جایزه نوبل

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جایزهٔ نوبل
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مجری آکادمی سوئد
آکادمی سلطنتی علوم سوئد
انستیتوی کارولینسکا
کمیته نوبل نروژ
کشور سوئد
نروژ (تنها جایزه صلح)
اولین جایزه ۱۹۰۱
وبگاه رسمی

جایزه نوبل معتبرترین جایزه‌ای است که در حوزه‌های علمی به یک دانشمند تعلق می‌گیرد.[۱] جایزه نوبل در سال ۱۸۹۵، به وصیت کارخانه‌دار و شیمی‌دان سوئدی، آلفرد نوبل که بیشتر او را به دلیل ابداع دینامیت می‌شناسند پایه‌گذاری شد.

در سال ۱۹۰۱ (میلادی)، نخستین جوایز این بنیاد داده شدند. طبق وصیت وی، پنج جایزه به‌طور سالانه در رشته‌های فیزیک، شیمی، فیزیولوژی و پزشکی، ادبیات، اقتصاد و صلح؛ به افرادی تعلق می‌گیرد که بیشترین خدمت را به مردم کرده باشند.[۱] اگرچه وصیت‌نامه نوبل، بنیان‌گذار این جوایز بود اما طرح او کامل نبود و به دلیل پاره‌ای موانع ۵ سال طول کشید تا بنیاد نوبل تأسیس شود. در ۱۰ دسامبر سال ۱۹۰۱ نخستین جوایز نوبل اهدا شد.[۲]

ششمین جایزه یعنی جایزه یادبود نوبل علوم اقتصادی نیز در سال ۱۹۶۸ میلادی، توسط بانک مرکزی سوئد پایه‌گذاری شد که البته در لیست جوایز مرتبط با بنیاد نوبل جایی ندارد.[۱]

آلفرد نوبل

هیئت‌های مخصوص[ویرایش]

چهار هیئت مخصوص اعطاء جایزه که تحت اساسنامه بنیاد نوبل فعالیت می‌کنند عبارت‌اند از:

فیزیک و شیمی[ویرایش]

فرهنگستان پادشاهی علوم سوئد که وظیفه انتخاب برنده جایزه نوبل در رشته‌های فیزیک و شیمی را برعهده دارد.[۳]

اقتصاد[ویرایش]

فرهنگستان پادشاهی علوم سوئد وظیفه انتخاب برنده «جایزه علوم اقتصادی بانک مرکزی سوئد به یاد آلفرد نوبل» که به جایزه نوبل اقتصاد شناخته می‌شود را نیز برعهده دارد.[۴]

ادبیات[ویرایش]

آکادمی سوئد وظیفه انتخاب برنده جایزه نوبل در رشته ادبیات را برعهده دارد.[۵]

فیزیولوژی و پزشکی[ویرایش]

انستیتوی کارولینسکا وظیفه گزینش برنده جایزه نوبل در رشته فیزیولوژی و پزشکی را برعهده دارد.[۶]

صلح[ویرایش]

کمیته نوبل نروژ وابسته به استورتینگ (پارلمان نروژ) (برای جایزه صلح).

کمیته‌های تخصصی[ویرایش]

ضمناً پنج کمیته نوبل (از جمله کمیته نروژی برای جایزه صلح) برای توزیع یکی از جوایز مطالعه می‌کنند. به‌علاوه چهار مؤسسه نوبل هر یک برای یکی از چهار جایزه نام‌برده فعالیت می‌کنند.

کمیته‌های پنجگانه نوبل هریک سه تا پنج عضو دارند که توسط هیئت مربوط تعیین می‌شوند. کسی نمی‌تواند خود را نامزد دریافت جایزه نوبل کند. کسانی‌که می‌توانند معرف نامزدهای جوائز نوبل باشند:

  • برندگان سابق جوائز نوبل (در رشته مخصوص خود)
  • اعضاء هیئت اعطاء جوایز و اعضاء کمیته‌های نوبل (در رشته مخصوص خود)
  • استادان برجسته دانشگاه و آن‌هایی که توسط اعطاء کنندگان جوایز انتخاب می‌شوند.
  • ناشر اثر نامزد. (در مورد ادبیات)
  • اعضاء پاره‌ای از سازمان‌های پارلمانی یا حقوقی بین‌المللی (برای جایزه صلح)
  • اعضاء پارلمان‌ها و کابینه‌ها (برای جایزه صلح).

