حدیث سلسله‌الذهب

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
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فارسیEnglish
کاشی کاری متن حدیث سلسلة الذهب(۱۳۸۸ ش) در نیشابور .
یک دیوارنگاری دیگرِ متن حدیث سلسلة الذهب در سقفِ ورودیِ کتابخانهٔ الغدیر در نیشابور .

سلسلة الذَهَب به حدیثی گفته می‌شود که معصوم به اسناد از پدرانش نقل کند؛ ولی به‌طور خاص حدیث سلسلةالذهب، حدیثی است که از علی بن موسی الرضا به هنگام ورودش به نیشابور نقل شده و عده کثیری آن را نوشته‌اند. سلسلة الذهب به معنی زنجیرهٔ طلا است. پیرامون سند و نظرگاه‌های عالمان و محدثان شیعی و سنی درباره این حدیث مطالبی ارائه شده از جمله می‌نویسند که :این حدیث قدسی، متواتر، مسلسل و مستند می‌باشد.

متن حدیث[ویرایش]

عربی[ویرایش]

کَلِمَةُ لا إلهَ إلّا اللّهُ حِصنی فَمَن دَخَلَ حِصنی اَمِنَ مِن عَذابی بِشُروطِها وَ أنَا مِن شُروطِها.

فارسی[ویرایش]

کلام «لا إلهَ إلّا اللّهُ یعنی هیچ معبودی بجز الله نیست» دژ و حصار من (خدا) است پس هر کس به دژ و حصار من داخل شود از عذاب من امنیت خواهد یافت، و این شروطی دارد و من (علی بن موسی الرّضا) یکی از آن شرط‌ها هستم.

و به عبارت دیگر ولایت اهل بیت پیامبر شرط توحید و یگانگی خداوند است.

سند حدیث[ویرایش]

این حدیث را محمد بن علی بن بابویه معروف به شیخ صدوق در کتب خود، از جمله «عیون اخبار الرضا» و «امالی» و «توحید» و «معانی الاخبار» و «ثواب الاعمال و عقاب الاعمال» نقل کرده و اسنادش تا معصوم به این ترتیب است:

محمد بن موسی المتوکل از محمد بن جعفر الأسدی از محمد بن حسین الصولی از یوسف بن عقیل از اسحاق بن راهویه از رضا.[نیازمند منبع]

امام رضا نیز این حدیث را به نقل از خداوند گفته است و اسنادش به این ترتیب است:

امام رضا از موسی بن جعفر از جعفر بن محمد از محمد بن علی از علی بن الحسین از حسین بن علی از علی بن ابی طالب از پیامبر از جبرئیل از خداوند.[نیازمند منبع]

کتاب‌های وافی، بحار الانوار و الجواهر السنیه این حدیث را از محمد بن علی بن بابویه معروف به شیخ صدوق نقل کرده‌اند.

پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

منابع[ویرایش]

  • بهاء الدین خرمشاهی، دائرةالمعارف تشیع، جلد ۶، ص. ۱۷۵
  • عیون اخبار الرضا، ج ۲، ص ۱۳۵
  • امالی، ص ۲۳۵
  • توحید، ص ۲۵
  • ثواب الاعمال و عقاب و الاعمال، ص ۷
  • معانی الاخبار، ص ۳۷۱
  • بحارالانوار، جلد ۴۹، ص ۱۲۶، ح ۳. از کشف الغمه، جلد ۳، ص ۱۴۴- ۱۴۵.
  • بحارالانوار، جلد ۴۹، ص ۱۲۳، ح ۴. از عیون اخبار الرضا، جلد ۲، ص ۱۳۵.
  • الجواهر السنیة فی الاحادیث القدسیة، ص ۴۴۳
  • الوافی، ج ۹، ص ۱۴۶۰

Hadith al-Silsilah al-Dhahab (Arabic: حدیث سلسلة الذهب‎) (Hadith of the Golden Chain) is a hadith narrated from Ali al-Ridha, the eighth Imam of the Shia.[1] The "chain" is a reference to the continuity of spiritual authority which is passed down from Muhammad to Ali ibn Abi Talib, through each of the Imams, to Imam Ridha.[2] As transmitters of Hadith, the Imams link subsequent generations to the teachings of Mohammad.[3] This transmission makes the Hadith of the Golden Chain valued as among the most truthful and accurate of all Hadiths for the Shi'ite.[4]

