حقوق مدنی و سیاسی

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به ناوبری پرش به جستجو
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حقوق مدنی و سیاسی طبقه‌ای از حقوق هستند که آزادی افراد را در برابر نقض شدن غیر موجه توسط دولتها و سازمان‌های خصوصی حفاظت کرده و قابلیت فرد را برای مشارکت در زندگی مدنی و سیاسی حکومت بدون تبعیض یا سرکوب سیاسی تضمین می‌کنند.

حقوق مدنی عبارتند از تضمین یکپارچگی فیزیکی و ذهنی مردمان، حق زندگی و امنیت، محافظت در برابر تبعیض بر مبنای نژاد، جنسیت، منشأ ملی، رنگ، گرایش جنسی، قومیت، دین یا ناتوانی.

حقوق سیاسی عبارتند از عدالت طبیعی در حقوق، مانند حقوق متهم، از جمله حق دادرسی منصفانه، تشریفات لازم، حق فرجام خواهی، حقوق مشارکت در جامعه مدنی و سیاست نظیر آزادی انجمن، حق تجمع، حق دادخواست، حق دفاع از خود، و حق رای.

حقوق مدنی سیاسی در میثاق بین‌المللی مدنی سیاسی درج شده‌است این حق‌ها برای اجرا تعهد دولت‌ها به نتیجه محسوب می‌شوند به این معنی که دولت موظف هستند که برای به ثمر نشستن این حق‌ها تلاش کنند و انجام تعهدات برای دولت‌ها در این خصوص لازم است. بسیاری از این حق‌ها حق‌های طبیعی و فطری محسوب می‌شوند.[۱]

تاریخچه[ویرایش]

عبارت «حقوق مدنی» ترجمه ای از لاتین ius civis (حقوق یک شهروند) است، شهروندان رومی می‌توانند آزاد یا خدمتکار باشند اما همه آن‌ها حقوق قانونی داشتند، پس از دستورالعمل میلان در ۳۱۳ این حقوق شامل آزادی مذهب بود، اما ادعاهای حقوق جهانی می‌تواند بر اساس آموزه‌های دینی ساخته شود، همه مردان باند ممکن است آزاد شوند، زیرا خدا همه را آزاد آفریده با خونریزی گرانبهای خود آزاد شده‌است.[۲]

دفاع از حقوق[ویرایش]

تی.اچ. مارشال خاطر نشان کرد که حقوق مدنی از اولین حقوقی بود که شناخته شد و قانون آن وضع شد و بعد از حقوق مدنی، حقوق اجتماعی وضع شد. در بسیاری از کشورها، حقوق اساسی یا مشروطه همگی زیرمجموعه حیطه حقوقی ما هستند. آن‌ها همچنین در ادوات بین‌المللی حقوق بشر مانند اظهارنامه جهانی حقوق بشر سال 1948 و پیمان بین‌المللی حقوق مدنی و سیاسی سال 1967 تعریف شده‌است.

دیگر حقوق[ویرایش]

در این حقوق سنت‌ها نیز تأثیرگذار هستند. بعضی از حقوق‌های تلویحی یا حقوقی که مشخصا شماره گداری نشده‌اند ممکن است دادگاه آن‌ها را لحاظ کند هرچند در هیچ کتاب یا نوشته ای از این قوانین سخنی به میان نیامده باشد و یا جایی نوشته نشده باشد. برای مثال، حق محرمانه بودن در ایالات متحده آمریکا است و اصلاحیه نهم به صراحت نشان می‌دهد که حقوق دیگری نیز وجود دارد که محافظت می‌شود.

جنبش های اجتماعی برای حقوق مدنی[ویرایش]

حقوق مدنی ضمانت‌کننده حقوق برابر تحت حمایت قانون می‌باشد . زمانی که حقوق مدنی و سیاسی تحت حمایت قانون نباشند، و یا زمانی که تنها نوشته شده باشند ولی در عمل به آن‌ها جامه عمل پوشانده نشود، اححتمال رخداد ناآرامی‌های اجتماعی بیشتر می‌گردد.

