خانات جغتای

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به ناوبری پرش به جستجو
فارسیEnglish
خانات جغتای
امپراتوری عشایری
تقیسمات امپراطوری مغول

۱۲۲۵–۱۶۸۰

پرچم خانات جغتای

خانات جغتای (رنگ سبز) ۱۳۰۰م
پایتخت آلمالیک، نخشب
زبان‌(ها) زبان جغتایی
دین شمن‌باوری
آیین بودایی
تنگری گرایی
مسیحیت (اقلیت)

بعداً نقشبندیه سنی

دولت نیمه-پادشاهی انتخابی، بعداً پادشاهی ارثی
جغتای خان
 - ۱۲۲۵–۱۲۴۲ جغتای (پسر چنگیزخان)
قانونگذار قورولتای
دوره تاریخی سده‌های میانی پایانی
 - جغتای (پسر چنگیزخان) بخش ارثی از امپراتوری مغول ۱۲۲۵
 - مرگ جغتای ۱۲۴۲
 - خانات جغتای به دو بخش تقسیم می شود، خانات جغتای و مغولستان (خانات) ۱۳۴۰
 - پایان امپراتوری غربی. ۱۳۷۰
 - پایان امپراطوری شرقی. ۱۶۸۰
یکای پول سکه، درهم، کبیک، و پول
پیش از آن
به دنبال آن
امپراتوری مغول
خانات جغتای غربی
مغولستان
تیموریان
آفاق خواجه
خانات جونغار
امروزه بخشی از  قرقیزستان
 چین
 ازبکستان
 تاجیکستان
 قزاقستان
 افغانستان
 پاکستان
 ترکمنستان
 مغولستان
 هند

خانات جغتای دولتی ترک-مغولی بود که شامل سرزمین‌های تحت فرمانروایی جغتای‌خان، دومین پسر چنگیزخان مغول، می‌شد. خانات جغتای در بیش‌ترین وسعت خود در قرن ۱۳ میلادی از سرزمین جنوب آمودریا تا کوهستان آلتای در مغولستان امتداد می‌یافت. حکومت خانات جغتای از دهه ۱۲۲۰ میلادی تا اواخر قرن ۱۷ به طول انجامید؛ در طی این دوره، ابتدا در قرن ۱۵ میلادی خانات جغتای بخش غربی قلمرو خود را به تیمور لنگ واگذار کرد.

خانات جغتای در ۱۳۰۰ میلادی

منابع[ویرایش]

مشارکت‌کنندگان ویکی‌پدیا. «Chagatai Khanate». در دانشنامهٔ ویکی‌پدیای انگلیسی.

Chagatai Khanate

Цагаадайн Хаант Улс
Tsagadaina Khaanat Ulus
  • 1225 – 1340s (Whole)
  • 1340s–1370 (Western)
  • 1340s–1680s (Eastern)
The Chagatai Khanate (green), c. 1300.
The Chagatai Khanate (green), c. 1300.
Status
CapitalAlmaliq, Qarshi
Common languagesMongolian,[1] Chagatai language[2][3]
Religion
GovernmentSemi-elective monarchy, later hereditary monarchy
Khan 
• 1225–1242
Chagatai Khan
LegislatureKurultai
Historical eraLate Middle Ages
• Chagatai Khan inherited part of Mongol Empire
1225
• Death of Chagatai
1242
• Chagatai Khanate split into Western Chagatai Khanate and Moghulistan
1340s
• End of the western empire
1370
• End of the eastern empire
1680s
Area
1310 or 1350 est.[4][5]3,500,000 km2 (1,400,000 sq mi)
CurrencyCoins (dirhams, Kebek, and pūl)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Mongol Empire
Western Chagatai Khanate
Moghulistan
Timurid Empire
Afaq Khoja
Dzungar Khanate

The Chagatai Khanate (Mongolian: Цагаадайн Хаант Улс Tsagadaina Khaanat Ulus) was a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate[6][7] that comprised the lands ruled by Chagatai Khan,[8] second son of Genghis Khan, and his descendants and successors. Initially it was a part of the Mongol Empire, but it became a functionally separate khanate with the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259. The Chagatai Khanate recognized the nominal supremacy of the Yuan dynasty in 1304,[9] but became split into two parts in the mid-14th century: the Western Chagatai Khanate and the Moghulistan Khanate.

