جمعه

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به ناوبری پرش به جستجو
فارسیEnglish
هفته دسامبر آذر ربیع‌الثانی
شنبه ۳۰ ۹ ۲
یکشنبه ۱ ۱۰ ۳
دوشنبه ۲ ۱۱ ۴
سه‌شنبه ۳ ۱۲ ۵
چهارشنبه ۴ ۱۳ ۶
پنجشنبه ۵ ۱۴ ۷
جمعه ۶ ۱۵ ۸

جُمعِه یا آدینه ناهیدشید ، در تقویم هجری خورشیدی و در بعضی از کشورهای اسلامی مانند عربستان سعودی و عراق، هفتمین و آخرین روز هفته و روز تعطیل هفته کاری به‌شمار می‌آید، و در تقویم میلادی، پنجمین روز هفته‌است.

در کشورهایی اروپایی و غربی یک‌شنبه روز تعطیل هفتگی است. در اسرائیل شنبه روز تعطیلی هفته است. در بسیاری از کشورهایی که از سیستم تقویم میلادی استفاده می‌کنند، آدینه آخرین روز کاری قبل از تعطیلات پایان هفته‌است، به‌طوری‌که در بعضی از ادارات اجازه دارند که کمتر از پوشش فرم استفاده کنند که در این ادارات، آدینه به عنوان آدینه غیرجدی (Casual Friday) یا (Dress-Down Friday) معروف است.

در مذاهب[ویرایش]

  • روز تعطیل یهودیان، از غروب روز آدینه آغاز می‌شود و در شبانگاه شنبه به پایان می‌رسد.
  • در دین مسیحیت، آدینه نیک، آخرین آدینه قبل از عید پاک محسوب می‌شود، آن‌ها در این روز به مناسبت عروج عیسی، جشن می‌گیرند.
  • مسیحیان کاتولیک، متعهد هستند که در آدینه از خوردن گوشت، به غیر از گوشت ماهی خودداری کنند.
  • مسیحیان ارتدکس نیز، در این روز به مانند چهارشنبه، روزه ای خاص می‌گیرند.
  • در تایلند، نیز روز جمعه با رنگ آبی همنشین است.

جمعه در اسلام[ویرایش]

مسلمانان، در روز جمعه مراسم نماز جمعه و رسوم خاص آن را برگزار می‌کنند. «شیعیان» این روز را منسوب به امام زمان(=منجی موعود) می‌دانند و برای ظهورش دعاهایی همچون دعای «ندبه» می‌خوانند و اعتقاد دارند که در این روز ظهور می‌کند.

جمعه نام یکی از روزهای هفته است که در دوران پیش از اسلام آن را عروبه می‌نامیدند و می‌گویند نخستین کسی که آن را جمعه نامید، کعب بن لوی بن غالب، یکی از اجداد پیغمبر اسلام، بود. در اسلام در میان ایام هفته، شب و روز جمعه فضیلت و برتری ویژه‌ای دارد.

در شب و روز جمعه ادعیه و. . . و اعمال خاصی همچون تلاوت دعای کمیل، غسل روز جمعه و نماز جمعه وارد شده و ثواب فراوانی برای آن وعده داده شده؛ و نیز احیاء و شب زنده داری برای دعا و مناجات در شب جمعه توصیه شده‌است. دعا در شب و روز جمعه، عذاب را برطرف می‌کند و مستجاب می‌شود.

جمعه در روایات:

پیامبر اسلام: روز جمعه سرور روزهاست، و بر روزهای عید قربان و عید فطر نیز برتری دارد. در ساعاتی از روز جمعه، بنده هر چیزی از خدا بخواهد، خداوند به وی عطا می‌کند. تمامی ملائکه مقرب، آسمان، زمین، کوه و دشت و دریا و باد در این روز بیمناک‌اند که قیامت برپا گردد.
پیامبر اسلام: بهترین روزی که خورشید بر آن می‌تابد روز جمعه است.

امام صادق: در شب جمعه از گناهان اجتناب بورزید که گناه و عقاب در آن دو برابر است، چنانچه ثواب کار نیک نیز در آن دو چندان است؛ و نیز: «صدقه دادن در روز جمعه دو چندان محسوب می‌گردد.»

