013)—and a web-based graphic novel—Rise of the Warrior (2012–13). A film adaptation of the original installment has been in development since 2005. Merchandise promoting the series has also been produced, including artwork, clothing, toys, and prop replicas.
See also: Characters of God of War
God of War was first released in North America on March 22, 2005, for the PlayStation 2. After ten years in the service of the Olympian gods, Spartan soldier Kratos is tasked by Athena to find Pandora's Box; the key to defeating Ares, the God of War, who is running amok through Athens. A series of flashbacks reveals that Kratos was once the servant of Ares, who saved the Spartan and his army from annihilation in battle, but tricked him into killing his family which forced his metamorphosis into the "Ghost of Sparta". Kratos eventually finds Pandora's Box, and after finally killing Ares, he ascends to Mount Olympus to become the new God of War.
God of War II was first released in North America on March 13, 2007, for the PlayStation 2. Angered at his fellow gods, Kratos runs amok across the city of Rhodes. Zeus intervenes and betrays Kratos, who is saved by the Titan Gaia. She tells him he must now find the Sisters of Fate, who can change his fate and prevent his death at the hands of Zeus. Kratos is ultimately successful and as he is about to kill the god, Athena sacrifices herself to save Zeus and preserve Olympus, and tells Kratos that he is the son of Zeus. Kratos then joins forces with Gaia and the Titans to attack Olympus.
God of War: Betrayal was released on June 20, 2007, for mobile phones supporting Java ME. It is the only game in the series to be released as a two-dimensional (2D) side-scroller and released on a non-PlayStation platform. The game's narrative takes place between the events of Ghost of Sparta and God of War II. Kratos is framed for murder, and rampages across Greece seeking the true assassin. Kratos succumbs to bloodlust and kills Ceryx, the son of the god Hermes—an act that alienates him from his fellow gods.
God of War: Chains of Olympus was first released in North America on March 4, 2008, for the PlayStation Portable. Its narrative takes place during Kratos' ten years of service to the gods. Kratos halts a Persian invasion of the Greek city of Attica, and learns that the world has been plunged into darkness by the god Morpheus. Kratos investigates the abduction of the sun god Helios, and prevents the Machiavellian plan of the goddess Persephone to use the Titan Atlas to destroy the world.
God of War III was first released in North America on March 16, 2010, for the PlayStation 3. Reigniting the Great War, Kratos is soon abandoned by the Titans, who were only using him to exact their own revenge. Helped by the spirit of Athena who was elevated to a new level of understanding, she instructs him to seek the Flame of Olympus in order to defeat Zeus. Kratos engages the gods and the Titans in an epic series of battles across the Underworld and Olympus and learns that Pandora's Box is within the Flame. He discovers that Pandora herself is the key to pacifying the Flame and allowing him to open the Box. After finally killing Zeus, he refuses to help Athena assume the role of new patron of mankind and disappears, his final fate unknown.
God of War: Ghost of Sparta was first released in North America on November 2, 2010, for the PlayStation Portable. Set between the events of God of War and Betrayal, Kratos, the God of War, is still haunted by visions of his mortal past and embarks on a quest to discover his origins by finding his mother, Callisto. He learns that his brother Deimos was taken by the gods and imprisoned by the God of Death, Thanatos, and decides to find and save his sibling. Although successful, Thanatos engages the brothers in combat, and kills Deimos. Kratos then kills Thanatos and returns to Olympus, further enraged at the gods.
God of War: Ascension was first released in North America on March 12, 2013, for the PlayStation 3. It is the first game in the series to feature multiplayer for both competitive and cooperative play. Set six months after Kratos killed his wife and child, he has been imprisoned by the three Furies for breaking his blood oath to Ares. With the help of the oath keeper Orkos, Kratos learns that Ares and the Furies plan to overthrow Mount Olympus. The Spartan escapes his imprisonment, subsequently killing the Furies, and Orkos, who begs for release. Although free of Ares' bond, Kratos begins to suffer the nightmares that plague him for years.