At its height in the late 13th century, the Khanate extended from the Amu Darya south of the Aral Sea to the Altai Mountains in the border of modern-day Mongolia and China.[10]

The khanate lasted in one form or another from 1220s until the late 17th century, although the western half of the khanate was lost to Timur's empire by 1370. The eastern half remained under Chagatai khans, who were, at times, allied or at war with Timur's successors, the Timurid dynasty. Finally, in the 17th century, the remaining Chagatai domains fell under the theocratic regime of Afaq Khoja and his descendants, the Khojas, who ruled Xinjiang under Dzungar and Manchu overlordships consecutively.

Formation

Genghis Khan's empire was inherited by his third son, Ögedei Khan, the designated Khagan who personally controlled the lands east of Lake Balkhash as far as Mongolia. Tolui, the youngest, the keeper of the hearth, was accorded the northern Mongolian homeland. Chagatai Khan, the second son, received Transoxiana, between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers (in modern Uzbekistan) and the area around Kashgar. He made his capital at Almaliq near what is now Yining City in northwestern China.[11] Apart from problems of lineage and inheritance, the Mongol Empire was endangered by the great cultural and ethnic divide between the Mongols themselves and their mostly Islamic Iranian and Turkic subjects.

When Ögedei died before achieving his dream of conquering all of China, there was an unsettled transition to his son Güyük Khan (1241) overseen by Ögedei's wife Töregene Khatun, who had assumed the regency for the five years following Ögedei's death. The transition had to be ratified in a kurultai, which was duly celebrated, but without the presence of Batu Khan, the independent-minded khan of the Golden Horde.[12] After Güyük's death, Batu sent Berke, who maneuvered with Tolui's widow, and, in the next kurultai (1253), the Ögedite line was passed over for Möngke Khan, Tolui's son, who was said to be favorable to the Church of the East.[13] The Ögedite ulus was dismembered; only the Ögedites who did not immediately go into opposition were given minor fiefs.[nb 1]

In the book The Travels of Ibn Battuta we see Ibn Battuta had made his way to the camp of Tarmashirin who was the current Mongol Sultan and descendent of Jengiz Khan. When he arrived the king had called over Ibn Battuta to his tent and they had both treated each other respectfully and Kindly. The king had asked about his journeys through major cities such as Mecca and Jerusalem and Ibn Battuta had answered back. During the hour of prayer the Sultan had called for the priest to wait for him before starting prayer, yet the priest didn't wait for the prayers were for god not the Sultan and the Sultan had arrived late. The Sultan began to interact with his people and Ibn Battuta saw that he was loved and respected by his people. The Sultan had given Ibn some money and sent him off on his journey once more. Yet the Sultan had broken some of the rules to stay as Sultan and was later overthrown and killed by one of his cousins.[15]

Chagatai modern day is located in parts of Afghanistan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan.

The Chagatai Khanate after Chagatai

Chagatai died in 1242, shortly after his brother Ögedei. For nearly twenty years after this the Chagatai Khanate was little more than a dependency of the Mongol central government, which deposed and appointed khans as it pleased. The cities of Transoxiana, while located within the boundaries of the khanate, were administrated by officials who answered directly to the Great Khan.[16]

This state of subservience to the central government was ended during the reign of Chagatai's grandson Alghu (1260–1266), who took advantage of the Toluid Civil War between Kublai Khan and Ariq Böke by revolting against the latter, seizing new territories and gaining the allegiance of the Great Khan's authorities in Transoxiana.[17] Most of the Chagatayids first supported Kublai but in 1269 they joined forces with the House of Ögedei.[18]

Alghu's eventual successor, Ghiyas-ud-din Baraq (1266–1271), who expelled Kublai Khan's governor in Xinjiang soon came into conflict with the Ögedite Kaidu, who gained the support of the Golden Horde and attacked the Chagatayids.[19] Baraq was soon confined to Transoxiana and forced to become a vassal of Kaidu.[20] At the same time, he was at odds with Abaqa Khan, the Ilkhan, who ruled his Ilkhanate in Iran. Baraq attacked first, but was defeated by the Ilkhanate army and forced to return to Transoxiana, where he died not long after.[21]

