حزب بعث (جناح سوریه)
حزب عربی سوسیالیستی بعث (به عربی: حزب البعث العربی الاشتراکی) در سال ۱۹۴۷ به رهبری میشل عفلق، صلاح الدین البیطار و زکی ارسوزی در سوریه تاسیس شد. این حزب که خواهان رنسانس و رستاخیز و یکی شدن جهان عرب به یک کشور بود، شاخههایی را در کشورهای مختلف تاسیس کرد که شاخه عراق و شاخه سوریه به مهمترین و قدرتمندترین آنها تبدیل شدند.
حزب بعث در سال ۱۹۶۳ در سوریه به قدرت رسید اما اختلافات داخلی بین اعضا باعث شد تا در سال ۱۹۶۶ گروهی از این اعضا که در شاخه منطقهای سوریه متمرکز شده بودند علیه حکومت سوریه و شاخه ملی (فراکشوری) حزب بعث کودتا کرده و حکومت را به دست گیرند. از این زمان اختلاف بین شاخه سوریه و شاخه عراق حزب نیز اوج گرفت و دو سال بعد شاخه عراقی حزب هم به ایجاد سازمان مستقلی با نام حزب بعث اقدام کرد که رقابت و دشمنی سختی با شاخه سوریهای داشت.
بعثیسم، آمیزهای از ناسیونالیسم عربی، پان عربیسم، سوسیالیسم عربی و علایق سوسیالیستی و ضد امپریالیستی، ایدئولوژی این حزب بود. شعار آن «اتحاد، آزادی، سوسیالیسم» (وحده، حریه، اشتراکیه) خواهان اتحاد عربی، و آزادی از قید کنترل و دخالت غیر اعراب است. دکترین حزب بعث عمدتاً توسط میشل عفلق که به ویژه تحت تأثیر اندیشههای آندرهژید، رومن رولان، آناتول فرانس، مارکس و نیچه قرار داشت، تدوین شدهاست. البته میشل عفلق پس از کودتای شاخه سوریه حزب بعث از کشور فرار کرده و پس از به قدرت رسیدن حزب بعث در عراق به عنوان رهبر فکری جریان بعثی به مقام تشریقاتی دبیرکل حزب بعث عراقیها انتخاب شد.
سوسیالیسم بعث نیز بر پایه همکاری و تعاون اقشار اجتماعی استوار است و نه براساس جنگ و مبارزه طبقاتی، از این رو بعثیها با سوسیالیسم علمی مخالفند و اصولاً سوسیالیسم را نوعی ناسیونالیسم میدانند که به اعراب امکان میدهد تا نیروهای بالقوه خود را به ظهور برسانند. بعث به جدایی دین از سیاست معتقد است و اهمیتی که به اسلام میدهد صرفاً از دیدگاه قومی و فرهنگی است. حزب بعث همچنین از تندروترین جناحهای ضد اسرائیل دنیای عرب به حساب میآید.
جنبش بعثی در ۱۹۴۴ در دمشق به صورت اتحادیه مخفی دانشجویان و روشنفکران جوان به رهبری میشل عفلق مسیحی سوری و صلاح بیطار مسلمان سنّی سوری تشکیل شد و هدف آن برانداختن تسلط فرانسه بر سوریه بود. این جنبش پس از استقلال سوریه علنی شد و یک برنامه اصلاحات ارضی ملایم را اعلام کرد و با اقتدار سیاسی و اقتصادی زمینداران بزرگ و بازرگانان ثروتمند دمشق و حلب به مبارزه برخاست.