چنبش‌های حقوق مدنی ایالات متحده آمریکا در سال 1848 با اسنادی از این قبیل و به عنوان اظهارنامه گردآوری شد.[۳] چندین جنبش سیاسی به منظور برابری در سرتاسر دنیا در سال‌های 1950 تا 1980 صورت گرفت. این جنبش‌ها جنبه‌های قانونی و مشروطه را دارا بود، و منجر به ایجاد قوانین ملی و بین‌المللی شد. آن‌ها همچنین دارای وجه طرفدار عمل نیز بودند، به ویژه در موقعیت‌های خشونت که حقوق بسیار گسترده‌تر می‌گردید. جنبش‌هایی که با هدف اعلام حمایت از حقوق مدنی و سیاسی اعلام شده‌اند عبارتند از:

  • جنبش حقوق مدنی در ایالات متحده، جایی که حقوق افراد سیاه پوست نادیده گرفته می‌شد.
  • انجمن حقوق مدنی ایرلند شمالی، که در سال 1967 در پی شکست برای احترام به حقوق اقلیت کاتولیک‌های رومی شکل گرفت.
  • جنبش‌هایی در بسیاری از کشورهای کومونیستی مانند جنبش‌های بهار پراگ و کارتر 77 در چک اسلوواکی و مجارستان.

مشکلات و تجزیه و تحلیل[ویرایش]

اغلب اوقات سوالاتی در مورد حقوق مدنی و سیاسی مطرح می‌گردد. برای مثال، تا چه میزان دولت باید مداخله کند تا افراد را از نقض حقوق خود توسط اشخاص دیگر یا توسط شرکت‌ها محافظت کند، به عنوان مثال، چگونه باید تبعیض برای استخدام در بخش خصوصی صورت گیرد؟

حقوق نسل اول[ویرایش]

حقوق نسل اول، که اغلب به نام حقوق "بنفش" شناخته می‌شود، اساساً با آزادی و مشارکت در زندگی سیاسی مقابله می نماید. طبیعت این حقوق در اصل همان حقوق مدنی و سیاسی می‌باشد همانطور که شدیدا فردگرایانه هستند. این حقوق در حیطه محافظت افراد از افراط در حالات به‌طور منفی بکار می‌رود. حقوق نسل اول عبارتند از آزادی بیان، حق محاکمه عادلانه، (در بعضی از کشورها) حق نگهداری و حمل سلاح، آزادی مذهب، آزادی نژادی و حقوق رأی دادن. همه این‌ها به عنوان اظهارنامه در ایالات متحده و در فرانسه با نام اظهارنامه حقوق بشر برای شهروندان قرن 18 پیشرو بود، اگر چه برخی از این حقوق و حق برخورداری از حق تقدم به مگنا کارتا 1215 و حقوق انگلیسی‌ها، که در لایحه حقوق انگلیسی در سال 1689 بیان شده بود، برمیگردد.

منابع[ویرایش]

  1. میثاق بین المللی حقوق مدنی و سیاسی- دو جلد - جلد اول - سارا جوزف و ... ترجمه قاسم زمانی و همکاران- نشر شهر دانش- ص1 الی 70
  2. Conflict, union and rebellion
  3. Cullen-DuPont, Kathryn. "Declaration of Rights and Sentiments". Encyclopedia of Women's History in America, Second Edition. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2000. American History Online. Facts On File, Inc.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Civil_and_political_rights

Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals. They ensure one's entitlement to participate in the civil and political life of the society and state without discrimination or repression.

Civil rights include the ensuring of peoples' physical and mental integrity, life, and safety; protection from discrimination on grounds such as race, gender, sexual orientation, national origin, color, age, political affiliation, ethnicity, religion, and disability;[1][2][3] and individual rights such as privacy and the freedom of thought, speech, religion, press, assembly, and movement.

Political rights include natural justice (procedural fairness) in law, such as the rights of the accused, including the right to a fair trial; due process; the right to seek redress or a legal remedy; and rights of participation in civil society and politics such as freedom of association, the right to assemble, the right to petition, the right of self-defense, and the right to vote.

Civil and political rights form the original and main part of international human rights.[4] They comprise the first portion of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (with economic, social, and cultural rights comprising the second portion). The theory of three generations of human rights considers this group of rights to be "first-generation rights", and the theory of negative and positive rights considers them to be generally negative rights.