The Chagatai Khanate and its neighbors in the late 13th century

The next several Chagatayid khans were appointed by Kaidu,[22] who maintained a hold upon the khanate until his death. He finally found a suitable khan in Baraq's son Duwa (1282–1307), who participated in Kaidu's wars with Kublai khan and his successors of the Yuan dynasty.[23] The two rulers also were active against the Ilkhanate.[24] After Kaidu's death in 1301, Duwa threw off his allegiance to his successor. He also made peace with the Yuan dynasty and paid tributes to the Yuan court; by the time of his death the Chagatai Khanate was a virtually independent state.[25]

Fall

Duwa left behind numerous sons, many of whom became khans themselves. Included among these are Kebek (1309, 1318–1326), who instituted a standardization of the coinage and selected a sedentary capital (at Qarshi), and Tarmashirin (1326–1334), who converted to Islam and raided the Delhi Sultanate in India. Tarmashirin, however, was brought down by a rebellion of the tribes in the eastern provinces, and the khanate became increasingly unstable in the following years. In 1346 a tribal chief, Amir Qazaghan, killed the Chagatai khan Qazan Khan ibn Yasaur during a revolt.[26]

The Chagatai Khanate split into two parts in the 1340s.[27] In Transoxiana in the west, the mostly Muslim tribes, led by the Qara'unas amirs, seized control. In order to maintain a link to the house of Genghis Khan, the amirs set several descendants of Chagatai on the throne, though these khans ruled in name only and had no real power. The eastern part of the khanate, which had been largely autonomous for several years as a result of the weakening power of the khans, meanwhile became independent under the Chagatayid Tughlugh Timur. This eastern portion (most of which was known as "Moghulistan") was, in contrast to Transoxiana, primarily inhabited by Mongols and largely followed Buddhism and Mongolian shamanism.

The two halves of the Chagatai Khanate were briefly reunited in the 1360s by Tughlugh Timur, who invaded Transoxiana twice and attempted to establish his authority there. Following his death in 1363 his successors ruled only over the east, while control of Transoxiana was contested by two tribal leaders, Amir Husayn (the grandson of Qazaghan) and Timur or Tamerlane. Timur eventually defeated Amir Husayn and gained mastery over Transoxiana (1369–1405). Like his predecessors, Timur maintained a puppet khan on the throne to legitimatize his rule, but his khans were members of the house of Ögedei rather than descendants of Chagatai.[28] After he died in 1405 his successors, the Timurids, are also reported to have had their own shadow khans until the mid-15th century.

The eastern half of the khanate remained in the hands of the descendants of Tughlugh Timur for several centuries, although it was itself split into multiple successor states in the 1500s. The last independent Chagatai Khanate, the Yarkent Khanate, was conquered by the Dzungar Khanate in the Dzungar conquest of Altishahr from 1678–1680.

Lineage


















 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Genghis Khan
Great Khan of the Mongol Empire
1206–1227
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Jochi
 
Chagatai Khan
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
1226–1242
 
Tului
 
 
 
 
 
Ogedei Khan
Great Khan of the Mongol Empire
1229–1241
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yesü Möngke
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
1246–1252
 
Baidar
 
Sarban
 
Khashi
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mutukan
 
 
 
 
Alghu
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
1260–1266
 
Negübei
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
1270–1272
 
Khaidu
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Büri
 
Qara Hülegü
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
First Reign
1242–1246
Second Reign
1252
 
Yesünto'a
 
 
 
 
Danishmendji
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
1346–1348
 
Ali Sultan
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
1342
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Qadaqchi
 
Mubarak Shah
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
First Reign
1252–1260
Second Reign
1266
 
Baraq Khan
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
1266–1270
 
 
 
 
Suurgatmish
Khan of the Western Chagatai Khanate
1370–1384
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Buqa Temür
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
1272–1282
 
Taliqu
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
1308–1309
 
D'ua
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
1282–1307
 
 
 
 
Sultan Mahmud
Khan of the Western Chagatai Khanate
1384–1402
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Orüg Temür
 