چگونگی انتخاب برنده[ویرایش]

در آغاز، کسانی که صلاحیت معرفی نامزد دارند فهرست نامزدهای خود را تا تاریخ یکم فوریه همان سال میلادی ارائه می‌دهند. البته، اعضای کمیته نوبل خود زمان بیشتری برای معرفی نامزدهای خود دارند. سپس کمیته نوبل نروژ با بررسی فهرست نامزدها و فهرست کوتاه‌تری شامل ۲۰ تا ۳۰ نفر از میان آن‌ها انتخاب می‌کند. در گام بعد گروهی از مشاوران نروژی و بین‌المللی گزارش‌هایی دربارهٔ نامزدهای لیست نهایی ارائه می‌دهند که اعضای کمیته نروژی با استفاده از این گزارش‌ها و دیگر مستندات تعداد نامزدها را به چند نفر می‌رسانند.[۷]

تصمیم دربارهٔ برنده نهایی در آخرین جلسه کمیته گرفته می‌شود که معمولاً در اواخر ماه سپتامبر یا اوایل اکتبر برگزار می‌شود. اگر اعضا به اجماع نرسند، رأی اکثریت به حساب می‌آید.[۷]

جشن‌های اهدای جوایز[ویرایش]

تالار کنسرت استکهلم که هرساله جشن‌های اهدای جوایز نوبل در آن برگزار می‌شود.

کمیته‌ها و مؤسساتی که جزو هیئت انتخاب جوایز هستند، اغلب نام برندگان را در ماه اکتبر اعلام می‌کنند. این جوایز در یک مراسم رسمی که در ۱۰ دسامبر، یعنی سالگرد درگذشت آلفرد نوبل برگزار می‌شود، به برندگان اهدا می‌شود.

مراسم جایزهٔ صلح نوبل از ۱۹۰۵ تا ۱۹۴۶ در مؤسسهٔ نوبل نروژ، پس از آن در ابتدا در دانشگاه اسلو، و از سال ۱۹۹۰ در عمارت شهرداری اسلو برگزار شده‌است. سایر مراسم‌های اهدای جوایز از سال ۲۰۰۵ در تالار کنسرت استکهلم برگزار شده‌اند.

هر سال هر یک از جوایز حداکثر به سه نفر اهدا می‌شود. هر جایزه عبارت است از یک مدال طلا، یک دیپلم افتخار، و مبلغی پول. در حال حاضر، مبلغ اهدایی در حدود ۱۰ میلیون کرون سوئد (اندکی بیش از یک میلیون یورو یا ۱٫۳ میلیون دلار آمریکا) است. اصولاً اهدای این مبلغ با این هدف صورت گرفته که برندگان نوبل، به دور از فشار تأمین هزینه‌ها، به کار و پژوهش ادامه دهند. اما واقعیت این است که بسیاری از برندگان، پیش از دریافت این مبلغ بازنشسته می‌شوند. اگر در یک گروه دو نفر برنده شوند، مبلغ یادشده میان دو نفر نصف می‌شود. اگر شمار برندگان سه نفر باشد، کمیتهٔ اهدای جوایز مختار است که این مبلغ را به‌طور برابر میان سه نفر تقسیم کند یا اینکه به یک از برندگان یک‌دوم و به هریک از دو نفرِ دیگر یک‌چهارم مبلغ مذکور را اهدا کند. معمولاً دریافت‌کنندگان این مبلغ، آن را برای اهداف علمی، فرهنگی، یا انسان‌دوستانه وقف می‌کنند.

از سال ۱۹۰۲، پادشاه سوئد، به‌جز جایزهٔ صلح نوبل، رسماً کلیهٔ جوایز را در استکهلم اهدا کرده‌است. پادشاه اسکار دوم، در ابتدا با اهدای جوایز بزرگ ملی به خارجی‌ها مخالف بود. اما گفته می‌شود پس از آنکه به ارزش تبلیغاتیِ این جوایز برای کشورش پی برد، نظرش عوض شد.