محمد باقر: در هر شب جمعه، از اول شب تا آخر آن، فرشته‌ای از سوی خداوند از عرش الهی ندا می‌کند: «آیا مؤمنی هست که پیش از طلوع صبح، برای آخرت و دنیای خود، توبه، روزی، شفای بیماری، و نجات از زندان مرا بخواند تا من دعای او را مستجاب، توبه‌اش را قبول، روزی‌اش را زیاد، بیماری و غم‌اش را برطرف، و ستم ستمگر را از او دفع کنم؟»[۱]

نام‌های معروف روز آدینه[ویرایش]

  • جمعه نیک: آخرین جمعه قبل از عید پاک.
  • جمعه سیاه: بر اساس قراردادی نانوشته تاریخی، به هر جمعه‌ای که در آن مصیبتی واقع شود، گویند.
  • در آمریکا، جمعه سیاه همچنین به روز پس از روز شکرگزاری نیز می‌گویند، اولین روز رسمی بازگشایی فروشگاه‌ها برای فصل فروش ویژه جشن کریسمس، دوره زمانی که بیشتر مشاغل به سود خود بسیار می‌افزایند تا ضرر و کم فروشی خود را جبران کنند.
  • جمعه غیر جدی: یا جمعه خداحافظی، به راحتی از پوشیدن لباس فرم در بعضی از ادارات در روز جمعه می‌گویند.
  • جمعه خونین: در ایران، به یادواره ۱۷ شهریور، روز کشتار مردم و دانش آموزان در میدان ژاله توسط نیروهای نظامی رژیم سلطنتی ایران در ایام انقلاب سال ۱۳۵۷ می‌گویند.

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

منابع[ویرایش]

  1. مفاتیح الجنان، المعارف و المعاریف ج 2 ص 613، دائرةالمعارف تشیع، ج 7

Friday is the day of the week between Thursday and Saturday. In countries adopting the "Monday-first" convention it is the fifth day of the week. In countries that adopt the "Sunday-first" convention, it is the sixth and penultimate day of the week. In some other countries, for example the Maldives, Friday is the first day of the weekend, with Saturday the second. In Iran Friday is the last day of the weekend, with Saturday as the first day of the working week. Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Saudi Arabia and Kuwait also followed this convention until they changed to a Friday–Saturday weekend: on 1 September 2006 in Bahrain and the UAE,[1] and a year later in Kuwait.[2] In Iran, Friday and Thursday are weekend days.

Etymology

Frigg spinning the clouds, by John Charles Dollman

The name Friday comes from the Old English Frīġedæġ, meaning the "day of Frige", a result of an old convention associating the Germanic goddess Frigg with the Roman goddess Venus, with whom the day is associated in many different cultures. The same holds for Frīatag in Old High German, Freitag in Modern German, and vrijdag in Dutch.

The expected cognate name in Old Norse would be friggjar-dagr. However, the name of Friday in Old Norse is frjá-dagr instead, indicating a loan of the week-day names from Low German.[3] The modern Scandinavian form is fredag in Swedish, Norwegian, and Danish, meaning Freyja's day. The distinction between Freyja and Frigg in some Germanic mythologies is contested.

Friday is associated in many cultures with the love goddess Venus, and the planet named for her.

The word for Friday in most Romance languages is derived from Latin dies Veneris or "day of Venus" (a translation of Greek Aphrodī́tēs hēméra, Ἀφροδῑ́της Ἡμέρα), such as vendredi in French, venres in Galician, divendres in Catalan, vennari in Corsican, venerdì in Italian, vineri in Romanian, and viernes in Spanish and influencing the Filipino biyernes or byernes, and the Chamorro betnes. This is also reflected in the p-Celtic Welsh language as Gwener.

An exception is Portuguese, also a Romance language, which uses the word sexta-feira, meaning "sixth day of liturgical celebration", derived from the Latin feria sexta used in religious texts where it was not allowed to consecrate days to pagan gods.