Konchek
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
1307–1308
 
Kebek
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
First Reign
1309–1310
Second Reign
1318–1325
 
Eljigidey
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
1325–1329
 
Esen Buqa I
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
1310–1318
 
D'ua Temür
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
1329–1330
 
Tarmashirin
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
1330–1334
 
Ebugen
 
 
 
Surguda
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yasa'ur
 
Pulad
 
 
 
 
 
Khabul Shah
Khan of the Western Chagatai Khanate
1364–1370
 
Tughlugh Timur
Khan of Moghulistan
1347–1363
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
1360–1363
 
Buzan
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
1334–1335
 
 
 
Changshi
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
1335–1338
 
Yesun Temür
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
1338–1342
 
Bayan Quli
Khan of the Western Chagatai Khanate
1348–1358
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Qazan Khan
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
1343–1346
 
Muhammad I
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
1342–1343
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ilyas Khoja
Khan of Moghulistan
1363–1368
 
Khizr Khoja
Khan of Moghulistan
1389–1399
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Shah Temur
Khan of the Western Chagatai Khanate
1358
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Adil Sultan
Khan of the Western Chagatai Khanate
1363
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Shams-i-Jahan
Khan of Moghulistan
1399–1408
 
Muhammad II
Khan of Moghulistan
1408–1415
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Naqsh-i-Jahan
Khan of Moghulistan
1415–1418
 
Sher Ali Oghlan
 
Sher Muhammad
Khan of Moghulistan
1421–1425
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Vais Khan
Khan of Moghulistan
First Reign
1418–1421
Second Reign
1425–1429
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yunus Khan
Khan of Eastern Moghulistan
1462–1487
Khan of Moghulistan
1469–1487
 
Esen Buqa II
Khan of Moghulistan
1429–1462
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ahmad Alaq
Khan of Uyghuristan
1487–1503
 
Mahmud Khan
Khan of the Western Moghulistan
1487–1508
 
Dost Muhammad
Khan of Uyghuristan
1462–1468
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sultan Said Khan
Khan of the Western Moghulistan
1514–1533
 
Mansur Khan
Khan of Uyghuristan
1503–1543
Khan of Moghulistan
1508–1514
 
 
 
Kebek Sultan Oghlan
Khan of Uyghuristan
1469
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Khans of Yarkent
 
Shah Khan
Khan of Uyghuristan
1543–1560
 
Muhammad Khan
Khan of Uyghuristan
?–1570

See also

Notes

  1. ^ For example Kaidu, who received Qayaliq, in modern Kazakhstan. He later revolted against Khubilai Khan and forcefully made the Chagatai khans his vassals for three decades, as will be discussed.[14]

References

Citations

  1. ^ Roemer, p.43
  2. ^ Gulácsi, Zsuzsanna (2015). Mani's Pictures: The Didactic Images of the Manichaeans from Sasanian Mesopotamia to Uygur Central Asia and Tang-Ming China. BRILL. p. 156. ISBN 978-90-04-30894-7.
  3. ^ Kim, Hyun Jin (2013). The Huns, Rome and the Birth of Europe. Cambridge University Press. p. 29. ISBN 978-1-107-06722-6. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
  4. ^ Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D. (December 2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires" (PDF). Journal of world-systems research. 12 (2): 222. ISSN 1076-156X. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
  5. ^ Taagepera, Rein (September 1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia". International Studies Quarterly. 41 (3): 499. doi:10.1111/0020-8833.00053. JSTOR 2600793.
  6. ^ Black, Cyril E.; Dupree, Louis; Endicott-West, Elizabeth; Matuszewski, Daniel C.; Naby, Eden; Waldron, Arthur N. (1991). The Modernization of Inner Asia. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe. p. 57. ISBN 978-1-315-48899-8. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
  7. ^ Upshur, Jiu-Hwa L.; Terry, Janice J.; Holoka, Jim; Cassar, George H.; Goff, Richard D. (2011). Cengage Advantage Books: World History (5th ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 433. ISBN 1-133-38707-1. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
  8. ^ Alternative spellings of Chagatai include Chagata, Chugta, Chagta, Djagatai, Jagatai, Chaghtai etc.
  9. ^ Dai Matsui – A Mongolian Decree from the Chaghataid Khanate Discovered at Dunhuang. Aspects of Research into Central Asian Buddhism, 2008, pp. 159–178
  10. ^ See Barnes, Parekh and Hudson, p. 87; Barraclough, p. 127; Historical Maps on File, p. 2.27; and LACMA for differing versions of the boundaries of the khanate.
  11. ^ Grousset 1970, pp. 253–4.
  12. ^ Grousset 1970, pp. 268–9.
  13. ^ Grousset 1970, pp. 272–5.
  14. ^ Biran 1997, pp. 19–20
  15. ^ Travels of Ibn Battuta[Gibb, p. 473 - 474]
  16. ^ Grousset 1970, pp. 328–9.
  17. ^ Biran 1997, pp. 21–2.
  18. ^ Allsen, Thomas T. (2004). Culture and Conquest in Mongol Eurasia. Cambridge University Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-521-60270-9. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
  19. ^ Biran 1997, p. 25.
  20. ^ Biran 1997, pp. 25–6.
  21. ^ Biran 1997, pp. 30–2.
  22. ^ Biran 1997, p. 33.
  23. ^ Biran 1997, pp. 50–2.
  24. ^ Biran 1997, pp. 59–60.
  25. ^ Biran 1997, pp. 71–8.
  26. ^ Grousset 1970, pp. 341–2.
  27. ^ Sh. Tseyen-Oidov; "From the Genghis Khan to Ligden Khan" 2002
  28. ^ Grousset 1970, p. 416.