At the first annual PlayStation Experience on December 6, 2014, SCE Santa Monica Studio's creative director Cory Barlog, who was game director of God of War II, confirmed that a new God of War was in very early development. He said that the game will not be a prequel, but it might be a reboot. In April 2016, Polygon reported that concept art of the next installment had been leaked, with reports claiming that they are legitimate. The concept art was reportedly taken from the personal website of an artist who worked at Santa Monica Studio in 2015. The images show Kratos in the world of Norse mythology; a concept originally considered by David Jaffe after Kratos eliminated the Greek gods.
Collections and remasters
Main article: God of War video game collections
God of War Collection was first released in North America on November 17, 2009, for the PlayStation 3—the franchise's first appearance on the platform. It is a remastered port of God of War and God of War II. The games were ported by Bluepoint Games and feature high-definition 1080p anti-aliased graphics at 60 frames per second and trophies. Sanzaru Games later ported the collection to the PlayStation Vita and it was released in May 2014—the franchise's only appearance on this platform.
God of War: Origins Collection was first released in North America on September 13, 2011, for the PlayStation 3. It is a remastered port of the two PlayStation Portable installments in the series—Chains of Olympus and Ghost of Sparta. God of War Origins was ported by Ready at Dawn and features 1080p high-definition video, anti-aliased graphics at 60 frames per second, DualShock 3 rumble features, trophies, and it is the only God of War release to feature Stereoscopic 3D.
God of War Saga was released in North America on August 28, 2012. It is a collection of five of the God of War games for the PlayStation 3, released as part of Sony's PlayStation Collections line. The collection includes God of War, God of War II, God of War III, Chains of Olympus, and Ghost of Sparta. It features two Blu-ray Discs—God of War I and II on the first and III on the second—and a voucher to download Chains of Olympus and Ghost of Sparta. The games retain the same features as their first PS3 releases.
God of War III Remastered was first released in North America on July 14, 2015, for the PlayStation 4—the franchise's first appearance on the platform. It is a remastered version of God of War III, and it features full 1080p support targeted at 60 frames per second and a photo mode. The game's announcement and release was in celebration of the franchise's tenth anniversary. It was ported by Wholesale Algorithms.
The series consists of six single-player only games, and a seventh that includes multiplayer. Each game typically features a third-person, fixed cinematic camera. The player controls the character Kratos in a combination of combat, platforming, and puzzle game elements to achieve goals and complete the story. A first-person camera is featured in God of War III and Ascension. Betrayal is the only installment to feature a 2D side-scrolling view.
Kratos' main weapon is a pair of double-chained blades that appear in three iterations throughout the series: the Blades of Chaos, the Blades of Athena (or Athena's Blades), and the Blades of Exile. They each perform similarly, but differ in the types of combos and amount of damage each yields, as well as cosmetic differences. Other weapons (such as the Blade of Artemis in God of War) are also obtained during the games. Magic is also used, and four abilities (such as Poseidon's Rage, Medusa's Gaze, Zeus' Fury, and Army of Hades in God of War) are typically acquired. God of War III differs in that instead of separate abilities, there are four primary weapons that possess their own respective magic offensive. The game also featured "Items"—additional secondary weapons with limited usage, such as the Bow of Apollo. With each new game, most weapons and magic are lost via a plot device, and a new arsenal of weapons and abilities are acquired during gameplay. God of War: Ascension differed from previous games in that instead of acquiring new weapons that are kept throughout the entire game, the player collects up to five World Weapons (such as a sword or a javelin) that have limited usage. When there is not a World Weapon equipped, the player can punch or kick foes as part of a new mechanic added to the game.
The series offers combo-based combat, and includes a quick time event (QTE) feature, also called context sensitive attacks, which is initiated when the player has weakened a foe. It allows limited control of Kratos during the QTE cinematic sequence; success ends the battle while failure usually results in damage to the player. In addition to the QTE system, Ascension features a prompt-less free-form system, allowing players the choice of when to attack or dodge based on the enemy's actions. A grab maneuver can be used on minor foes.
Relics, which the player can use in successive games (such as Poseidon's Trident obtained in God of War allowing Kratos to swim underwater for extended periods) are also found and necessary for game progression. Kratos often has a special ability, which provides temporary invulnerability and increased attack damage. This ability has become an ongoing feature of gameplay throughout the series—Rage of the Gods in God of War and Ascension, Rage of the Titans in God of War II, Rage of Sparta in God of War III, and Thera's Bane in Ghost of Sparta. This ability can be recharged by building hits on foes in combat, and gaining game-specific orbs. Thera's Bane, however, is recharged automatically.