نخستین جایزهٔ صلح نوبل در سال ۱۹۰۱ توسط رئیس مجلس نروژ اهدا شد تا اینکه در سال ۱۹۰۴ کمیتهٔ نوبل نروژ تشکیل شد. پنج عضو این کمیته توسط استورتینگه (پارلمان نروژ) گمارده می‌شوند و انجام امور مقدماتیِ مربوط به داوری و نیز اهدای جایزهٔ صلح نوبل بر عهدهٔ این کمیته است. اعضای این کمیته مستقل هستند و به قانون‌گذاران پاسخگو نیستند. اعضای دولت نروژ حق عضویت در این کمیته را ندارند.

وصیت نوبل[ویرایش]

پایه‌گذاری جوایز نوبل در پی وصیت آلفرد نوبل شیمی‌دان، کارآفرین سوئدی و مخترع دینامیت صورت گرفت. آلفرد نوبل در طول زندگی‌اش چندین وصیت‌نامه نوشت. آخرین وصیت‌نامه وی در ۲۷ نوامبر سال ۱۸۹۵ اندکی بیش از یکسال قبل از مرگش نوشته شد. او در ۲۷ نوامبر سال ۱۸۹۵ وصیت‌نامه مذکور را در باشگاه سوئد-نروژ پاریس امضا کرد. اختراع نوبل مستقیماً در ساخت مواد منفجره مورد استفاده قرار گرفت و او از استفاده نظامی از اختراعش به شدت ناراحت بود. گفته می‌شود در آن زمان، یک روزنامه فرانسوی به مناسبت مرگ لودویگ برادر نوبل، به اشتباه یک اعلامیه‌های درگذشت کودکان را به چاپ رساند و در آن آلفرد نوبل را «سوداگر مرگ» لقب داد؛ نوبل با خواندن این مطلب تصمیم گرفت که آخرین وصیت‌نامه خود را بنویسید. بر اساس این وصیت‌نامه، نوبل ۹۶ درصد از ثروت خود را به پایه‌گذاری مراسم اهدای پنج جایزه اختصاص داد:

کلیه دارایی‌های نقدشدنی اینجانب باید صرف امور زیر شود:

این سرمایه باید توسط مجریان وصیتنامه اینجانب، برای خرید اوراق بهادار مطمئن سرمایه‌گذاری شود تا از سود آن هر ساله به افرادی که در سال‌های آینده به حال بشریت بهترین بهره‌ها را به ارمغان می‌آورند جوایزی اعطا شود. سود حاصل از سرمایه مذکور باید به پنج قسمت مساوی تقسیم شده و به پنج مورد زیر اختصاص یابد: یک قسمت به شخصی که به مهمترین کشف یا اختراع در زمینه فیزیک دست زده باشد؛ یک قسمت به شخصی که به مهمترین کشف یا پیشرفت در زمینه شیمی دست زده باشد؛ یک قسمت به شخصی که به مهم‌ترین کشف در زمینه فیزیولوژی یا پزشکی دست زده باشد؛ یک قسمت به شخصی که در عرصه ادبیات باارزش‌ترین اثر را با گرایشی آرمان‌گرایانه خلق کرده باشد؛ و یک قسمت به شخصی که برای ایجاد برادری در میان ملت‌ها و انحلال یا کاهش نیروهای نظامی یا برگزاری یا حمایت از همایش‌های صلح‌طلبانه بزرگترین و بهترین کار را انجام می‌دهد.

جوایز فیزیک و شیمی باید توسط فرهنگستان علوم سوئد؛ جوایز فیزیولوژی و پزشکی توسط مؤسسه کارولین در استکهلم؛ جوایز ادبیات توسط فرهنگستان استکهلم و جوایز قهرمانان صلح توسط کمیته‌ای که توسط استورتینگ انتخاب شده اهدا شوند. خواسته آشکار من این است که در اهدای این جوایز، ملیت شخص مورد توجه قرار نگیرد تا صرفنظر از آنکه او اهل اسکاندیناوی است یا نه، شایسته‌ترین فرد این جایزه را دریافت کند.