In Sardinian, the word chenàpura also figures as an exception among all the other Romance languages, since it is derived from Latin cena pura. This name had been given by the Jewish community exiled to the island in order to designate the food specifically prepared for Shabbat eve.[4]

In Arabic, Friday is الجمعة al-jumʿah, from a root meaning "congregation/gathering." In languages of Islamic countries outside the Arab world, the word for Friday is commonly a derivation of this: (Indonesian jumat, Malay jumaat, Turkish cuma, Persian جمعه, jumʿa).

In modern Greek, four of the words for the week-days are derived from ordinals. However, the Greek word for Friday is Paraskevi (Παρασκευή) and is derived from a word meaning "to prepare" (παρασκευάζω). Like Saturday (Savvato, Σάββατο) and Sunday (Kyriaki, Κυριακή), Friday is named for its liturgical significance as the day of preparation before Sabbath, which was inherited by Greek Christian Orthodox culture from Jewish practices.

Friday was formerly a Christian fast day; this is the origin of the Irish Dé hAoine, Scottish Gaelic Di-Haoine, Manx Jeheiney and Icelandic föstudagur, all meaning "fast day".

In both biblical and modern Hebrew, Friday is יום שישי Yom Shishi meaning "the sixth day."

In most Indian languages, Friday is Shukravāra, named for Shukra, the planet Venus. In Bengali শুক্রবার or Shukrobar is the 6th day in the Bengali week of Bengali Calendar and is the beginning of the weekend is Bangladesh.

In Japanese, 金曜日 (きんようび, kinyōbi) is formed from the words 金星 (きんせい, kinsei) meaning Venus (lit. gold + planet) and 曜日 (ようび, yōbi) meaning day (of the week).

In the Korean language, it is 금요일 in Korean Hangul writing (Romanization: geumyoil), and is the pronounced form of the written word 金曜日 in Chinese characters, as in Japanese.

In the Nahuatl language, Friday is quetzalcōātōnal ([ket͡saɬkoːaːˈtoːnaɬ]) meaning "day of Quetzalcoatl".

Most Slavic languages call Friday the "fifth (day)": Belarusian пятніцаpyatnitsa, Bulgarian петъкpetŭk, Croatian petak, Czech pátek, Polish piątek, Russian пятницаpyatnitsa, Serbian петакpetak, Slovak piatok, Slovene petek, and Ukrainian п'ятницяp'yatnitsya. The Hungarian word péntek is a loan from Pannonian dialect of Slavic language. The n in péntek suggests an early adoption from Slavic, when many Slavic dialects still had nasal vowels. In modern Slavic languages only Polish retained nasal vowels.[5]

Folklore

Friday is considered unlucky in some cultures. This is particularly so in maritime circles; perhaps the most enduring sailing superstition is that it is unlucky to begin a voyage on a Friday.[6][7] In the 19th century, Admiral William Henry Smyth described Friday in his nautical lexicon The Sailor's Word-Book as:

The Dies Infaustus, on which old seamen were desirous of not getting under weigh, as ill-omened.[8]

(Dies Infaustus means "unlucky day".[9]) This superstition is the root of the well-known urban legend of HMS Friday.

In modern times, Friday the 13th is considered to be especially unlucky, due to the conjunction of Friday with the unlucky number thirteen. Such a Friday may be called a "Black Friday".

However, this superstition is not universal, notably in Scottish Gaelic culture:

Though Friday has always been held an unlucky day in many Christian countries, still in the Hebrides it is supposed that it is a lucky day for sowing the seed. Good Friday in particular is a favourite day for potato planting—even strict Roman Catholics make a point of planting a bucketful on that day. Probably the idea is that as the Resurrection followed the Crucifixion, and Burial so too in the case of the seed, and after death will come life?[10]

In astrology

In astrology, Friday is connected with the planet Venus and is symbolized by that planet's symbol . Friday is also associated with the astrological signs Libra and Taurus.

Religious observances

Christianity

In Christianity, Good Friday is the Friday before Easter. It commemorates the crucifixion of Jesus.