Gorgon Eyes and Phoenix Feathers, found throughout the game in unmarked chests (white chests in Ascension), increase the maximum amount of health and magic, respectively. Minotaur Horns, which increase the Items and Fire meter's maximum length, are available in God of War III and Ghost of Sparta, respectively. The Items meter allows the use of secondary weapons, called Items, and the Fire meter allows the use of Thera's Bane. The meters are increased in increments and reach their maximum once a certain number of Eyes, Feathers, and Horns are found. Other chests contain green, blue, or red orbs. Green orbs replenish the player's health, blue orbs replenish magic allowing further usage, and red orbs provide experience for upgrading weapons and magic for new, more powerful attacks, and replenish the Rage meter in God of War. Gold orbs are found in God of War II and Ascension and replenish the rage meter instead of red orbs (white orbs replaced the gold orbs in God of War III). Chests with changing colors, which allow players to choose which meter to replenish, have also been available. Red orbs can also be collected by killing foes and destroying certain inanimate objects. Bosses and more powerful opponents release a combination of colored orbs when killed via the quick-time feature.
With the exception of Ascension, each installment offers a challenge mode, which yields extra red orbs, secret costumes, and behind-the-scenes videos. Bonus content can also be unlocked by defeating the game's difficulty levels. Battle arenas, which allow players to set difficulty levels and choose their own opponents, are included in God of War II, Betrayal, God of War III, and Ghost of Sparta. A quick-time sex mini-game is also included in each installment except Betrayal and Ascension.
Ascension introduced online multiplayer to the series for both competitive and cooperative play. Up to eight players on two teams of two to four players (or a four to eight player deathmatch) battle for control of a map in order to earn rewards from the gods. Players can also fight each other in one-on-one matches. Players must sell their champion's soul to either Zeus, Hades, Ares, or Poseidon, which allows players to try different weapons, armor sets, and powers inspired by the god of their choice, and extras can be unlocked.
After the success of their first game Kinetica (2001), Santa Monica began development of God of War in 2002, and unveiled it two years later at SCEA Santa Monica Gamers' Day 2004. Game director and creator David Jaffe said while the idea for God of War was his own, the concept owed a debt to Capcom because he had played Onimusha and said "let's do that with Greek Mythology". He was inspired in part by the 1981 feature film, Clash of the Titans, saying, "the real high concept for me was ... merging it with Heavy Metal magazine". He said he liked both "the kids stuff ... with Greek Mythology" and the idea of adding more adult themes such as sex and violence. He was also inspired by the 1981 film Raiders of the Lost Ark. Although the game is based on Greek mythology, the development team gave themselves "lots of freedom" to modify the myths, and Jaffe said they took the "coolest aspects of the subject" and created art and story using those elements. Director of visual development and lead concept artist, Charlie Wen, drew inspiration from these films as well as more contemporary films such as Gladiator (2000) for tonal inspiration to lead the visual design of Kratos, other characters, and the world of God of War. GameSpot said the developers described the gameplay "as merging the action of Devil May Cry with the puzzle-solving of Ico" and noted that players would be able to "sunder enemies with a single move, such as by ripping them in half". The game uses Santa Monica's Kinetica engine, which they developed for Kinetica.
A sequel to God of War was first teased at the end of its credits, which stated, "Kratos Will Return". God of War II was officially announced at the 2006 Game Developers Conference (GDC). David Jaffe stepped down and became the creative director of its sequel and God of War's lead animator Cory Barlog assumed the role of game director. Barlog said that in the game, players would see "a larger view of Kratos' role within the mythological world." Like God of War, the game uses Santa Monica's Kinetica engine. Magic attacks became an integral part of the combat system and it was more refined. New creatures and heroes from the mythology, and more boss battles were added. Both Jaffe and Barlog said that they did not view God of War II as a sequel, but rather a continuation of the previous game. Jaffe said that they did not want to include the Roman numeral number two (II) in the title for this reason, but they did not want the title to convey the impression it was an expansion pack. Both Jaffe and Barlog said that the reason God of War II appeared on the PlayStation 2 instead of the PlayStation 3—which was released four months prior to God of War II—was because "there's a 100 million people out there that will be able to play God of War II as soon as it launches." Barlog assured that the game would be playable on the newer platform, which had PlayStation 2 backwards compatibility.
