حروف مقطعه

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به: ناوبری، جستجو
فارسی English

حروف مقطعه، (حرف‌های گسسته از هم) حروفی هستند که در ابتدای برخی از سوره‌های قرآن آمده‌است. حروف مقطعه در ابتدای ۲۹ سوره از سوره‌های قرآن آمده و مجموعاً ۷۸ حرف است که با حذف مکررات، ۱۴ حرف می‌شود.[۱] حروف مقطعه همیشه جزء کلمات اسرارآمیز محسوب شده و دانشمندان اسلامی و مفسران، برای آن، نظرات گوناگونی داده‌اند.اما هیچکدام نتوانسته اند منظور خاص و اصل موضوع را بدانند و برای عموم بازگو کنند ،به همین دلیل تا کنون هیچ کس از معنای واقعی این حروف آگاهی حتی جزئی ندارد و به طور کلی تفسیرها در این مورد تفسیر به رای می باشد که عاجز بودن درک مفسران از علم رمزگشایی این حروف را می رساند.

فهرست حروف[ویرایش]

این ۲۹ حرف (که بدون تکرار ۱۴ تا می‌شود) به قرار زیر است:

ردیف حروف مقطعه سوره
۱ الم بقره، آل عمران، عنکبوت، الروم، لقمان، السجده
۲ المص الاعراف
۳ الر یونس، هود، یوسف، ابراهیم، الحجر
۴ المر الرعد
۵ کهیعص مریم
۶ طه طه
۷ طسم الشعراء، القصص
۸ طس النمل
۹ یس یس
۱۰ ص ص
۱۱ حم غافر، فصلت، الزخرف، الدخان، الجاثیه، الاحقاف
۱۲ حم عسق الشوری
۱۳ ق ق
۱۴ ن القلم

و نیز با حذف حروف تکراری ۱۴ حرف باقی می‌ماند:

ا ح ر س ص ط ع ق ک ل م ن ه ی

تبیین[ویرایش]

تبیین این حروف از آغاز تاریخ تفسیر تاکنون همواره توجه مفسران و قرآن پژوهان را به خود معطوف داشته و نظرات مختلف معروف پیرامون حروف مقطعه از این قرار است:

  • حروف مقطعه از نوع متشابهات قرآنی است که علم آن مخصوص به خداوند است[۲][۳]
  • حروف مقطعه از ناحیه خدا، سوگندهایی است مبنی بر این که این کتاب از سوی او است[۴]
  • این حروف در واقع رمز و سری میان خدا و پیامبر اسلام است که تنها پیامبر و افراد پاک می‌توانند از آنها آگاهی یابند[۵]
  • حروف مذکور، برای آگاه نمودن پیامبر از نزول وحی و تمایز آن از سخنان بشری نازل شده‌است[۶]
  • با تدبر در سوره‌های دارای حروف مقطعه مشترک، روشن می‌شود که مضامین و سیاق آنها، با یکدیگر مشابه و متناسب است[۷]

گفتنی است تفاسیر دیگری نیز درباره «حروف مقطعه»، از جانب قرآن‌پژوهان ارائه گشته و روایات زیادی نیز در این‌باره نقل شده‌است. یک محقق مصری معتقد بود اگر حروف مقطعه در ابتدای هر سوره را به تفکیک بررسی کنیم، بیشترین حجم آن سوره متعلق به این حروف اند. به طور نمونه حروف الف و لام و میم که در ابتدای سوره بقره آمده است. با بررسی و شمارش تمام حروف این سوره این نتیجه حاصل می شود که حروف الف و لام و میم بیشتر از سایر حروف در سوره بقره بکار رفته است.[۸][۹][۱۰]اما در مورد اکثر سوره هایی که با دیگر حروف شروع می شوند این موضوع صدق نمی کند مانند سوره ی (طه)و سوره هایی که با حروف مقطعه(طس) و(طسم)شروع شده است الف و لام و میم این سوره ها بیشتر از حروف ط و س می باشند پس موضوع به همین سادگی ها هم نیست.