Traditionally, Roman Catholics were obliged to refrain from eating the meat of warm-blooded animals[11] on Fridays, although fish was allowed. The Filet-O-Fish was invented in 1962 by Lou Groen, a McDonald's franchise owner in Cincinnati, Ohio,[11][12] in response to falling hamburger sales on Fridays resulting from the Roman Catholic practice of abstaining from meat on Fridays.[13]

In the present day, episcopal conferences are now authorized to allow some other form of penance to replace abstinence from meat. The 1983 Code of Canon Law states:

Canon 1250. The days and times of penance for the universal Church are each Friday of the whole year and the season of Lent.
Canon 1251. Abstinence from meat, or from some other food as determined by the Episcopal Conference, is to be observed on all Fridays, unless a solemnity should fall on a Friday. Abstinence and fasting are to be observed on Ash Wednesday and Good Friday.
Canon 1253. The Episcopal Conference can determine more particular ways in which fasting and abstinence are to be observed. In place of abstinence or fasting it can substitute, in whole or in part, other forms of penance, especially works of charity and exercises of piety.[14]

Some Anglicans (particularly Anglo-Catholics) also practice abstinence from meat either on all Fridays or on Fridays in Lent. More generally, traditional Anglican Prayer Books prescribe weekly Friday abstinence for all Anglicans.[15][16]

The Eastern Orthodox Church continues to observe Fridays (as well as Wednesdays) as fast days throughout the year (with the exception of several fast-free periods during the year). Fasting on Fridays entails abstinence from meat or meat products (i.e., quadrupeds), poultry, and dairy products (as well as fish). Unless a feast day occurs on a Friday, the Orthodox also abstain from using oil in their cooking and from alcoholic beverages (there is some debate over whether abstention from oil involves all cooking oil or only olive oil). On particularly important feast days, fish may also be permitted. For the Orthodox, Fridays throughout the year commemorate the Crucifixion of Christ and the Theotokos (Mother of God), especially as she stood by the foot of the cross. There are hymns in the Octoekhos which reflect this liturgically. These include Theotokia (hymns to the Mother of God) which are chanted on Wednesdays and Fridays called Stavrotheotokia ("Cross-Theotokia"). The dismissal at the end of services on Fridays begins with the words: "May Christ our true God, through the power of the precious and life-giving cross...."

Quakers traditionally referred to Friday as "Sixth Day," eschewing the pagan origins of the name.[17] In Slavic countries, it is called "Fifth Day" (Polish: piątek, Russian: пятница, pyatnitsa).

Hinduism

In Dravidian folk religion, special observances are practiced for mother goddesses on Friday. In Hinduism Fridays are important for married ladies of Hinduism. They worship God on that day.

Islam

In Islam, Friday (from sun-down Thursday to sun-down Friday, simpler than midnight to midnight in a pre-clock age) corresponds as a holy day to Sunday in Christianity and Saturday (Friday evening to Saturday evening) in Judaism and Sabbatarian Christianity. Friday observance includes attendance at a mosque for congregation prayer or Salat AlJumu'ah. It is considered a day of peace and mercy (see Jumu'ah) as well as a day of rest.

Muslim Friday prayer at a mosque in Malaysia

According to some Islamic traditions, the day is stated to be the original holy day ordained by God, but that now Jews and Christians recognize the days after.[18][19] In some Islamic countries, the week begins on Sunday and ends on Saturday, just like the Jewish week and the week in some Christian countries. The week begins on Saturday and ends on Friday in most other Islamic countries, such as Somalia, and Iran. Friday is also the day of rest in the Bahá'í Faith.[20] In some Malaysian states, Friday is the first week-end day, with Saturday the second, to allow Muslims to perform their religious obligations on Friday.[21] Sunday is the first working day of the week for governmental organisations.

Muslims are recommended not to fast on a Friday by it self (Makrooh, مكروه : recommended against , but it's not considered Haram, حرام : religiously forbidden), unless it is accompanied with fasting the day before (Thursday) or day after (Saturday), or it corresponds with days usually considered good for fasting (i.e. day of Arafa عرفة, or day of Aashora عاشوراء), or it falls within one's usual religious fasting habits (i.e. Fasting every other day), then it's completely permissible.[22] Muslims believe Friday as "Syed-ul-Ayyam" meaning King of days. A narration in Sahih Muslim describes the importance of Friday as follows.