God of War III was first mentioned by Cory Barlog at a God of War II launch event, and it was officially announced at the 2008 Electronic Entertainment Expo (E3). After the first eight months of development, Barlog left Santa Monica for unexplained reasons and Stig Asmussen (lead environment artist and art director on God of War and God of War II, respectively) became director. Asmussen said that one of the greatest challenges in developing God of War III for the PlayStation 3 was the "complexity of everything"; individual tasks, such as designing Helios' decapitation, could take a year because the "level of detail [that was] expected [was] so high and intricate, it [crossed] multiple departments." He said that the PlayStation 3's hardware capabilities allowed more flexibility in character creation and interaction with the environment. The engine for God of War III was ported from the first two installments to the PlayStation 3. As the game was being developed, the code department swapped out PlayStation 2 components with PlayStation 3 components. They replaced the renderer, the particle system, and the collision system. Although they were re-using the engine from God of War II, the core engine for God of War III was brand new. Between E3 2009 and the time the game shipped, morphological anti-aliasing (MLAA) was added, which graphics engineer Ben Diamand said "improved edges dramatically and saved substantial amounts of frame-rate." Diamand also said that "depth-of-field, motion blur, crepuscular 'god' rays and refraction were either added or improved in quality and speed" during that same time period.
On April 12, 2012, Sony released a teaser image for Ascension on its official PlayStation Facebook page, which was followed by the game's announcement on April 19 on PlayStation.Blog. Todd Papy, who had previously worked as a designer on God of War and God of War II and as design director on God of War III, assumed the role of game director; God of War III director Stig Asmussen was busy with another project at Santa Monica and did not work on Ascension. The announcement officially confirmed the game's title and Papy said it was not titled God of War IV to avoid confusion because it is a prequel, rather than a sequel, to the trilogy. The game features a retooled God of War III engine, enabling online multiplayer battles for up to eight players. The decision to add multiplayer came about from curiosity, according to lead combat designer Jason McDonald. The multiplayer was first tested using Kratos, and McDonald said the testers had "a lot of fun". Seeing their reaction made the team feel that the multiplayer had value and they then began to put the "God of War spin on it". In the developmental transition from God of War III to Ascension, one of the graphics engineers, Cedric Perthuis, noted that the limits of the God of War III engine restricted artist creativity, so they "tried to remove or push those limits as far as possible without losing any performance." Ascension did not have a graphical leap over its predecessor like God of War III did. Dynamic lighting was added, which allowed for development of the Life Cycle gameplay mechanic. Particle effects were also greatly improved upon from God of War III.
Game developer Ready at Dawn pitched the idea of a God of War game for the PlayStation Portable to Santa Monica Studio soon after the original God of War launched. Cory Barlog officially confirmed the development of Chains of Olympus at a God of War II launch event, stating "It is its own story that connects to the overall story." Chains of Olympus uses a proprietary, in-house engine referred to as the Ready at Dawn engine, which expanded on the engine created for their previous game, Daxter (2006). Originally designed for the PlayStation Portable's restricted 222 megahertz (MHz) processor, Ready at Dawn convinced Sony to increase the clock speed of the PSP to 333 MHz, which they did in a firmware upgrade. The faster processor allowed for more realistic blood effects, lighting effects, and shadows as well as improved enemy intelligence. The upgrade, however, noticeably decreased battery life. After the game's completion, game director Ru Weerasuriya stated multiplayer options and other puzzles, characters, and dialogue had to be removed due to time constraints.