Sources

  • Barnes, Ian, Bhikhu Parekh and Robert Hudson. The History Atlas of Asia. Macmillan, p. 87. Macmillan, 1998. ISBN 0-02-862581-1
  • Barraclough, Geoffrey. The Times Atlas of World History. 4th Ed. Hammond World Atlas Corporation, 1993. ISBN 0-7230-0534-6
  • Barthold, W. "Caghatai-Khan." The Encyclopedia of Islam, Volume 2. New Ed. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1965.
  • ---. "Dughlat." The Encyclopedia of Islam, Volume 2. New Ed. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1965.
  • Biran, Michal (1997). Qaidu and the Rise of the Independent Mongol State in Central Asia. Surrey: Curzon. ISBN 0-7007-0631-3.
  • "The Chagatai Khanate". The Islamic World to 1600. 1998. The Applied History Research Group, University of Calgary. Retrieved 19 May 2005.
  • Elias, N. Commentary. The Tarikh-i-Rashidi (A History of the Moghuls of Central Asia). By Mirza Muhammad Haidar. Translated by Edward Denison Ross, edited by N. Elias. London, 1895.
  • Grousset, René (1970). The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-1304-1. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
  • Karpat, Kemal H. "The Ottoman Rule in Europe From the Perspective of 1994." Turkey Between East and West. Ed. Vojtech Mastny and R. Craig Nation. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996. ISBN 0-8133-2420-3
  • Kim, Hodong. "The Early History of the Moghul Nomads: The Legacy of the Chaghatai Khanate." The Mongol Empire and Its Legacy. Ed. Reuven Amitai-Preiss and David Morgan. Leiden: Brill, 1998. ISBN 90-04-11048-8
  • Manz, Beatrice Forbes. The Rise and Rule of Tamerlane. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1989. ISBN 0-521-63384-2
  • "Map of the Mongol Empire". LACMA.org. 2003. Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Retrieved 8 July 2008.
  • Mirza Muhammad Haidar. The Tarikh-i-Rashidi (A History of the Moghuls of Central Asia). Translated by Edward Denison Ross, edited by N.Elias. London, 1895.
  • "Mongol Invasions of Russia, 12th–13th Centuries". Map. Historical Maps on File: Ringbound. 2nd Ed. Facts on File, 2002. ISBN 0-8160-4600-X
  • Roemer, H. R. "Timur in Iran." The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 6: The Timurid and Safavid Periods. Ed. Peter Jackson and Lawrence Lockhart. London: Cambridge University Press, 1986. ISBN 0-521-20094-6
  • Xinjiang: China's Muslim Borderland, S. Frederick Starr
  • The Huns, Rome and the Birth of Europe, p. 29, at Google Books

External links