The hadith is important to shia because it implies that, on one hand, monotheism takes the believers to "Allah's fortress", which is a safe shelter, and from the other hand Imamah is a fundamental precondition of entering this shelter .[5]

Background

The story is that when thousands of people gathered to welcome their Ali al-Ridha's arrival at the entrance to Neyshabour , some of the scholars requested him to pronounce a hadith.[6][7] According to some shia scholars, twenty (or ten or thirty) thousands have narrated this event, but only fifty narrations are available.[8] The chain of the narrators of the hadith reaches the Prophet of Islam through Ahl al-Bayt, hence called Hadith of Golden Chain.[3][9]

Several Important hadith collections quoted it as Al-Tawhid, Ma'ani al-Akhbar, and Oyoun Akhbar Al-Ridha of al-Shaykh al-Saduq and Al-Amali of Shaykh Tusi.[10] The hadith is also narrated in sunni hadith books. Regarding the implications of the hadith, there are two extreme opinions by Sunni scholars; While some of them discrediting the hadith by implying that the Sunni books lack it, some others claim that all Sunni scholars accepted it.[8]

According to shia, two important points may be derived from the Hadith. On one hand, monotheism takes the believers to "Allah's fortress", which is a safe shelter, and from the other hand Imamah is a fundamental precondition of entering this shelter .[5]

Hadith

Hadith al-Silsilah al-Dhahab is narrated by Ali ibn Musa al-Ridha while entering Neyshabour.[6] Many historians have recorded it. Old documents quote the hadith with small different wordings.[9]

When Ali al-Ridha was entering Neyshabour a large crowd had gathered outside the city and some of the great scholars such as Muhammad ibn al-Rafi, Ahmad ibn al-Harith, Ishaq ibn al-Rahuwayh, and Yahya ibn al-Yahya were accompanying him.[11] Twenty (or ten or thirty) thousands have reported the event. The narrations mentioning "twenty thousands" reporters are more famous.[8] Many sunni laymen and scholars participated in welcoming the Imam.[12] Scholars asked Ali al-Ridha to narrate hadith for them. So Ali al-Ridha announced al-Silsilah al-Dhahab.[13]

Shia narrations

Different Shia hadith collections such as Al-Tawhid, Maani Al-Akhbar, and Oyoun Akhbar Al-Ridha of Shaykh al-Saduq and Al-Amali of Shaykh Tusi has narrated this hadith.[10] Some of the sources are mentioned here:

  • Ahsan al-Maqaal:

I have heard my father Musa ibn Ja’far (A.S.) saying that he heard from his father Ja’far ibn Muhammad (A.S.) saying that he heard his father Muhammad ibn Ali (A.S.) saying that he heard from his father Ali ibn al-Husain (A.S.) saying that he heard from his father al-Husain ibn Ali (A.S.) saying that he heard from his father Ali ibn Abi Talib (A.S.) saying that he heard from the Holy Prophet (pbuh) saying that he heard from Gabriel saying that Allah told him: The kalimatu Laa ilaaha illallah (the saying that there's no god but Allah) is My fortress. Whoever chants it, enters My fortress; and whoever enters My fortress shall be safe from My punishment’”. The Imam (A.S.) then paused for a moment and continued, “There are few conditions entitling entrance to the fortress and I am one of its conditions [14]

  • Ma'ani al-Akhbar, Oyoun Akhbar Al-Ridha, Al-Tawhid:
al-Silsilah al-Dhahab hadith painted on tilings on a wall at Neyshabour (The text is in accordance with Al-Ma'ani al-Akhbar, Oyoun Akhbar Al-Ridha, and Al-Tawhid of Shaykh al-Saduq)

Ishaq Ibn Rahwayh said: When Abu al-Hasan al-Ridha arrived at Neyshabour and decided to leave the city to join Ma'mun, the hadith scholars gathered around him and said: "O son of Allah's apostle, are you leaving us without pronouncing a beneficial hadith for us?" He (Ali al-Ridha) while sitting in palanquin let his out head and said: "I heard from my father Musa ibn Jafar who said he heard from his father Jafar ibn Mohammad who said he heard from his father Mohammad ibn Ali who said he heard from Ali ibn Husayn who said he heard from his father Husayn ibn Ali who said he heard from his father, the commander of the faithful, Ali ibn abi Talib who said he heard from Allah's apostle, peace be upon him and his household, who said he heard from Gabriel who said he heard that Allah said: "There is no god but Allah is my fortress whoever enters my fortress shall be safe from my punishment" and when the convoy moved he (Ali al-Ridha) shouted: "There are few conditions and I am one of its conditions".[a][15]

Also other versions of this hadith are separately narrated in Oyoun Akhbar Al-Ridha, Al-Tawhid, and Al-Ma'ani al-Akhbar by Shaykh al-Saduq, al-Amali by Shaykh Tusi and Kashf al-Ghommah by Allamah Arbeli.[10]

Sunni narrations

A mural of al-Silsilah al-Dhahab hadith on the ceiling of Al-Ghadir library located in Neyshabour.

