مشرقزمین که با نام های دیگری مانند دنیای شرق، خاور، خاورزمین، خاوران و شرق هم شناخته میشود نامی است که به مناطق شرقی دنیا اشاره میکند.
در گذشته به هر آنچه که در شرق اروپا وجود داشته مشرق زمین اطلاق میشده است؛ بنابراین واژه مشرق زمین در ادبیات متعارف اروپاییها به مناطق شرق قاره اروپا مانند خاورمیانه (خاور نزدیک) یا شرق دوردر هر دو اشاره میکند. در زبان انگلیسی، orient (شروع با حرف کوچک) به معنای شرق و نیز جهت یابی است. در انگلیسی یک دگرنام محسوب میشود و به طور تلویحی متناظر با قاره آسیا است. در فرانسه و دیگر کشورهای اروپای غربی، Orient علاوه بر آسیا همچنین کشورهای شمال آفریقا را هم در بر میگیرد.
مشرق زمین معادل واژه انگلیسی Orient (شروع با حرف بزرگ) است که به معنی شرق است. اصطلاح "Orient" مشتق از کلمه لاتین oriens است که معنای "شرق" و طلوع میدهد. orior به معنای پدیدار شدن، برخاستن و طلوع است. این واژه اشاره به جهت طلوع خورشید میکند که از سمت مشرق است.
مشرقزمین به تعبیری که مارتین لوتر به زبان آلمانی وارد کرد (Morgenland اشاره به جهت طلوع خورشید در برابر Abendland به معنای مغربزمین عموماً شامل آلمان، انگلستان، فرانسه و ایتالیا) از دید اروپاییها معادل آسیا نیست.
صفت شرقی (Oriental) در دنیای غرب برای اشاره به موارد فرهنگی، مردم، کشورها و کالاهایی از مشرق زمین به کار رفته است.
f historical discrimination against Chinese and Japanese, in some parts of the United States, some people consider the term derogatory. For example, Washington state prohibits the word "Oriental" in legislation and government documents, preferring the word "Asian" instead.
از قرن نوزدهم «خاورشناس» به کسی گفته میشود که در زمینه شرقشناسی مطالعه و تحقیق میکند.
در سال ۱۹۷۸ ادوارد سعید کتابی به نام شرقشناسی () منتشر کرد. وی معتقد بود که سنت غرب در قرون ۱۸ و ۱۹ میلادی به گونهای بوده که با نشان دادن تفسیری برونگرا از کشورهای عرب و اسلامی در آثار تحقیقی و هنری خود، زمینه را برای امپریالیسم اروپا در منطقه کشورهای عرب و اسلامی فراهم کردهاند.
در انگلیسی بریتانیایی واژهٔ Oriental st Asia (such as برای اشاره به مردم شرق آسیا و جنوب شرق آسیا به کار میرود. چین، ژاپن، کره، هنگ کنک، ویتنام، فیلیپین، تایوان و مغولستان از جمله این کشورها هستند.
در کشور آمریکا واژه Oriental گاه دارای بار منفی و نژادپرستانه است و به تلاشهای غرب در گذشته برای تفکیک نژادهای آسیایی از بقیه اشاره میکند. تلاشهایی برای حذف این واژه از منابع رسمی و حقوقی در آمریکا صورت گرفته است.
The Orient is a historical term for the East, traditionally comprising anything that belongs to the Eastern world, in relation to Europe, the Occident. In English, it is largely a metonym for, and coterminous with, the continent of Asia, loosely classified into the Near East, Middle East and Far East: the geographical and ethno-cultural regions now known as West Asia, South Asia, East Asia, and Southeast Asia. Originally, the term Orient was used to designate the Near East, and later its meaning evolved and expanded, designating also the Middle East or the Far East.
The term oriental is often used to describe objects from the Orient. However, given its Eurocentric connotations and shifting, inaccurate definition through the ages, it is generally considered offensive as a label for people from East Asia.