حزب اصلی بعث در ۷ آوریل ۱۹۴۷ در نتیجه ادغام جنبش عربی بعث، به رهبری عفلق و البیطار و بعث عربی به رهبری ارسوزی تاسیس شد. این حزب به سرعت در کشورهای عربی از جمله عراق و سوریه شاخههایی تاسیس کرد. حزب بعث در ۱۹۵۳ با حزب سوسیالیست سوریه (حزب الاشتراکیه) به رهبری اکرم حورانی یکی شد و این دو حزب سوسیالیست بعث عربی را تشکیل دادند. این حزب ابتدا از پان عربیسم تندرو رهبران انقلاب ۱۹۵۲ مصر سخت جانبداری میکرد و یکی از عوامل اتحاد سوریه و مصر به صورت جمهوری متحد عربی بود و در روزگار حکومت عبدالکریم قاسم در عراق با او کشمکشهای سخت و خونین داشت. ولی پس از منحل شدن تمام حزبها در جمهوری متحد عرب، حزب بعث، بخصوص جناح اکرم حورانی، به مخالفت با جمال عبدالناصر پرداخت و پس از منحل شدن جمهوری متحد عربی در ۱۹۶۱، اندک اندک قدرت را در سوریه بدست گرفت و از ۱۹۶۳ حزب حاکم بر سوریه شد.
حزب بعث در سال ۱۹۶۴ در سوریه دست به ملی کردن بسیاری از مؤسسات و کارخانهها زد و با اخوان المسلمین درگیر شد.
پس از سرنگونی رژیم حزب بعث عراق در آوریل سال ۲۰۰۳میلادی به دست نیروهای آمریکایی، حزب بعث در سوریه بشدت احساس خطر کرد و به همین علت، حتی از همکاری با دولتمردان عراق که در دوران حکومت صدام، سالهای زیادی در دمشق مقیم بودند، امتناع میورزد. بعثیهای میانه رو در سوریه، درصدد اصلاحات داخلی برآمدهاند. حزب بعث حاکم بر سوریه پس از درگذشت حافظ اسد در خرداد سال ،۱۳۷۹فرزند او، «بشار» را به جانشینی پدرش برگزید. بشار اسد یک ماه پس از درگذشت پدرش، در یک همه پرسی به عنوان رییس جمهوری سوریه انتخاب شد.
The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (also spelled Ba'ath or Baath, "resurrection" or "renaissance"; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي Hizb Al-Ba'ath Al-'Arabi Al-Ishtiraki), also referred to as the pro-Syrian Ba'ath movement, is a Ba'athist political party, with branches across the Arab world. The party emerged from a split in the Ba'ath Party in February 1966. The party leads the government in Syria. From 1970 until 2000, the party was led by the Syrian president Hafez al-Assad. As of 2000[update], leadership has been shared between his son Bashar al-Assad (head of the Syrian regional organization) and Abdullah al-Ahmar (head of the pan-Arab national organization). The Syrian branch of the party is the largest organisation within the Syrian-led Ba'ath Party.
Hafez al-Assad became the secretary of the Syrian Regional Command of the party in 1970, and Secretary General of the National Command in late 1970. Despite being deceased, Hafez al-Assad is still the official Secretary General of the National Command. Bashar al-Assad became the Regional Secretary of the party in Syria after his father's death in 2000. Abdullah al-Ahmar serves as the Assistant Secretary General of the National Command, a post he has held since the 1970s.
Note: for the 1st–8th National Congresses, see the national congresses held by the unified, pre-1966 Ba'ath Party
The party is organized along Leninist lines, a policy stemming back to Aflaq and Bitar's leadership before the split. The highest organ of the party is the Party Congress. The Congress elects a General Secretary and a National Command. Under the National Command there is a Regional Command for each state in which the party operates. The regions are divided into branches, which are divided into companies. A branch consists of two or more companies. A company comprises three to seven cells. Each cell has between three and seven members.
In theory, the National Command of the party is the embryonic government for the entire Arab nation. The body comprises 21 members, half of whom are Syrian. In practice, the Syrian Regional Command is the more powerful institution inside the party. The Syrian Regional Command is the real political leadership in Syria; the power of the National Command has become more symbolic than real. A seat in National Command has become a sinecure, an honorary post given to Syrian politicians as they retire from active political life. Hafez al-Assad rarely had time to attend National Command meetings. Instead, he appointed Vice President for Party Affairs Zuhayr Mashariqa or Abd al-Halim Khaddam to represent him at National Command meetings. In theory, the National Command could conduct proselytism and form new Regional Commands across the Arab world and support weaker Regional Commands, but Syrian policymakers have curtailed that capacity.