Many sunni scholars have narrated this event. [b] Only fifty narrations have survived since third century out of ten thousands or twenty thousands or thirty thousands narrations. Besides, there are many other hadiths titled "al-Silsilah al-Dhahab hadith" varying from the one in question. Two of the important narrations are the "Fortress narration" and the "Faith narration".[8]

The Fortress narration

There exists two different viewpoints among Sunni scholars regarding the Fortress Narration. Some of them mention Abu al-Salt Abd al-Salam ibn Heravi as the only narrator of this hadith and have disqualified him as a narrator, and consequently disregard the hadith. On the other hand, some of the sunni scholars regard Abu al-Salt as highly credible and therefore confirm the hadith, and some others even suggested healing powers for the hadith.[8]

Ali ibn Musa al-Ridha, peace be upon him, said: "My father Musa al-Kazim told me from his father Jafar al-Sadigh, from his father mohammad al-Baghir, from his father Ali Zayn al-Abidin, from his father Husayn, the martyr of Karbala, from his father Ali ibn abi Talib, peace be upon him, who said: I heard from, the apple of my eye, Allah's apostle peace be upon him and his household, who heard from Gabriel saying that Allah said:"There is no god but Allah is my fortress whoever chants this, enters my fortress and whoever enters my fortress shall be safe from my punishment." "[c][16]

The part specifying 'condition'

Although the last part of the hadith ("There are few conditions and I am one of its conditions") is omitted in most sunni hadith books, some of the sunni scholars such as Khaje Parsa Hanafi and Qazi Bahjat Affandi Shafi'i have mentioned this part in their narration.[8]

Al-Silsilah al-Dhahab in Hadith terminology

Hadith terminology categorize Hadith into several sections. According to authenticity or weakness of Hadith, Each hadith can be placed in different categories. The following are some important topics that are discussed about Al-Silsilah al-Dhahab.[10]

Al-Silsilah al-Dhahab is a Hadith Qudsi, i.e., the word of God, but differs from Quran.[10] The Gabriel transmitted hadith from God to prophet.[13] Al-Silsilah al-Dhahab is Mutawatir.[10] Shia and sunni scholars have narrated the hadith by Different expressions with authenticity. This hadith is Musalsal meaning that it's a word of God and is conveyed from Prophet of Islam through Ahl al-Bayt to Ali al-Ridha. In other word, narrators of the hadith are Prophet and Ahl al-Bayt. According to shia view they are infallible and immune from error in practical matters, in inviting people to the religion and in perceiving the realm of cognition. because of that the hadith is called golden chain. Because of that, this hadith was named Al-Silsilah al-Dhahab. Al-Silsilah al-Dhahab is Musnad. Twenty (or ten or thirty) thousands have narrated this event, but only fifty narrations are available.[8] The chain of the narrators of the hadith reaches the Prophet of Islam through Ahl al-Bayt, hence called Hadith of Golden Chain.[9]