The term "Orient" derives from the Latin word oriens meaning "east" (lit. "rising" < orior " rise"). The use of the word for "rising" to refer to the east (where the sun rises) has analogs from many languages: compare the terms "Levant" (< French levant "rising"), "Vostok" Russian: Восток (< Russian voskhod Russian: восход "sunrise"), "Anatolia" (< Greek anatole), "mizrahi" in Hebrew ("zriha" meaning sunrise), "sharq" Arabic: شرق (< Arabic yashriq يشرق "rise", shurūq Arabic: شروق "rising"), "shygys" Kazakh: шығыс (< Kazakh shygu Kazakh: шығу "come out"), Turkish: doğu (< Turkish doğmak to be born; to rise), "xavar" Persian: خاور (meaning east), Chinese: 東 (pinyin: dōng, a pictograph of the sun rising behind a tree) and "The Land of the Rising Sun" to refer to Japan. Also, many ancient temples, including pagan temples and the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem, were built with their main entrances facing the East. This tradition was carried on in Christian churches. To situate them in such a manner was to "orient" them in the proper direction. When something was facing the correct direction, it was said to be in the proper orientation.
Another explanation of the term stems from Rome during the Roman Empire, specifically the Eastern Roman Empire, or the "Roman Orient", during the Byzantine Empire. Although the original East-West (or Orient-Occident) line was the Italian Peninsula's East Coast, around 600 AD this would shift to the City of Rome. Any area below the City of Rome was considered the Orient, as well as the ethnicities inhabiting the land, such as Dalmatian Italians, (modern Neapolitans along with Sicilians, Libyans, Moroccans, Greeks, etc.), as well as everything East of Southern Italy, hence the Italian name "Italia nord-orientale" (in English Northeast Italy) for Le Tre Venezie (the 3 Venices) located above the Roman latitude line separating it from modern Abruzzo; the beginning of the Orient in the East, while Lazio is its beginning in the West of the Italian Peninsula.
The opposite term "Occident" derives from the Latin word occidens, meaning west (lit. setting < occido fall/set). This term meant the west (where the sun sets) but has fallen into disuse in English, in favor of "Western world".
History of the term
Territorialization of the Roman term Orient occurred during the reign of emperor Diocletian (284-305), when the Diocese of the Orient (Latin: Dioecesis Orientis) was formed. Later in the 4th century, the Praetorian prefecture of the Orient (Latin: Praefectura Praetorio Orientis) was also formed, including most of the Eastern Roman Empire, from the Thrace eastwards; its easternmost part was the original Diocese of the Orient, corresponding roughly to the region of Syria.
Over time, the common understanding of "the Orient" has continually shifted eastwards, as European people traveled farther into Asia. It finally reached the Pacific Ocean, in what Westerners came to call "the Far East". These shifts in time and identification sometimes confuse the scope (historical and geographic) of Oriental Studies. Yet there remain contexts where "the Orient" and "Oriental" have kept their older meanings (e.g., "Oriental spices" typically are from the regions extending from the Middle East to sub-continental India to Indo-China). Travelers may again take the Orient Express train from Paris to its terminus in the European part of Istanbul, a route established in the early 20th century.
In European historiography, the meaning of "the Orient" changed in scope several times. Originally, the term referred to Egypt, the Levant, and adjoining areas. as far west as Morocco. During the 1800s, India, and to a lesser extent China, began to displace the Levant as the primary subject of Orientalist research. By the mid-20th century, Western scholars generally considered "the Orient" as just East Asia, Southeast Asia, and eastern Central Asia. As recently as the early 20th century, the term "Orient" often continued to be used in ways that included North Africa. Today, the term primarily evokes images of China, Korea, Japan, Vietnam, Mongolia, and peninsular Southeast Asia. "The Orient" being largely a cultural term, large parts of Asia—Siberia most notably—were excluded from the scholarly notion of "the Orient".