دیدگاه ها[ویرایش]

  • سید محمد جواد غروی : در بیست و هفت سوره از بیست و نه سوره که با این حروف آغاز شده اند بعد از آن ها لفظ کتاب یا کلمه یی که دارای همین مفهوم باشد مثل ذکر یا قرآن یا کتابت آمده است که آوردن کلمه کتاب پس از حروف مقطعه بیان این حقیقت است که علی رغم ترکیب کتاب خدا از این حروف کسی نتوانسته و نخواهد توانست تا نهایت دنیا کلامی مثل آن بیاورد.[۱۱] تمام لغات جهان از ابتدا تا این عصر از همین حروف که به تنهایی اصواتی بیش نیستند پدید آمده است و وسیلة ایجاد ارتباط بین بشر و توسعه علوم ثمره ترکیب این حروف محدود می باشد و قرآن نیز از این قاعده مستثنی نیست و پس از ترکیب دارای معنی و اشکال مختلف می شود.[۱۲] پس مقصود از آوردن این حروف در ابتدای سوره ها بدین منظور بوده است که قرآن از همین حروف و کلماتی ترکیب شده که خود شما هم تلفظ می کنید ولی مانند این قرآن را نمی توانید بیاورید و به همین جهت بعد از آوردن حروف مقطعه نام و مفهوم کتاب را بیان می کند.[۱۳]

پانویس[ویرایش]

  1. آیت‌الله عبدالله جوادی آملی، تسنیم، ج۲، ص ۶۵ و ۶۶.
  2. سیوطی، الاتقان، ج ۳، ص ۲۴
  3. تفسیر طبری، ج ۱، ص ۷۲.
  4. قرطبی، الجامع لاحکام القرآن، ج ۱، ص ۱۱۰.
  5. بلاغی، محمدجواد، آلاء الرحمن، ج ۱، ص ۶۴
  6. الاتقان، ج ۳، ص ۳۱
  7. تفسیر المیزان، ج ۱۸، ص ۶ - ۸
  8. تفسیر البرهان، ج ۱، ص ۵۳ و ج ۲، صص ۲، ۱۷۶، ۲۰۶ و ۲۷۷
  9. بحارالانوار، ج ۸۹، ص ۳۷۳
  10. تفسیر نورالثقلین، ج ۳، ص ۳۲۰.
  11. سید محمد جواد غروی،آدم از نظر قرآن، جلد سوم، 1384، نشر نگارش، تهران، فصل پنجم، مبحث هفتم:حروف مقطعه در قرآن، صفحه 887 و 889
  12. سید محمد جواد غروی،آدم از نظر قرآن، جلد سوم، 1384، نشر نگارش، تهران، فصل پنجم، مبحث هفتم:حروف مقطعه در قرآن، صفحه 888 و 889
  13. سید محمد جواد غروی،آدم از نظر قرآن، جلد سوم، 1384، نشر نگارش، تهران، فصل پنجم، مبحث هفتم:حروف مقطعه در قرآن، صفحه 890

منابع[ویرایش]

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

Muqatta'at (Arabic: مقطعات‎) are unique letter combinations that appear in the beginning of 29 suras (chapters) of the Qur'an. Muqatta'at literally means abbreviated or shortened. Their meanings remain unclear and are considered by most Muslims to be divine secrets.

They are also known as fawātih (فواتح) or "openers" as they form the opening verse of their respective suras. Other names include the broken, dis-joined, initial, or isolated letters of the Qur'an.

Introduction

In the Arabic language, these letters are written together like a word, but each letter is pronounced separately. Muqatta'at have been and continue to be a topic of intense research and academic discussions in Islamic literature and Qur'anic studies.

A few examples of Muqatta'at:

  1. Alif Lam Mim (الم) Sura Al Baqarah, Sura As-Sajda, etc.
  2. Alif Lam Ra (الر) Sura Yunus and Surah Hud
  3. Alif Lam Mim Ra (المر) Sura Ar Raa'd
  4. Kaaf Ha Ya Ain Saad (كهيعص) Sura Maryam
  5. Ya Seen (يس) Sura Ya Seen
  6. Ha Mim (حم) Sura Ha Mim Sajda

Of the 28 letters of the Arabic alphabet, exactly one half appear as muqatta'at, either singly or in combinations of two, three, four or five letters. The fourteen letters are: أ ح ر س ص ط ع ق ك ل م ن ه ي (alif, ha, ra, sin, sad, ta, ain, qaf, kaf, lam, mim, nun, ha, ya).

Context

A tree diagram of the Qur'anic initial letters, labelled with the respective numbers of occurrences. To be read right to left.

Certain co-occurrence restrictions are observable in these letters; for instance, alif is invariably followed by lam. The substantial majority of the combinations begin either alif lam or ha mim. See the diagram for fuller information.