History

The phrase "Rights for Civil" is a translation of Latin ius civis (rights of a citizen). Roman citizens could be either free (libertas) or servile (servitus), but they all had rights in law.[5] After the Edict of Milan in 313, these rights included the freedom of religion; however in 380, the Edict of Thessalonica required all subjects of the Roman Empire to profess Catholic Christianity.[6] Roman legal doctrine was lost during the Middle Ages, but claims of universal rights could still be made based on Christian doctrine. According to the leaders of Kett's Rebellion (1549), "all bond men may be made free, for God made all free with his precious blood-shedding."[7]

In the 17th century, English common law judge Sir Edward Coke revived the idea of rights based on citizenship by arguing that Englishmen had historically enjoyed such rights. The Parliament of England adopted the English Bill of Rights in 1689. It was one of the influences drawn on by George Mason and James Madison when drafting the Virginia Declaration of Rights in 1776. The Virginia declaration is the direct ancestor and model for the U.S. Bill of Rights (1789).

The removal by legislation of a civil right constitutes a "civil disability". In early 19th century Britain, the phrase "civil rights" most commonly referred to the issue of such legal discrimination against Catholics. In the House of Commons support for civil rights was divided, with many politicians agreeing with the existing civil disabilities of Catholics. The Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829 restored their civil rights.

In the 1860s, Americans adapted this usage to newly freed blacks. Congress enacted civil rights acts in 1866, 1871, 1875, 1957, 1960, 1964, 1968, and 1991.

Protection of rights

T. H. Marshall notes that civil rights were among the first to be recognized and codified, followed later by political rights and still later by social rights. In many countries, they are constitutional rights and are included in a bill of rights or similar document. They are also defined in international human rights instruments, such as the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the 1967 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.

Civil and political rights need not be codified to be protected. However, most democracies worldwide do have formal written guarantees of civil and political rights. Civil rights are considered to be natural rights. Thomas Jefferson wrote in his A Summary View of the Rights of British America that "a free people [claim] their rights as derived from the laws of nature, and not as the gift of their chief magistrate."

The question of to whom civil and political rights apply is a subject of controversy. Although in many countries citizens have greater protections against infringement of rights than non-citizens, civil and political rights are generally considered to be universal rights that apply to all persons.

According to political scientist Salvador Santino F. Regilme Jr., analyzing the causes of and lack of protection from human rights abuses in the Global South should be focusing on the interactions of domestic and international factors—an important perspective that has usually been systematically neglected in the social science literature.[8]

Other rights

Custom also plays a role. Implied or unenumerated rights are rights that courts may find to exist even though not expressly guaranteed by written law or custom; one example is the right to privacy in the United States, and the Ninth Amendment explicitly shows that there are other rights that are also protected.

The United States Declaration of Independence states that people have unalienable rights including "Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness". It is considered by some that the sole purpose of government is the protection of life, liberty and property.[9]

Ideas of self-ownership and cognitive liberty affirm rights to choose the food one eats,[10][11][12] the medicine one takes,[13][14][15] the habit one indulges.[16][17][18]

Social movements for civil rights

Savka Dabčević-Kučar, Croatian Spring participant; Europe's first female prime minister

Civil rights guarantee equal protection under the law. When civil and political rights are not guaranteed to all as part of equal protection of laws, or when such guarantees exist on paper but are not respected in practice, opposition, legal action and even social unrest may ensue.

Civil rights movements in the United States gathered steam by 1848 with such documents as the Declaration of Sentiment.[19][full citation needed] Consciously modeled after the Declaration of Independence, the Declaration of Rights and Sentiments became the founding document of the American women's movement, and it was adopted at the Seneca Falls Convention, July 19 and 20, 1848.[20][full citation needed]

Worldwide, several political movements for equality before the law occurred between approximately 1950 and 1980. These movements had a legal and constitutional aspect, and resulted in much law-making at both national and international levels. They also had an activist side, particularly in situations where violations of rights were widespread. Movements with the proclaimed aim of securing observance of civil and political rights included:

Most civil rights movements relied on the technique of civil resistance, using nonviolent methods to achieve their aims.[21] In some countries, struggles for civil rights were accompanied, or followed, by civil unrest and even armed rebellion. While civil rights movements over the last sixty years have resulted in an extension of civil and political rights, the process was long and tenuous in many countries, and many of these movements did not achieve or fully achieve their objectives.

Problems and analysis

Questions about civil and political rights have frequently emerged. For example, to what extent should the government intervene to protect individuals from infringement on their rights by other individuals, or from corporations—e.g., in what way should employment discrimination in the private sector be dealt with?

Political theory deals with civil and political rights. Robert Nozick and John Rawls expressed competing visions in Nozick's Anarchy, State, and Utopia and Rawls' A Theory of Justice. Other influential authors in the area include Wesley Newcomb Hohfeld, and Jean Edward Smith.