Branches by region
The party was sometimes known in Iraq as Left-wing Ba'ath or Qutr Al-Iraq. Prominent members of the party in Iraq include Mahmud al-Shaykh Radhi, Fawzi Mutlaq al-Rawi and Dr. Mahmud Shamsa. The party opposed the rule of Saddam Hussein and was one of the first groups to be targeted by him. The party lost hundreds of its cadres amid repression by his government. Radhi was based in Syria during the 1970s.
The party labelled the Saddam government as “fascist”. When the Iran–Iraq War broke out in 1980, the party took part in the formation of the Iraqi Patriotic and Democratic Front, together with the Iraqi Communist Party, the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan and the Kurdish Socialist Party. The front vowed to overthrow Saddam Hussein.
In the 1980s, the party began cooperating with the Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq. The party organized the first general conference of Iraqi opposition groups in Damascus in 1989. It also participated in a conference of Iraqi opposition groups in Beirut in 1991. In 1999, Radhi was staying in the United Kingdom. The party was one of three main groups (along with the Iraqi Communist Party and the Islamic Dawa Party) which formed the Coalition of Iraqi National Forces. The Coalition was opposed to Saddam Hussein as well as U.S. military intervention. During the run-up to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the party publicly denounced U.S. involvement in the organization of Iraqi dissidents in exile.
After the fall of Saddam Hussein's administration, confusion arose as to whether the de-Ba'athification law also applied to the party. In 2008 Radhi requested that the party be allowed to function inside Iraq and join the process of reconciliation. In response the Iraqi government declared that they viewed Qotr al-Iraq as distinct from Saddam's Ba'ath, as Qotr al-Iraq had participated in the opposition conferences during the Saddam years. As of 2009[update], the Iraqi regional organization is still based in Syria.
The current leader of the Iraqi chapter is Mouteb Shenan. The former leader, Fawzi Mutlaq al-Rawi, was based in Damascus, and has been accused by the United States government of providing financial and material support to al-Qaeda in Iraq.
The Ba'ath Arab Progressive Party was legally registered for the first time in 1993. The branch is small, and has, according to a Wikileaks document, "minuscule number of adherents". Despite it small size, the branch is able through its leader, Fuad Dabbour, able to get a decent footprint in Jordanian media. Dabbour's fiery statements on foreign policy are frequently quoted by the press. The party is less known than its pro-Iraqi counterpart, the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party. is the party branch of the Syrian-dominated Ba'ath Party in Jordan. Fuad Dabbour is the branch's Regional Secretary. It is believed that the party has less than 200 members.
Main article: Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Lebanon Region
The Lebanese branch was established in 1966, the year of the Ba'ath Party split. During the Lebanese Civil War, the party had an armed militia called the Assad Battalion. The party joined forces with Kamal Jumblatt's Progressive Socialist Party in organizing the National Democratic Movement, seeking to abolish the confessional state. The National Democratic Movement was superseded by the National Democratic Front, in which the party participated. The party organized resistance against Israeli forces in Lebanon. In July 1987 it took part in forming the Unification and Liberation Front.
In the 2009 parliamentary election, the party won two seats as part of the March 8 Alliance. The parliamentarians of the party are Assem Qanso and Qassem Hashem. The current leader of the party is Fayez Shukr. Wael Nader al-Halqi, the Prime Minister of Syria, praised the Lebanon Regional Branch leadership, stating that they supported the Syrian leadership in times of conspiracies and attacks.
Main article: As-Sa'iqa
Main article: Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Organization of Sudan
During the 1980s, the party was called Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Organization of Sudan (differentiating it from the pro-Iraqi party, called Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Country of Sudan). The party contested[clarification needed] the 1986 election as part of the Progressive National Front.
The party held its third regional congress in Khartoum on February 5–6, 2009. The congress elected a 23-member Central Committee, an 11-member Regional Command and a regional secretary (Altijani Mustafa Yassin). The congress stated that the party sought cooperation with the National Congress Party for the sake of forming a national front. The party staunchly opposed independence of South Sudan.
A Syrian branch was established in Mauritania in 1981.