Ghost of Sparta was announced on May 4, 2010, on PlayStation.Blog. According to Sony, Ready at Dawn utilized "state-of-the-art visual technologies" that allowed "higher quality environments and characters." Ghost of Sparta offers "over 25% more gameplay" than Chains of Olympus, while adding more enemies on screen and a greater number of boss encounters. Development of Ghost of Sparta took 23 months to complete. Due to Weerasuriya's schedule at Ready at Dawn, he could not return to direct; Dana Jan, the lead level designer for Chains of Olympus, became director for Ghost of Sparta. At Comic-Con 2010, Jan noted that when development began in 2008, the goal was to make the game bigger than Chains of Olympus, which had apparently pushed the PSP to its functional limits. Jan stated that Ghost of Sparta has taken the PSP to its "absolute capacity", with one additional feature being more on-screen foes. The game concept was originally used as a teaser for players who obtained the platinum trophy from God of War III. The trophy revealed a site called spartansstandtall.com, which became the official site for Ghost of Sparta on May 4. Jan stated the reason they chose to have the game take place between God of War and God of War II was because "It seemed to make a lot of sense to fill in that void."
Betrayal was announced by Sony Online Entertainment at a press conference in Los Angeles in May 2007. The game utilizes a total of 110 different animations and features a 2D rendition of the series' three-dimensional (3D) graphics. Game director Phil Cohen said that although the game was enjoyable to develop, the greatest challenge was creating a single tileset and palette swapping scheme that was diverse enough to portray multiple environments with only several hundred kilobytes, and that met Santa Monica Studio's high standards. Cohen wrote the initial design document between September and October 2005, and revisited it in August 2006, the month development started. The versions for high-end handsets were completed in April 2007, with final versions for low-end handsets completed by June 2007. The porting team adapted the game to over 200 handsets in a matter of weeks. Both David Jaffe and Cory Barlog ensured that the Betrayal development team captured the feel of the combat and visual style, and were "helpful with feedback and positive support".
Film and documentaries
A film adaptation of the first game was announced in 2005. Creator David Jaffe confirmed that a completed script had been written by David Self and would be sent to an unspecified director. He said that Universal Studios is behind the making of the God of War movie, but was unaware of its current status, and eventually said, "it's doubtful that the film will even be made". In September 2010, Jaffe said that the "script went out a year and a half ago to Daniel Craig who plays [James] Bond, but he turned it down". He also said that another actor had since been cast as Kratos; he said, "this new person is pretty good, if that ends up true." In July 2012, The Hollywood Reporter said that writers Patrick Melton and Marcus Dunstan had been hired to adapt the God of War film. On August 30, 2012, the writers told IGN that they intend to "humanize" Kratos and explore his past. Melton said that they are emotionally invested and it could become a series of films, and that Ares "will become a more proactive villain". As of 2016[update], the movie is without a director, no actors have been confirmed, and a release date has not been set, but the script has been "turned in". It has a budget of $150 million USD.
God of War: Unearthing the Legend (75 minutes, 2010) is a documentary about the God of War franchise and is hosted by Peter Weller. The production discusses the relationship between the God of War games and Greek mythology, and features members of the God of War III development team and professional historians. It was included as part of the God of War III Ultimate Edition (North America) and Ultimate Trilogy Edition (Europe, Australia, and New Zealand). On March 25, 2010, it was released on the PlayStation Store in North America to purchase.
God of War – Game Directors Live (80 minutes, 2010) is a documentary featuring five game directors of the God of War series: David Jaffe (God of War), Cory Barlog (God of War II), Ru Weerasuriya (Chains of Olympus), Stig Asmussen (God of War III), and Dana Jan (Ghost of Sparta). The documentary takes the form of an interview panel hosted by G4's Alison Haislip, with the five game directors, 150 members of PlayStation.Blog and members of GodofWar.com and SpartansStandTall.com. It was filmed at the El Portal theater in Los Angeles on September 1, 2010, and was released as a pre-order bonus for Ghost of Sparta in North America on November 2, 2010, and was included with the Origins Collection and later released on the PlayStation Store.
Comic series and novels
Main article: God of War (comics)
A six-issue comic book series titled God of War, written by Marv Wolfman with art by Andrea Sorrentino, was published by WildStorm and DC Comics between March 2010 and January 2011. The narrative switches between Kratos' past and present; it occurs while he is a soldier of Sparta and involves his search for the Ambrosia of Asclepius, which has legendary healing properties and eventually saved his plague-ridden daughter, Calliope. Kratos also embarks upon a quest to destroy the same elixir to deny it to the worshippers of the slain god Ares, who wish to resurrect him.
