حمزة بن عبدالمطلب
حمزة بن عبدالمطلب (۵۴ قبل از هجرت - ۱۵ شوال ۳ قمری) که به لقب «اسدالله» (شیر خدا) و «سیدالشهداء» (پیش از کشتهشدن حسین بن علی، امام سوم شیعیان) نیز معروف بود، عموی محمد (پیامبر اسلام) از اهالی با احترام در بین قبیلهٔ قریش به قدرتمندی و شکار شیر مشهور بود.
حمزه در سال ششم بعثت به اسلام گروید. معروف است که او هنگام بازگشت از یکی از شکارهای خود شنید که عمرو ابن هشام به برادرزاده اش محمد توهین کردهاست. میگویند او یک راست به نزد امر ابن هاشم رفت و با زدن ضربهای به او گفت: «به چه جراتی به محمد توهین میکنی وقتی که میدانی من پیرو مذهب او هستم. اگر جرات داری جواب این ضربه را بده.»
از آن روز به بعد حمزه به عنوان محافظ اسلام شناخته میشود.
حمزه در نبرد احد در ۱۵ شوال سال سوم هجری به دست وحشی ابن حرب، برده حبشی، و به دستور هند، همسر ابوسفیان، به قتل رسید. هند از زنان اهل پرچم بود. هند به وحشی، در ازای کشتن محمد یا علی (که برادر او را در بدر کشته بود) یا حمزه (که پدر او را کشته بود)، وعده آزادی داده بود.
حمزه پدر هند را در نبرد بدر به قتل رسانده بود و معروف است که هند به همین علت به وحشی ابن حرب برده حبشی که در پرتاب نیزه بسیار ماهر بود وعده میدهد که در صورت به قتل رساندن حمزه در جنگ او را آزاد میکند و «هم وزن او طلا و هم قد او ابریشم» به او پاداش میدهد.
وحشی در میان جنگ و با پرتاب نیزه از راه دور حمزه را به قتل میرساند و هند هم او را آزاد میکند.
پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]
Ḥamzah ibn ʿAbdul-Muṭṭalib (Arabic: حَمْزَة ابْن عَبْد ٱلْمُطَّلِب; c. 570 – 625) was a foster brother, companion and paternal uncle of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. But Hamza Ibnu Abdul Muntallib uncle of Prophet Mohammed (SA) died in the in the Battle of Uhud on 22 March 625 (3 Shawwal 3 hijri) His kunyas were "Abū ʿUmārah":2 (أَبُو عُمَارَةَ) and "Abū Yaʿlā":3 (أَبُو يَعْلَى). He had the by-names Asad Allāh:2 (أَسَد ٱلله, "Lion of God") and Asad al-Jannah (أَسَد ٱلْجَنَّة, "Lion of the Garden"), and Muhammad gave him the posthumous title Sayyid ash-Shuhadāʾ (سَيِّد الشُّهَدَاء).
Ibn Sa'd basing his claim on al-Waqidi states that Hamzah was reportedly four years older than Muhammad.:4 This is disputed by Ibn Sayyid, who argues: "Zubayr narrated that Hamza was four years older than the Prophet. But this does not seem correct, because reliable hadith state that Thuwayba nursed both Hamza and the Prophet". Ibn Sayyid concludes that Hamza was only two years older than Muhammad, though he adds the traditional expression of doubt, "Only God knows". Ibn Hajar writes as a conclusion of Ibn Sayyid's hadiths: "Hamza was born two to four years before Muhammad".[page needed]
Ibn Kathir in Al-Sira Al-Nabawiyya cites Abu Nu`aym who traces a hadith to Ibn Abbas, that after Abdul Mutallib went to Yemen, he stayed with a Jeiwsh preist. A monk prophesised that he will have both power and prophethood and advised him to marry a woman of the Banu Zuhrah. After returning to Mecca, he did so by marrying Hala, a woman of the tribe, and shave birthed Hamza. Later, Abdullah married Aminah and the Quraysh said he had won out in terms of marriage.