Main article: Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Syria Region
The party slogan "Unity, Freedom, Socialism" is enshrined in the constitution of the Syrian Arab Republic. The eighth article of the constitution stipulated that "[t]he leading party in the society and the state is the ... Ba'ath Party. It leads the National Progressive Front seeking to unify the resources of the masses of the people and place them at the service of the goals of the Arab nation." The constitution was adopted in 1973. As per the constitution of the Syrian Arab Republic, it is the Regional Command of the party that nominates the candidate for president of the Republic. The constitution does not explicitly say that the president has to be the leader of the party, but the National Progressive Front charter states that president of the Syrian Arab Republic and the secretary of the party is also the president of the NPF.
The party has dominated the Syrian parliament since 1963. The party leads the National Progressive Front, and in all elections conducted under this constitution has obtained the majority of the 167 parliamentary seats reserved for the Front. In the 2003 parliamentary election, the party secured 135 of the seats.
As of the mid-2000s, the party membership in Syria was estimated at 800,000. Key party organs in Syria are Al-Ba'ath and Al-Thawra.
The Syrian Regional Command has 21 members. As of 1987, the Syrian Regional Command comprised the three vice presidents of the Syrian Arab Republic, the Prime Minister, the Minister of Defense, the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces, the parliamentary speaker, the Aleppo and Hama party secretaries as well as the heads of the party bureaus for trade unions, economy and higher education.
The seventh Syrian regional party congress was held in January 1980. The congress created a new institution, the Central Committee, to act as an intermediary body between the Regional Command and local branches. The Central Committee had 75 members. The eighth regional congress decided to expand the Central Committee to 95 members. The Central Committee was charged with electing the Regional Command, which previously had been done by the regional congress delegates. The Central Committee represents the regional congress when the congress is not in session.
The party has 19 branches in Syria: one in each of the thirteen provinces, one in Damascus, one in Aleppo and one at each of the four universities. In most cases the governor of a province, police chief, mayor and other local dignitaries make up the Branch Command. However, the Branch Command Secretary and other executive positions are filled by party whole-timers[clarification needed].
The Syrian regional party congress is held every four years. While it is a strictly orchestrated affair, the regional congress has been a venue for actual debates on current affairs. Criticism against corruption and economic stagnation were expressed at the 1985 regional congress, albeit candidly. This congress was attended by 771 branch delegates.
The party has a parallel structure within the Syrian armed forces. The military and civilian sectors only meet at the regional level, as the military sector is represented in the Regional Command and sends delegates to regional congresses. The military sector is divided into branches, operating at the battalion level. The head of a military party branch is called a tawjihi (guide).
The party has three bureaus for coordinating work in mass organizations: the Popular Organizations Bureau (coordinating the People's Army militia, the Revolutionary Youth Union, Students Union and the General Union of Syrian Women); the Workers Bureau (coordinating the General Federation of Trade Unions); and the Peasants Bureau (coordinating the Peasants Federation). Children joined the Vanguards, an organization for grade-school boys and girls. Vanguards attended paramilitary summer camps operated by the armed forces. In the mid-1970s, the party ran a mass campaign for the mobilization of peasants into the Peasants Federation.
There is no formal structure linked to the Damascus-based Ba'ath Party. Most Ba'athists in Tunisia support the Iraqi faction as members of the Ba'ath Movement or the more leftist and radical the Party of the Arab and Democratic Vanguard. Only a small number of militants headed by Mohamed Salah Hermassi (a member of the Damascus-based National Command) are historically linked to Damascus.
Main article: Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Yemen Region
Ba'athism in Yemen originated in the 1950s. The party worked underground until 1990. It obtained official registration as the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Yemen Region on December 31, 1995 (while the other group had to register as the National Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party).[clarification needed] The regional secretary of the party in Yemen is Mohammed Al-Zubairy. The party ran in the 1993 parliamentary election, winning seven seats. In the 1997 and 2003 parliamentary elections, the party won two seats. In 2003, the party got 0.66% of the national vote. The party supported Ali Abdullah Saleh in the 1999 presidential election.
Abdullah al-Ahmar led a central party delegation to the 4th Regional Congress of the Yemenite Ba'ath in 2006.
In December 2008, the party and the National Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party agreed to coordinate their political activities.
In March 2013 Linda Mohammed, the head of the region's Women section, left the party in protest to the Yemenite leadership's continued supported for Bashar al-Assad and the Syrian Ba'ath.