وصیت‌نامه آلفرد نوبل در ۲۵ نوامبر ۱۸۹۵ که در آن خواسته ۹۴٪ دارایی او را برای ایجاد بنیاد نوبل خرج کنند.

روند پیشنهاد نامزد و انتخاب برنده[ویرایش]

در مقایسه با سایر جوایز، روند پیشنهاد نامزد و انتخاب برنده جوایز نوبل طولانی و موشکافانه‌است. به همین دلیل است که در گذر سال‌ها، جوایز نوبل به مهم‌ترین و معتبرترین جوایز در نوع خود تبدیل شده‌است. فرم‌هایی که به منزله دعوتنامه‌های شخصی و اختصاصی است، به ۳۰۰۰ شخص منتخب ارسال می‌شوند تا از آن‌ها برای اعلام نامزدی دعوت به عمل آید. برای نمونه بنیاد نوبل اعلام کرده‌است که در مورد جایزه صلح ممکن است افراد زیر نامزد شوند:

  • اعضای مجامع ملی و دولت‌های کشورها
  • اعضای دادگاه‌های بین‌المللی
  • رؤسای دانشگاه‌ها
  • استادان علوم اجتماعی، تاریخ، فلسفه، حقوق و الهیات
  • رؤسای موسسات تحقیقات صلح و موسسات سیاست خارجی
  • افرادی که جایزه صلح نوبل را دریافت کرده‌اند
  • اعضای هیئت مدیره سازمان‌هایی که جایزه صلح نوبل دریافت کرده‌اند
  • اعضای فعال یا اعضای سابق کمیته نوبل نروژ
  • مشاورانی که سابقاً توسط کمیته نوبل نروژ منصوب شده‌اند

برای جوایز دیگر نیز، این شرایط حکمفرما هستند.

مهلت دقیق اعلام نامزدی ۳۱ ژانویه است.[۸] اعلام نامزدی توسط خود شخص از درجه اعتبار ساقط است. همچنین افرادی که زنده هستند می‌توانند نامزد دریافت این جایزه شوند. بر خلاف بسیاری جوایز دیگر، نامزدهای دریافت جایزه نوبل به‌طور علنی معرفی نشده و هرگز به آن‌ها اعلام نمی‌شود که آن‌ها برای دریافت جایزه مورد نظر هستند. موارد ثبت شده به مدت پنجاه سال مهروموم می‌شوند.[۹]

پس از پایان مهلت اعلام نامزدی، یک کمیته موارد نامزدی را جمع‌آوری می‌کند تا به فهرست اولیه‌ای که از ۲۰۰ نامزد تشکیل شده برسد. این فهرست برای کارشناسان منتخب در حوزه کار هر یک از نامزدها فرستاده می‌شود تا اینکه فهرست مذکور به ۱۵ نامزد نهایی محدود شود. پس از آن گزارشی را به پیوست نظرات مربوط تهیه می‌کند و آن را به آکادمی یا بر حسب زمینه جایزه به دیگر نهاد مربوط می‌فرستد. برای روشن‌تر شدن حد و اندازه‌ای این موسسات، مجمع جایزه پزشکی ۵۰ عضو دارد. اعضای مؤسسه تشکیل جلسه می‌دهند و برای انتخاب برنده(ها) جایزه رای‌گیری می‌کنند. روند انتخاب برنده نهایی در بین زمینه‌های گوناگون اندکی با هم متفاوت است. برای نمونه در ادبیات به ندرت به بیش از یک نفر جایزه اهدا می‌شود. اما سایر جایزه‌ها معمولاً برای چند نام در نظر گرفته می‌شوند.