The God of War novels recount the events of the games and offer deeper insights into their stories. God of War, the official novelization of the first game of the series, was written by Matthew Stover and Robert E. Vardeman. It was published on May 25, 2010, by Del Rey Books. God of War II, the second novelization of the series, was written by Vardeman alone and was published by Del Rey Books on February 12, 2013.
In the lead up to Ascension's release, Santa Monica released a graphic novel titled Rise of the Warrior on the God of War website that featured a social experience from October 2012 until March 2013. The graphic novel is a prequel story that ties into the single-player of Ascension, and is the backstory of the player's multiplayer character.
Five God of War soundtracks have been commercially released and have featured a number of composers, including Gerard K. Marino, Ron Fish, Winifred Phillips, Mike Reagan, Cris Velasco, Winnie Waldron, Marcello De Francisci, Jeff Rona, and Tyler Bates. On March 1, 2005, God of War: Original Soundtrack from the Video Game was released on CD by Sony Computer Entertainment as an exclusive product for the Sony Connect Music Store. It has been praised for its well-developed orchestral themes, and the creative use of ancient and ethnic instrumentation. The composers were also praised for avoiding the production of never-ending action themes. God of War II: Original Soundtrack from the Video Game was released on CD by SCE on April 10, 2007. Praised as strong, the album features ominous orchestral pieces, and each composer's contributions are slightly more distinctive than the previous soundtrack. God of War III: Original Soundtrack from the Video Game was released on CD by SCE and Sumthing Else on March 30, 2010. It was also included as downloadable content in the God of War III Ultimate Edition and Ultimate Trilogy Edition collections. The soundtrack was praised as an orchestral success and the best score in the series.
The original scores for God of War, God of War II, and God of War III were nominated for Best Original Score at the 2005, 2007, and 2010 Spike Video Game Awards, respectively. The God of War Trilogy Soundtrack was included with the God of War III Ultimate Edition and Ultimate Trilogy Edition collections as downloadable content. The Trilogy Soundtrack consists of the original scores for God of War, God of War II, and God of War III. It was praised by critics as the best way to experience the series' musical development, and allows the listener to note the development of the composers during the series.
On October 18, 2010, God of War: Ghost of Sparta – Original Soundtrack from the Video Game was released on the iTunes Store by SCE. It was also included as downloadable content as part of the Ghost of Sparta pre-order package and includes three bonus tracks from Chains of Olympus. Several tracks were cited as being intended for purely contextual purposes, and the remaining tracks rated well in comparison to the soundtracks of the main installments in the series. God of War: Ascension (Original Soundtrack) differed from the previously released soundtracks as it was composed by Tyler Bates alone, and is the only God of War score that he has worked on. It was released on March 5, 2013, on iTunes by SCE and La-La Land Records. It was included as downloadable content in the God of War: Ascension–Collector's Edition and Special Edition. Reviewers praised it for being powerful, rich, and pulsing, though felt it was repetitive at times.
God of War: Blood & Metal
God of War: Blood & Metal is a heavy metal homage by various bands on the Roadrunner Records label, and features original music inspired by the God of War video game series. The EP was released for purchase on March 2, 2010, and is available from ShockHound and the iTunes Store. It was also included as downloadable content in the God of War III Ultimate Edition and Ultimate Trilogy Edition collections, which included a bonus track. The second track, "Shattering the Skies Above" by Trivium, and the bonus track, "Even Gods Cry" by The Turtlenecks, were made into music videos. 1UP.com (2.5/5) said, "it's not offensive to [the] ears" and "mainstream listeners may enjoy [the album]". Square Enix Music Online (8/10) stated the album is a "good selection of metal music" and listeners will be "surprised with the variety of music".
In June 2012, Sony reported that the series had sold more than 21.65 million copies worldwide (as of April 2016, Sony has not released updated sales data). God of War, God of War II, Chains of Olympus, God of War Collection, and God of War III have each received critical acclaim from several reviewers as compiled by review aggregate Metacritic. Betrayal and Ghost of Sparta only received generally favorable reception. Ascension also only had a generally favorable reception and, not including the PlayStation Vita port of God of War Collection, it has the lowest score in the series from Metacritic (80/100).