In all but 3 of the 29 cases, these letters are almost immediately followed by mention of the Qur'anic revelation itself (the exceptions are suras 29, 30, and 68); and some argue that even these three cases should be included, since mention of the revelation is made later on in the sura. More specifically, one may note that in 8 cases the following verse begins "These are the signs...", and in another 5 it begins "The Revelation..."; another 3 begin "By the Qur'an...", and another 2 "By the Book..." Additionally, all but 3 of these suras are Meccan suras (the exceptions are suras 2, 3, 13.)

The suras that contain these letters are: sura 2, sura 3, sura 7, sura 10, sura 11, sura 12, sura 13, sura 14, sura 15, sura 19, sura 20, sura 26, sura 27, sura 28, sura 29, sura 30, sura 31, sura 32, sura 36, sura 38, sura 40, sura 41, sura 42, sura 43, sura 44, sura 45, sura 46, sura 50, sura 68.

Laam and Meem are conjoined and both are written with prolongation sign/Mark. One letter is written in two styles. [Refer 19:01 and 20:01] Letter 20:01 is used only in the beginning and middle of a word and that in 19:01 is not used as such. الم is also the First Ayah of Sura 3, 29, 30, 31 and 32 [total 6].

Classical opinions

Tomes have been written over the centuries on the possible meanings and probable significance of these 'mystical letters' as they are sometimes called. Opinions have been numerous but a consensus elusive. There is no reliable report of Muhammad having used such expressions in his ordinary speech, or his having thrown light on its usage in the Qur'an. And, more importantly, none of his Companions seemed to have asked him about it. This apparent lack of inquisitiveness is cited as proof that such abbreviations were well known to the Arabs of the time and were in vogue long before the advent of Islam.

One opinion is that these letters stand for words or phrases related to God and His Attributes. The Companions Ibn Abbas and Ibn Mas'ud are said to have favored this view, as cited by Abu Hayyan Al Gharnati in his Bahr Al Muhit. As plausible as it may sound, this opinion does not find favor among other classical commentators, because the possible combinations of letters are virtually infinite and the Attributes they represent seem to be chosen arbitrarily. For example, the translator Maulana Muhammad Ali translates these letters in his editions of the Holy Qur'an as follows:

Alif (ا): an abbreviation for Ana (أنا, I am)
Ḥā (ح): an abbreviation for Al-Ḥamīd (الحميد, the Praised),
Rā (ر): an abbreviation for the Seeing (رائي / رأى / رؤيا / يرى / بصير )
Sīn (س): as either an abbreviation for Man or an abbreviation for As-Samī' (السميع, the Hearing),
Ṣād (ص): an abbreviation for As-Ṣādiq (الصادق, the Truthful),
Ṭā (ط): as either an abbreviation for the Benignant or an interjection equivalent to O (in dialect),
ʿAyn (ع): an abbreviation for Al-'Alīm (العليم, the Knowing),
Qāf (ق): an abbreviation for Al-Qādir (القادر, the Almighty),
Kāf (ك): an abbreviation for Al-Kāfi (كافي, the Sufficient),
Lām (ل): an abbreviation for Allāh (الله, using the second letter),
Mīm (م): as either an abbreviation for Al-'Alīm (العليم, the Knowing, using the ending letter) or for Al-Majīd (المجيد, the Glorious),
Nūn (ن): a word meaning Inkstand,
Hā (ه): as either an abbreviation for Al-Hādīy (الهادي, the Guide) or an abbreviation for Man (in dialect), and
Yā (ي): an interjection equivalent to O.

Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, a classical commentator of the Qur'an, has noted some twenty opinions regarding these letters, and mentions multiple opinions that these letters present the names of the Surahs as appointed by God. In addition, he mentions that Arabs would name things after such letters (for example, 'money' as 'ع', clouds as 'غ', and fish as 'ن'). [1]

Modern research

Amin Ahsan Islahi, a renowned exegete of the Qur'an, has mentioned that since Arabs once used such letters in their poetry, it was only appropriate for the Qur'an to use that same style. He agrees with Razi and mentions that since these letters are names for Surahs, they are proper nouns. As such, they do not necessarily refer to other matters. At the same time, he cites research from Hamiduddin Farahi, a Quranic scholar from the Indian subcontinent, on how these letters must be appropriately chosen according to the content and theme of the surahs. Farahi links these letters back to the Abjad-ordered Arabic Alphabet, Hebrew Alphabet as well as Classical Akkadian philology, in the sense that all of these make use of alphanumerical correspondence, as in Greek and Latin (use of the letters "V" for "5",etc.). He also suggests that those letters not only represented phonetic sounds but also had symbolic meanings, and Qur'an perhaps uses the same meanings when choosing the letters for surahs. For instance, in support of his opinion, he presents the letter Nun (ن), which symbolizes fish and Surah Nun mentions Prophet Jonah as 'companion of the fish'. Similarly, the letter Ta or Tuay (ط) represents a serpent and all the Surahs that begin with this letter mention the story of Prophet Moses and serpents.[2]