First-generation rights

First-generation rights, often called "purple" rights, deal essentially with liberty and participation in political life. They are fundamentally civil and political in nature, as well as strongly individualistic: They serve negatively to protect the individual from excesses of the state. First-generation rights include, among other things, freedom of speech, the right to a fair trial, (in some countries) the right to keep and bear arms, freedom of religion, freedom from discrimination, and voting rights. They were pioneered in the United States by the Bill of Rights and in France by the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen in the 18th century, although some of these rights and the right to due process date back to the Magna Carta of 1215 and the Rights of Englishmen, which were expressed in the English Bill of Rights in 1689.

They were enshrined at the global level and given status in international law first by Articles 3 to 21 of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights and later in the 1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. In Europe, they were enshrined in the European Convention on Human Rights in 1953.

The civil rights movement was a struggle for social justice that took place mainly during the 1950s and 1960s for blacks to gain equal rights under the law in the United States. In 1868, the 14th amendment to the constitution gave blacks equal protection under the law. In the 1960s, Americans who knew only the potential of "equal protection of the laws" expected the president, the Congress, and the courts to fulfill the promise of the 14th Amendment.

See also

References

  1. ^ The Civil Rights act of 1964, ourdocuments.gov
  2. ^ Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, accessboard.gov
  3. ^ Summary of LGBT civil rights protections, by state, at Lambda Legal, lambdalegal.org
  4. ^ A useful survey is Paul Sieghart, The Lawful Rights of Mankind: An Introduction to the International Legal Code of Human Rights, Oxford University Press, 1985.
  5. ^ Mears, T. Lambert, Analysis of M. Ortolan's Institutes of Justinian, Including the History and, p. 75.
  6. ^ Fahlbusch, Erwin and Geoffrey William Bromiley, The encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 4, p. 703.
  7. ^ "Human Rights: 1500-1760 - Background". Nationalarchives.gov.uk. Retrieved 2012-02-11.
  8. ^ Regilme, Salvador Santino F., Jr. (3 October 2014). "The Social Science of Human Rights: The Need for a 'Second Image Reversed'?". Third World Quarterly. 35 (8): 1390–1405. doi:10.1080/01436597.2014.946255.
  9. ^ House Bill 4 Archived 2012-10-01 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ Mark Nugent (July 23, 2013). "The Fight for Food Rights (Review of Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Food Rights: The Escalating Battle Over Who Decides What We Eat by David Gumpert)". The American Conservative. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
  11. ^ Robert Book (March 23, 2012). "The Real Broccoli Mandate". Forbes. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
  12. ^ Meredith Bragg & Nick Gillspie (June 21, 2013). "Cheese Lovers Fight Idiotic FDA Ban on Mimolette Cheese!". Reason. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
  13. ^ Jessica Flanigan (July 26, 2012). "Three arguments against prescription requirements". Journal of Medical Ethics. 38 (10): 579–586. doi:10.1136/medethics-2011-100240. PMID 22844026. Retrieved September 14, 2013.
  14. ^ Kerry Howley (August 1, 2005). "Self-Medicating in Burma: Pharmaceutical freedom in an outpost of tyranny". Reason. Retrieved September 14, 2013.
  15. ^ Daniel Schorn (February 11, 2009). "Prisoner Of Pain". 60 Minutes. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
  16. ^ Emily Dufton (Mar 28, 2012). "The War on Drugs: Should It Be Your Right to Use Narcotics?". The Atlantic. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
  17. ^ Doug Bandow (2012). "From Fighting the Drug War to Protecting the Right to Use Drugs - Recognizing a Forgotten Liberty" (PDF). Towards a Worldwide Index of Human Freedom. Chapter 10. Fraser Institute. pp. 253–280. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-24.
  18. ^ Thomas Szasz (1992). Our Right to Drugs: The Case for a Free Market. Praeger. ISBN 9780815603337.
  19. ^ "Signatures to the Seneca Falls Convention 'Declaration of Sentiments'". American History Online, Facts On File, Inc.
  20. ^ Cullen-DuPont, Kathryn. "Declaration of Rights and Sentiments". Encyclopedia of Women's History in America, Second Edition. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2000. American History Online. Facts On File, Inc.
  21. ^ Adam Roberts and Timothy Garton Ash (eds.), Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present, Oxford University Press, 2009. Includes chapters by specialists on the various movements.

External links