At the time of its release, Raymond Padilla of GameSpy wrote that God of War is the "best action game ever to grace the PS2". Other critics have similarly said that it is one of the best action games of all time; it received over a dozen "Game of the Year" awards. In 2009, it was named the "seventh best" PlayStation 2 game of all time on IGN's "Top 25 PS2 Games of All Time" list. God of War II was also on IGN's list, and was named the "second best" PlayStation 2 game of all time. God of War II has similarly been called one of the best action games of all time and is considered the swan song of the PlayStation 2 era. In November 2012, Complex.com named God of War II the best PlayStation 2 game of all time—where God of War was named the 11th best—and consider it better than its successor, God of War III. Betrayal was acclaimed for its fidelity to the series in terms of gameplay, art style, and graphics.
Chains of Olympus has been praised for "fantastic" graphics and "tight and responsive" controls. In 2008, IGN awarded Chains of Olympus the "Best PSP Action Game", and in September 2010, it was listed as the best PSP game by GamePro. God of War III received praise for its graphics, in particular of Kratos; IGN stated that Kratos is "perhaps the single most impressive-looking character ever in videogames." IGN also said that God of War III "redefines what the word 'scale' means with regards to videogames, as it throws you into scenes with Titans that are larger than entire levels in some other games." God of War III received awards for "Most Anticipated Game of 2010" and "Best PS3 Game" at the 2009 and 2010 Spike Video Game Awards, respectively. The game also won the "Artistic Achievement" award at the 2011 BAFTA awards. Ghost of Sparta was praised for its graphics and story, with Chris Pereira of 1UP saying that it was "a more personal story than the other GOW games." It received several awards at E3 2010 including "Best Handheld Game", "Best PSP Game", and "PSP Game of Show", and won "Best Handheld Game" at the 2010 Spike Video Game Awards.
The series has also received criticism because of problems with puzzles, weapons, and technical issues. Chains of Olympus was criticized by G4, who stated that the game "occasionally suffers from screen tearing and framerate drops", and that some of the puzzles "are so maddeningly difficult to solve". The game was also criticized for its lack of variety in enemies, its continued use of puzzles that require players to move boxes, and its relatively short story. God of War III also received some criticism. GameFront's Phil Hornshaw said it had an overly cruel antagonist, and the game assumed that the players reveled in the misery and violence as much as Kratos did. IGN complained about the game's weapons, and said "that two of the three additional weapons that you'll earn are extremely similar to your blades. They have unique powers and slightly different moves, but by and large, they're more of the same." Ghost of Sparta received criticism from Eurogamer, which said that the "game's primary problem ... is in its in-built focus" and that "there is a sense that Ghost of Sparta is a step back for the series if you've played [God of War III]." Some reviewers stated that Ascensions's story was not as compelling as previous installments, with IGN stating that in comparison to Zeus and Ares, "the Furies don’t quite cut it". The multiplayer received a mixed response. Although reviewers claimed gameplay translated well into the multiplayer, they were critical towards the balance and depth of combat. Edge magazine, however, approved of the multiplayer, stating it is an "evolutionary step" with "some fine ideas ... that will form part of this genre's future template."
The collections have also received praise. IGN (9.4/10) awarded God of War Collection (PS3) the "Editor's Choice" Award and praised the enhanced resolutions, lower price point and smoother frame rates, and stated it was the "definitive way to play the game[s]". Due to the success of God of War Collection, Sony announced that further titles would receive similar treatment for release under its new "Classics HD" brand. The Origins Collection was similarly well received. IGN (9/10) stated "Sony succeeded at making good games better", although GamePro criticized it for its lack of new bonus content. God of War Saga also received praise. Ryan Fleming of Digital Trends wrote that the collection "is perhaps the best value buy for any console available," although the collection is not likely for fans of the series, but rather inexperienced players or newcomers. God of War III Remastered was met with generally favorable reception. Praise was given to the smoother textures and improved frame rate, though because the original already had remarkable graphics, the changes were not major, and reviewers said these changes were not a strong enough argument to rebuy the game for $40 USD.