Western scholars have only occasionally attempted to explain them. In 1973, it was proposed that the letters are the remnants of abbreviations for the Bismillah.[3] In 1996, Keith Massey proposed new evidence for an older theory that the "Mystery Letters" were the initials or monograms of the scribes who originally transcribed the suras .[4] As evidence for this, he demonstrated that the letters themselves occur in a specific order, suggesting a hierarchy of importance. This idea has not yet gained wide acceptance. Other explanations have similarly failed to satisfactorily explain the letters.A recent PhD on the subject claims that there is phonological, syntactic and semantic link between the letters and the text of the chapters.The research is carried out by Prof. Ahsan ur Rehman in his PhD thesis; Morpho Phonemic Patterns in the Prefixed Chapters of the Qur'an.

Mathematical Structure based on 19 [74:30] within Initialed Suras (Chapters with Muqatta'at)

In 1974, an Egyptian biochemist named Rashad Khalifa claimed to have discovered a mathematical code in the Qur'an based on these initials and the number 19,[5] which is mentioned in Sura 74:30[6] of the Qur'an. According to his claims, these initials, which prefix 29 chapters of the Qur'an, occur throughout their respective chapters in multiples of nineteen. He has noted other mathematical phenomena throughout the Qur'an, all related to what he describes as the "mathematical miracle of the Qur'an." Some of his findings relating to Sura (Chapters) with initials (Muqatta'ats) are:

1. Between the first initialed sura (Sura 2) and the last initialed sura (Sura 68) there are 38 = 19 x 2 un-initialed suras.[7]

2. Between the first and last initialed sura there are 19 sets of alternating “initialed” and “uninitialed” suras.[7]

The complete Muqatta'at letters and their appearance in the Quran

  1. Chapter 2, Surah Al-Baqara (The Cow)  : ʾAlif Lām Mīm
  2. Chapter 3, Surah Āl-Imran  : ʾAlif Lām Mīm
  3. Chapter 7, Surah Al-Aʿarāf  : ʾAlif Lām Mīm Ṣād
  4. Chapter 10, Surah Yunus  : ʾAlif Lām Rāʾ
  5. Chapter 11, Surah Al-Hood  : ʾAlif Lām Rāʾ
  6. Chapter 12, Surah Yusuf  : ʾAlif Lām Rāʾ
  7. Chapter 13, Surah Al-Raʿd  : ʾAlif Lām Mīm Rāʾ
  8. Chapter 14, Surah Ibrahim  : ʾAlif Lām Rāʾ
  9. Chapter 15, Surah Al-Ḥijr  : ʾAlif Lām Rāʾ
  10. Chapter 19, Surah Maryam  : Kāf Hāʾ Yāʾ ʿAin Ṣād
  11. Chapter 20, Surah Ṭāʾ-Hāʾ  : Ṭāʾ Hāʾ
  12. Chapter 26, Surah Al-Shua'ra (The Poets)  : Ṭāʾ Sīn Mīm
  13. Chapter 27, Surah Al-Namal (The Ant)  : Ṭāʾ Sīn
  14. Chapter 28, Surah Al-Qaṣaṣ  : Ṭāʾ Sīn Mīm
  15. Chapter 29, Surah Al-Ankabut (The Spider)  : ʾAlif Lām Mīm
  16. Chapter 30, Surah Al-Rom (The Romans)  : ʾAlif Lām Mīm
  17. Chapter 31, Surah Luqmān  : ʾAlif Lām Mīm
  18. Chapter 32, Surah Al-Sajda (The Adoration) : ʾAlif Lām Mīm
  19. Chapter 36, Surah Yāʾ-Sīn  : Yāʾ Sīn
  20. Chapter 38, Surah Ṣād  : Ṣād
  21. Chapter 40, Surah Al-Mu'min (The Believer) : Ḥāʾ Mīm
  22. Chapter 41, Surah Fuṣṣilat  : Ḥāʾ Mīm
  23. Chapter 42, Surah Al-Shūrā  : Ḥāʾ Mīm; ʿAin Sīn Qāf
  24. Chapter 43, Surah Al-Zukruf (The Embellishment) : Ḥāʾ Mīm
  25. Chapter 44, Surah Al-Duqqan (The Smoke)  : Ḥāʾ Mīm
  26. Chapter 45, Surah Al-Jasiya (The Kneeling)  : Ḥāʾ Mīm
  27. Chapter 46, Surah Al-Ahqaf (The Sandhills)  : Ḥāʾ Mīm
  28. Chapter 50, Surah Qāf  : Qāf
  29. Chapter 68, Surah Al-Qalam (The Pen)  : Nūn