عدم گزینش نامزدهای درگذشته[ویرایش]

انتخاب افراد درگذشته به عنوان برنده جایزه مجاز نیست. گاهی با استناد به این واقعیت که برخی افراد که لایق دریافت جایزه نوبل بوده‌اند به خاطر اینکه پیش از مرگشان نامزد دریافت این جایزه نشده‌اند، انتقاداتی صورت گرفته‌است. در دو مورد جایزه نوبل به افراد درگذشته که در هنگام نامزد شدن زنده بوده‌اند اهدا شده‌است. این دو مورد داگ هامرشولد دبیرکل سازمان ملل متحد (۱۹۶۱، جایزه صلح) و اریک آکسل کارلفلدت (۱۹۳۱، ادبیات) هستند که به هر دوی آن‌ها در همان سالی که درگذشتند جایزه اهدا شد. از سال ۱۹۷۴ به بعد، به افراد درگذشته جایزه اهدا نشده‌است. ویلیام ویکری (۱۹۹۶، اقتصاد) پیش از آنکه جایزه را دریافت کند درگذشت و این مسئله پس از آن بود که برنده شدن وی اعلام شده بود.

میز پذیرایی شام در مراسم نوبل

انتقادها به اهدای جوایز[ویرایش]

در طی سال‌ها، افرادی که معتقدند توافقات رسمی و تأیید اسامی از موفقیت‌های واقعی در روند تصمیم‌گیری در مورد اینکه جایزه باید به چه کسی اهدا شود مهم‌تر است جوایز نوبل را مورد انتقاد قرار داده‌اند.

جنگ ویتنام[ویرایش]

یکی از بدترین موارد در ۱۹۷۳رخ داد که در آن هنری کیسینجر و له دوک تو به خاطر بازگرداندن صلح به ویتنام به‌طور مشترک برنده جایزه صلح نوبل شده بودند و این در حالی بود که جنگ ویتنام همچنان ادامه داشت. له دوک تو با این استدلال که صلح هنوز محقق نشده‌است از دریافت جایزه خودداری کرد.

ماهاتما گاندی[ویرایش]

در فاصله سال‌های ۱۹۳۷ تا ۱۹۴۸، ماهاتما گاندی پنج بار نامزد دریافت جایزه نوبل شد اما هیچ‌گاه جایزه‌ای دریافت نکرد. تحقیقات نشان می‌دهد که مقامات مسئول قصد داشتند در سال ۱۹۴۸جایزه نوبل را به وی اهدا کنند. با این حال وی در همان سال ترور شد. گفته می‌شود کمیته در همان سال برای وی جایزه پس از وفات در نظر گرفت. اما سرانجام این تصمیم را منتفی کرد و در عوض تصمیم گرفت که در آن سال جایزه نوبل را به هیچ‌کس اهدا نکند.

محدودیت تعداد دریافت‌کنندگان[ویرایش]

یکی دیگر از نقاط مورد اختلاف، قوانین سختگیرانه‌ای است که با ارائه هم‌زمان جایزه به بیش از سه نفر مخالفت می‌کند. در مواردی که جایزه برای ارج نهادن به موفقیت کار تیمی که بیشتر از سه نفر است در نظر گرفته می‌شود، ناگزیر یک یا چند نفر از دریافت جایزه محروم می‌شوند. برای نمونه در سال ۲۰۰۲، جایزه‌ای که به دلیل پیشرفت‌های صورت گرفته در زمینه طیف‌سنجی توده‌ای در شیمی پروتئین به کویچی تاناکا و جان فن اهدا شد تلاش‌های فرانس هیلن‌کامپ و مایکل کاراس را از مؤسسه شیمی فیزیک و نظریه‌ای دانشگاه گوته فرانکفورت را به رسمیت نشناخت.[۱۰]

ریشارد کون که مجبور شد جایزه نوبل ۱۹۵۸ خود را پس دهد.

عدم ارائه جوایز به اشخاص درگذشته[ویرایش]

همچنین، قانون عدم ارائه جوایز به اشخاص درگذشته، اغلب موفقیت‌های کسانی را که پیش از دریافت جایزه در پیشبرد آن رویداد علمی خاص همکاری داشته‌اند را به رسمیت نمی‌شناسد. برای نمونه در سال ۱۹۵۳، روزالیند فرانکلین در کشف ساختار دی‌ان‌ای به پیشرفت‌های مهمی رسید/ اما وی در سال ۱۹۵۸ در پی ابتلا به سرطان تخمدان درگذشت و در سال ۱۹۶۲ جایزه نوبل به فرانسیس کریک، جیمز واتسون و موریس ویلکینز (یکی از همکاران فرانکلین) اهدا شد.[۱۱]