Equally valid terms for the Orient still exist in the English language in such collocations as Oriental studies (now Asian Studies in some countries).
The adjectival term Oriental has been used by the West to mean cultures, peoples, countries, Asian rugs, and goods from the Orient. "Oriental" means generally "eastern". It is a traditional designation (especially when capitalized) for anything belonging to the Orient or "East" (for Asia), and especially of its Eastern culture. It indicated the eastern direction in historical astronomy, often abbreviated "Ori". In contemporary American English, Oriental usually refers to things from the parts of East Asia traditionally occupied by East Asians and most Central Asians and Southeast Asians racially categorized as "Mongoloid". This excludes Jews, Indians, Arabs, and most other South or West Asian peoples. Because of historical discrimination against Chinese, Korean and Japanese, in some parts of the United States, some people consider the term derogatory. For example, Washington state prohibits the word "Oriental" in legislation and government documents, preferring the word "Asian" instead.
In more local uses, "oriental" is also used for eastern parts of countries, for example Morocco's Oriental Region. Oriental is also used as an adjective akin to "eastern", especially in the Spanish-speaking world. For example, the Philippine islands of Mindoro and Negros are each divided into two provinces whose titles include the words "oriental" and "occidental" respectively. The official name of Uruguay is the República Oriental del Uruguay or Oriental Republic of Uruguay because it is east of the Uruguay River.
Since the 19th century, "orientalist" has been the traditional term for a scholar of Oriental studies; however, the use in English of "Orientalism" to describe academic "Oriental studies" is rare: the Oxford English Dictionary cites only one such usage, by Lord Byron in 1812. Orientalism is more widely used to refer to the works of the many 19th-century artists who specialized in "Oriental" subjects, often drawing on their travels to North Africa and Western Asia. Artists as well as scholars were already described as "Orientalists" in the 19th century. In 1978, Palestinian-American scholar Edward Said published his influential and controversial book, Orientalism; he used the term to describe a pervasive Western tradition, both academic and artistic, of prejudiced outsider interpretations of the Arab and Muslim worlds, shaped by the attitudes of European imperialism in the 18th and 19th centuries.
In British English, the term Oriental is used to refer to people from East and Southeast Asia (such as those from China, Japan, Korea, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Mongolia and Laos). "Asian" in Great Britain generally refers to people who come from South Asia (in particular Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Maldives), since British Asians make up approximately 6.9% of the population within the United Kingdom. "Orientals" refers exclusively to people of East and Southeast Asian origin, who comprise 0.7% of the UK population as a whole, and 5.3% of the non-European population. Of these, the majority are of Chinese descent. Although it is generally considered to be an offensive term, it is used by the British police and other agencies to describe persons of East or Southeast Asian appearance.
Most American English speakers consider the term "Oriental" to be a pejorative and disparaging term when used to describe a person. John Kuo Wei Tchen, director of the Asian/Pacific/American Studies Program and Institute at New York University, said the basic criticism of the term developed in the U.S. in the 1970s. Tchen has said: "With the U.S.A. anti-war movement in the '60s and early '70s, many Asian Americans identified the term 'Oriental' with a Western process of racializing Asians as forever opposite 'others'." In a 2009 American press release related to legislation aimed at removing the term "oriental" from official documents of the State of New York, Governor David Paterson said: "The word 'oriental' does not describe ethnic origin, background or even race; in fact, it has deep and demeaning historical roots".
In Australian English, the term "Asian" generally refers to people of East Asian or Southeast Asian descent, such as those of Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Vietnamese, Thai, or Filipino descent. Persons of Pakistani, Sri Lankan, and most other South Asian descent are referred to by their respective demonym, but without explicit knowledge, those people are indeterminately inferred as "Indian".
The term Asiaten (English: Asians) means Asian people in general. Another word for Orient in German is Morgenland (now mainly poetic), which literally translates as "morning land". The antonym "Abendland" (rarely: "Okzident") is also mainly poetic, and refers to (Western) Europe.