Muqatta'at in the Bábí and Bahá'í Faiths

The Báb, whom Bahá'ís see as the immediate forerunner of their religion, uses Muqatta'at in his Qayyúmu'l-Asmá'.[8][9] He writes in his Dalá'il-i-Sab'ih (Seven Proofs) about a hadith from Muhammad al-Baqir (the fifth Shia Imam) where it is stated that the first seven sets of Muqatta'at have a numerical value of 1267, from which the year 1844 AD (the year of the Báb's declaration) can be derived.[10]

In 1857-58, Bahá'u'lláh, founder of the Bahá'í Faith, wrote his Commentary on the Isolated Letters (Tafsír-i-Hurúfát-i-Muqatta'ih, also known as Lawh-i-Áyiy-i-Núr, Tablet of the Light Verse).[11][12] In it, he describes how God created the letters. A black teardrop fell down from the Primordial Pen on the "Perspicuous, Snow-white Tablet", by which the Point was created. The Point then turned into an Alif (vertical stroke), which was again transformed, after which the Muqatta'at appeared. These letters were then differentiated, separated and then again gathered and linked together, appearing as the “names and attributes” of creation. Bahá'u'lláh gives various interpretations of the letters "alif, lam, mim", mostly relating to Allah, trusteeship (wilayah) and the prophethood (nubuwwah) of Muhammad. He emphasizes the central role of the alif in all the worlds of God.[11]

References

  1. ^ Michael R. Rose; Casandra L. Rauser; Laurence D. Mueller; Javed Ahmed Ghamidi, Shehzad Saleem (July 2003). "Al-Baqarah (1-7)". Renaissance. 
  2. ^ Islahi, Amin Ahsan (2004). Taddabur-i-Quran. Faraan Foundation. pp. 82–85. 
  3. ^ Bellamy, James A. (1973) The Mysterious Letters of the Koran: Old Abbreviations of the Basmalah. Journal of the American Oriental Society 93 (3), 267-285. [1]
  4. ^ Massey, Keith (1996). "A New Investigation into the "Mystery Letters" of the Qur'an" in 'Arabica', Vol. 43 No. 3. pp. 497–501. 
  5. ^ Rashad Khalifa, Quran: Visual Presentation of the Miracle, Islamic Productions International, 1982. ISBN 0-934894-30-2
  6. ^ Quran 74:30
  7. ^ a b Quran the final Testament, Translated from the Original, by Rashad Khalifa, ISBN 978-1-890825-00-3, Library of Congress: 2007938221, Simple Facts
  8. ^ Lawson, Todd. "Reading Reading Itself: The Bab's `Sura of the Bees,' A Commentary on Qur'an 12:93 from the Sura of Joseph". Retrieved 2007-03-19. 
  9. ^ See the following source for more about Bábí letter symbolism: Editors (2009). "Letters of the Living (Hurúf-i-Hayy)". Bahá’í Encyclopedia Project. Evanston, IL: National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States. 
  10. ^ Lambden, Stephen N. A note upon the messianic year 1260 / 1844 and the Bābī-Bahā'ī interpretation of the isolated letters of the Qur'an.
  11. ^ a b Marshall, Alison. "What on earth is a disconnected letter? - Baha'u'llah's commentary on the disconnected letters". Retrieved 2007-03-19. 
  12. ^ Lambden, Stephen N. "Tafsír-al-Hurúfát al-Muqatta'át (Commentary on the Isolated Letters) or Lawh-i Áyah-yi Núr (Tablet of the Light Verse) of Mírzá Husayn 'Alí Núrí Bahá'-Alláh (1817-1892)". Retrieved 2007-03-19. 

13. Rehman, Ahsan (2012). Morpho Phonemic Patterns in the Prefixed Chapters of the Qur'an; A Stylistic Approach.

PhD Thesis.Islamabad: International Islamic University

14. Rehman, Ahsan. The Consonant Saad in three Qur'anic Chapters. International Journal of Academic Research;

Jan 2011, Vol. 3 Issue 1, p1006

External links