نوبل شیمی سال ۲۰۰۰[ویرایش]

همچنین جایزه نوبل شیمی در سال ۲۰۰۰ برای «کشف و پرورش پلیمرهای آلی رسانا»، اکتشاف پلیمرهای درهم تنیده انتقال شارژی با همان سطح رسانایی بالا، که قبلاً کشف آن توسط ویس و همکاران در گزارش وی در سال ۱۹۶۳ در مورد رسانایی بالای پلی‌پیرول اکسید شده ید دارشده[۱۲] و نیز گزارش قبلی وی در مورد یک ابزار الکترونیکی آلی با رسانایی بالا[۱۳] اعلام شده بود را نادیده گرفت.

نوبل فیزیک سال ۲۰۰۵[ویرایش]

جایزه نوبل فیزیک در سال ۲۰۰۵ و به ویژه برنده شناختن روی جی. گلوبر و برنده ندانستن ای سی جورج سودارشان انتقادات فراوانی را به همراه آورد. در حالیکه نقل قول‌های ارئه شده در مقاله گلابر در سال ۱۹۶۳ نشان می‌دهند که کار وی از منابع بیشتری بهره برده، اما کاملاً روشن است که مقاله‌های هر دو فیزیکدان، در زمینه نورشناخت کوانتومی و فرضیه همگرایی نور تأثیر بسزایی داشته‌است. در این مورد نیز درگذشت لن ماندل و دان والز که به پیشبرد موارد مذکور کمک‌های فراوانی کرده بودند، باعث شد این دانشمندان نیز از گردونه حذف شوند.

نبود جایزهٔ ریاضیات[ویرایش]

فرضیه‌های فراوانی برای اینکه چرا نوبل برای ریاضیات جایزه‌ای در نظر نگرفت ارائه شده‌اند. در وصیت‌نامه نوبل از ارائه جوایز به آن دسته از «اکتشافات و اختراعاتی» صحبت به میان آمده که برای نوع بشر در عمل بیشترین فایده را داشته‌اند و احتمالاً جنبهٔ عملی این کارها بیش از جنبه تئوریک آن مورد نظر بوده‌است. در نتیجه، ریاضیات علمی نبود که به حال بشریت فایده‌ای عملی داشته باشد. چیزی که اساس تشکیل بنیاد نوبل را تشکیل می‌داد.[۱۴]

یک دلیل احتمالی دیگر این بود که پیش از آن در اسکاندیناوی یک جایزه مشهور برای ریاضیات وجود داشت. جوایزی که در آن زمان در زمینه ریاضیات داده می‌شد، عمدتاً به دلیل تلاش‌های گوستا میتاگ-لفلر (Gösta Mittag-Leffler) بنیان‌گذار نشریه «اکتا متمتیکا» بود. این نشریه پس از گذشت یک قرن همچنان یکی از مهم‌ترین نشریات ریاضی در جهان است. او با استفاده از نفوذ خود در استکهلم، شاه اسکار دوم را متقاعد کرد تا رقابت‌های جایزه‌داری را ترتیب داده و از ریاضی‌دانان برجسته سراسر اروپا از جمله هرمیت، برتراند، ویرستراس و پوینکار تقدیر به عمل آورد.

حتی گفته می‌شود دلیل آنکه نوبل از ارائه جایزه به ریاضیات خودداری کرد این بود که همسرش با میتاگ لفلر روابط نامشروع داشت. البته این داستان یک دروغ محض است زیرا نوبل هیچگاه ازدواج نکرده بود.[۱۵]

در سال ۲۰۰۱، دولت نروژ ارائه جایزه آبل را در زمینه ریاضیات آغاز کرد تا جای خالی جایزه ریاضی نوبل را پر کند. جایزه شاو نیز که اهدای آن در سال ۲۰۰۴ آغاز شده و به جایزه نوبل شباهت دارد در زمینه علوم ریاضی داده می‌شود. مدال فیلدز اغلب به «جایزه نوبل ریاضی» تشبیه می‌شود. اما از آنجا که این جایزه به ریاضیدانان زیر چهل سال محدود می‌شود این مقایسه چندان مناسب نیست. جایزه کرافورد در زمینه ریاضی، مانند جوایز علمی نوبل، توسط آکادمی سلطنتی سوئد اعطا می‌شود. به‌طور کلی، این جایزه معادل جوایز علمی نوبل است.