"Abu Huraira reported the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) as saying: The best day on which the sun has risen is Friday; on it, Adam was created. on it he was made to enter Paradise, on it he was expelled from it. And the last hour will take place on no day other than Friday. [Sahih Muslim Book 7, Hadith 27]”

Judaism

Jewish Sabbath begins at sunset on Friday and lasts until nightfall on Saturday. There is a Jewish custom to fast on the Friday of the week of Chukat.

Thailand

In Thailand, the color associated with Friday is blue (see Thai calendar).

Named days

Other

See also

References

  1. ^ "Login". Retrieved 30 December 2016.
  2. ^ Wilf, Nabil (29 May 2007). "Expositions of Arabia: Kuwait Changes to Friday-Saturday Weekend". Retrieved 30 December 2016.
  3. ^ Hermann Paul, Grundriss der germanischen philologie, vol 3, 1900, p. 369.
  4. ^ "Sa limba sarda". Retrieved 30 December 2016.
  5. ^ Days of the week in Hungarian, Csaba Bán, 21 November 2011, http://csabahungariantranslations.wordpress.com/2011/11/21/days-of-the-week-in-hungarian/; accessed 6 August 2016
  6. ^ Bassett, Fletcher S. (1885), Legends and Superstitions of the Sea and of Sailors in All Lands and at All Times, S. Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington, ISBN 0-548-22818-3
  7. ^ Vigor, John (2004), The Practical Encyclopedia of Boating, McGraw-Hill Professional, ISBN 0-07-137885-5
  8. ^ Smyth, William Henry (1991), The Sailor's Word-Book, Conway Maritime Press, ISBN 0-85177-972-7
  9. ^ "dies infaustus". Merriam-Webster Online. Retrieved 2008-09-27.
  10. ^ Dwelly, Edward (1988), Illustrated Gaelic–English Dictionary, Gairm Publications, ISBN 0-901771-92-9[dead link]
  11. ^ a b Life, Catholic Financial. "Why Abstain from Meat on Fridays, but Eat Fish?". join.catholicfinanciallife.org. Archived from the original on 2019-03-29. Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  12. ^ "No fish story: Sandwich saved his McDonald's - USATODAY.com". usatoday30.usatoday.com. Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  13. ^ Villarrubia, Eleonore (2010-02-16). "Why Do Catholics Eat Fish on Friday?". Catholicism.org. Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  14. ^ "Code of Canon Law: text - IntraText CT". www.intratext.com.
  15. ^ "Tables and Rules". Retrieved 30 December 2016.
  16. ^ "Days of Fasting, Abstinence and Solemn Prayer, Book of Common Prayer, Canada (1962)". 14 August 2007. Archived from the original on 14 August 2007. Retrieved 30 December 2016.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  17. ^ "Guide to Quaker Calendar Names". Iowa Yearly Meeting (Conservative) Religious Society of Friends (Quakers). Retrieved 30 March 2017. In the 20th Century, many Friends began accepting use of the common date names, feeling that any pagan meaning has been forgotten. The numerical names continue to be used, however, in many documents and more formal situations."
  18. ^ "Al-Bukhari II.13.1". Archived from the original on October 13, 2009.
  19. ^ Hava Lazarus-Yafeh. "Muslim Festivals". Numen 25.1 (1978), p. 60
  20. ^ Effendi, Shoghi; The Universal House of Justice (1983), Hornby, Helen (ed.), Lights of Guidance: A Bahá'í Reference File, Bahá'í Publishing Trust, New Delhi, India, p. 109, ISBN 81-85091-46-3
  21. ^ "Johor to have Friday, Saturday weekend rest days from Jan 1 – Nation – The Star Online". Retrieved 30 December 2016.
  22. ^ "حكم صيام يوم الجمعة". موضوع (in Arabic). Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  23. ^ "POETS DAY h2g2". BBC.
  24. ^ Matt McGrath (15 February 2019). "Climate strike". BBC. Retrieved 24 June 2019.

External links

  • Media related to Friday at Wikimedia Commons
  • Quotations related to Friday at Wikiquote
  • The dictionary definition of Friday at Wiktionary