Notes

  1. ^ حدثنا محمدبن موسى بن المتوکل ـ رضى الله عنه ـ قال حدثنا ابوالحسین محمدبن جعفر الاسدى، قال حدثنا محمدبن الحسین الصولى (الصوفى)، قال حدثنا یوسف بن عقیل عن اسحق بن راهویة، قال لما وفى ابوالحسن الرضا علیه السلام نیسابور واراد أن یخرج منها الى المأمون، اجتمع علیه اصحاب الحدیث فقالوا له: «یا ابن رسول الله ترحل عنا ولا تحدّثنا بحدیث فنستفیده منک؟» وکان قد قعد فى العماریة فاطلع رأسه وقال: «سمعت ابى موسى بن جعفر یقول سمعت ابى جعفربن محمد یقول سمعت ابى محمدبن على یقول سمعت ابى على بن الحسین یقول سمعت ابى الحسین بن على بن ابى طالب یقول سمعت ابى امیرالمؤمنین على بن ابى طالب یقول سمعت رسول الله صلى الله علیه وآله وسلم یقول سمعت جبرئیل یقول سمعت الله جل جلاله یقول: لااله الاالله حصنى فمن دخل حصنى امن من عذابى». قال فلمّا مرّت الراحلة نادانا «بشروطها وانا من شروطها».
  2. ^ Yahya ibn Yahya, Ahmad ibn Harb Neshabouri, Abu al-Salt Abd al-Salam ibn Heravi, al-Hakim Nishapuri, Abu Nu`aym al-Isfahani, Abu Ḥamid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazali, Ibn al-Jawzi Hanbali, Sibt ibn al-Jawzi, Al-Suyuti, Muttaqi al-Hindi, Qazi Behjat Afandi.
  3. ^ قال علیّ بن موسی الرضا علیه السلام، حدّثنی ابی موسی الکاظم، عن ابیه جعفرالصادق، عن أبیه محمد الباقر، عن ابیه علیّ زین العابدین، عن ابیه الحسین الشهید بکربلاء، عن ابیه علی بن ابی طالب علیهم السلام، قال: حدّثنی حبیبی و قرّه عینی رسول الله صلی الله علیه و آله و سلم، قال: حدّثنی جبرائیل، قال: سمعت رب العزّه سبحانه و تعالی یقول: کلمه لا إله إلا الله حِصْنی فمن قالها دَخَل حِصْنی و من دخل حصنی امِن من عذابی

See also

References

  1. ^ Abdul Aziz Abdulhussein Sachedina (1998). The Just Ruler in Shi'ite Islam: The Comprehensive Authority of the jurist in Islamic Jurisprudence. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19535-329-7. Pages 58-60
  2. ^ Mohammad Ali Sabzvari. Translated by Mohammad H. Faghfoory (2007). Tuhfah Yi-Abbasi: The Golden Chain of Sufism in Shi'ite Islam. University Press of America. ISBN 978-0-76183-801-2. Page v-xiii
  3. ^ a b Liyakat N. Takin (2006). The Heirs of the Prophet: Charisma and Religious Authority in Shia Islam. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-79148-191-2. Page 69
  4. ^ Abdul Hadi Al-Fadhli (2011). Introduction to Hadith 2nd. ICAS Press The Islamic College. ISBN 978-1-90406-347-6. Page 64
  5. ^ a b Tarkhan, Ghasem (2011). "The relationship between guardianship and monotheism". Ghabasat (62).
  6. ^ a b Michael Cooperson (2000). Classical Arabic Biography: The Heirs of the Prophet in the Age of al-Ma'mun. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-13942-669-5. Page 81
  7. ^ Staff writer. "Hadith Silsilat al-Dhahab". The Official Website Of Grand Ayatollah Lotfollah Safi Golpaygani. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Tabasi, Mohammad Hassan. "Ahl al-Sunnah and the hadith of al-Silsilah al-Dhahab". Quarterly of Imamat Research (in Persian). 5. Retrieved June 24, 2014.
  9. ^ a b c Staff writer. "What is the Hadith Silsilat al-Dhahab and what's its chain of narration". Shia Encyclopedia (in Persian). 6. p. 175.
  10. ^ a b c d e f Mohammad Rahmani. "An investigation on hadith of Al-silsilah al-Dhahab". Humanities and cultural studies research center (in Persian). Retrieved 27 June 2014.
  11. ^ Najafi Yazdi, Sayyid Muhammad. Story of the Sun,A Look at Imam al-Reza's Life. Mashhad: Islamic Research Foundation of Astan Quds Razavi.
  12. ^ Al-Juwayni. Fara'id al-Simtayn. 2. p. 199.
  13. ^ a b Ahmadi Birjandi, Ahmad. "The Fourteen Luminaries of Islam". Al-islam/. Islamic Research Foundation Astan Quds Razavi.
  14. ^ Ahsan al-Maqaal by Syed Safdar Hussain Najafi quoted from The official website of grand ayatollah Saafi Gulpaygani
  15. ^ Al-Tawhid, chapter of Thavab al-Movahhedin, p. 34 & Oyoun Akhbar Al-Ridha, al-Alami publication, p. 134 & Al-Ma'ani al-Akhbar, dar al-Ta'ref publication, p. 370, chapter of the meaning of Allah's, the exalted, fortress, all by Shaykh al-Saduq
  16. ^ Ibn Sabbagh al-Maleki. Al-Fosoul al-Mohemmah. pp. 243–244.

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