Hamzah's father was Abdul Muttalib ibn Hashim ibn Abd Manaf ibn Qusayy from the Qurayshi tribe of Mecca.:2 His mother was Hala bint Uhayb from the Zuhra clan of Quraysh.:2 Tabari cites two different traditions. In one, Al-Waqidi states that his parents met when Abdul Muttalib went with his son Abdullah to the house of Wahb ibn 'Abd Manaf to seek the hand of Wahb's daughter Aminah. While they were there, Abdul-Muttalib noticed Wahb's niece, Hala bint Uhayb, and he asked for her hand as well. Wahb agreed, and Muhammad's father Abdullah and his grandfather Abdul-Muttalib were both married on the same day, in a double-marriage ceremony. However, this in response to a hadith by Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri which doesn't mention any such double marriage. Hence, Hamzah was the younger brother of Muhammad's father.
Marriages and Children
Hamza married three times and had six children.:3
Conversion to Islam
He converted in late 612.:3 Upon returning to Mecca after a hunting trip in the desert, he heard that Abu Jahl had "attacked the Prophet and abused and insulted him,":3 "speaking spitefully of his religion and trying to bring him into disrepute". Muhammad had not replied to him.:131 "Filled with rage," Hamza "went out at a run ... meaning to punish Abu Jahl when he met him". He entered the Kaaba, where Abu Jahl was sitting with the elders, stood over him and "struck him a violent blow" with his bow. He said, "Will you insult him, when I am of his religion and say what he says? Hit me back if you can!":132 He "struck Abu Jahl's head with a blow that cut open his head".:3 Some of Abu Jahl's relatives approached to help him, but he told them, "Leave Abu Umara [Hamza] alone, for, by God, I insulted his nephew deeply".:132
After that incident, Hamza entered the House of Al-Arqam and declared Islam.:3 "Hamza’s Islam was complete, and he followed the Apostle's commands. When he became a Muslim, the Quraysh recognised that the Apostle had become strong, and had found a protector in Hamza, and so they abandoned some of their ways of harassing him".:132 Instead, they tried to strike bargains with him; but he did not accept their offers.:132-133
Hamza once asked Muhammad to show him the angel Jibreel "in his true form". Muhammad told Hamza that he would not be able to see him. Hamza retorted that he would see the angel, so Muhammad told him to sit where he was. They claimed that Jibreel descended before them and that Hamza saw that Jibreel's feet were like emeralds, before falling down unconscious.:6
Muhammad sent Hamza on his first raid against Quraysh. Hamza led an expedition of thirty riders to the coast in Juhayna territory to intercept a merchant-caravan returning from Syria. Hamza met Abu Jahl at the head of the caravan with three hundred riders at the seashore. Majdi ibn Amr al-Juhani intervened between them, "for he was at peace with both parties," and the two parties separated without any fighting.:4:283
Battle of Badr
Hamza fought at the Battle of Badr, where he shared a camel with Zayd ibn Harithah:293 and where his distinctive ostrich feather made him highly visible.:4:303 The Muslims blocked the wells at Badr.:297
Hamza was killed in the Battle of Uhud on 22 March 625 (3 Shawwal 3 hijri) when he was 59 (lunar) years old. He was standing in front of Muhammad, fighting with two swords and shouting, "I am Allah's lion!"
Hind bribed the Abyssinian slave Wahshi ibn Harb with a promise of manumission if he killed Hamza. This was to avenge her father, Utbah ibn Rabi'ah, whom Hamza had killed in Badr. Hamza, running back and forth, stumbled and fell on his back; and Wahshi said, "who could throw a javelin as the Abyssinians do and seldom missed the mark," threw it into Hamza's abdomen and martyred him.
Wahshi then slit open his stomach and brought his liver to Hind bint Utbah, whose father Hamza had killed at Badr (see above). Hind chewed Hamza's liver then spat it out. "Then she went and mutilated Hamza and made anklets, necklaces and pendants from his body, and brought them and his liver to Mecca".
Hamza was buried in the same qabr (Arabic: قَـبْـر, grave) as his nephew Abdullah ibn Jahsh. Muhammad later said, "I saw the angels washing Hamza because he was in Paradise on that day". Fatima used to go to Hamza's grave and tend it.