دسته‌بندی کشورهای جهان بر اساس تعداد دفعات دریافت جایزه نوبل

دانستنی‌ها[ویرایش]

در تاریخ جوایز نوبل تنها چهار نفر بوده‌اند که دو بار موفق به دریافت جایزه شده‌اند. این افراد عبارتند از:

ماری اسکلودوسکا کوری
فیزیک [۱۹۰۳]: کشف رادیو اکتیویته
شیمی [۱۹۱۱]: انزوای رادیوم خالص
لینوس کارل پاولینگ
شیمی [۱۹۵۴]: نظریه اوربیتال به‌هم‌آمیخته
صلح [۱۹۶۲]:عمل‌گرایی پیمان منع جزئی آزمایش هسته‌ای
ماری کوری نخستین کسی که دو بار برنده جایزه نوبل شد
جان باردین
فیزیک [۱۹۵۶]: اختراع ترانزیستور
فیزیک [۱۹۷۲]: نظریه ابررسانایی
فردریک سانگر
شیمی [۱۹۵۸]: ساختار مولکول انسولین
شیمی [۱۹۸۰]: توالی ویروس نوکلئوتاید

علاوه بر این، کمیته بین‌المللی صلیب سرخ در سال‌های ۱۹۱۷، ۱۹۴۴ و ۱۹۶۳ جایزه صلح نوبل را دریافت کرد. دو جایزه اول، به‌طور ویژه به خاطر تلاش‌های این گروه در طی جنگ‌های جهانی اعطا شدند.

تنها خواهر-برادرانی که برنده جایزه نوبل شدند یان تینبرگن (اقتصاد ۱۹۶۹) و برادر کوچکترش نیکلاس تینبرگن (پزشکی، ۱۹۷۳) بودند.

تاکنون دو نفر برنده هر دو جایزه اسکار و نوبل بوده‌اند. جورج برنارد شاو از ایرلند در سال ۱۹۲۵ جایزه ادبیات نوبل و در سال ۱۹۳۸ به خاطر بهترین بازی روی صحنه، جایزه اسکار را به خود اختصاص داد و ال گور آمریکایی که در سال ۲۰۰۷ نوبل صلح را به خاطر تلاش برای پایان جنگ عراق و در فوریه ۲۰۰۸ اسکار بهترین فیلم مستند برای کارگردانی فیلم یک حقیقت ناراحت‌کننده را به دست آورد.

ویلهلم رونتگن نخستین دریافت‌کننده جایزه نوبل فیزیک به دلیل کشف پرتو ایکس

عدم اهدای نوبل ادبیات در سال ۲۰۱۸[ویرایش]

در سال ۲۰۱۸ آکادمی سوئد اعلام کرد که پس از ۷۵ سال، برای نخستین بار، نوبل ادبیات را در این سال اهدا نمی‌کند.[۱۶] این مسئله به‌خاطر ارتباط آکادمی سوئد بامردی به نام ژان-کلود آرنو[۱۷] است که به‌عنوان شخصیتی فرهنگی در سوئد شناخته می‌شود اما متهم به آزار جنسی یا سوءاستفاده جنسی از ۱۸ زن[۱۸] شده و حالا همسر او نامزد جایزه ادبیات شده‌است؛ بنابراین در سال ۲۰۱۸ جایزهٔ نوبل ادبیات اهدا نخواهد شد تا آکادمی بتواند با نتایج بی‌سابقهٔ این مسئله کنار بیاید.[۱۹][۲۰]

رئیس هیئت مدیرهٔ بنیاد نوبل، اظهار داشت که: «با وجود تأثیرهایی منفی این موضوع بر اعتبار جایزهٔ ادبی نوبل، این مسائل بر اهدای جوایز دیگرِ نوبل در سال ۲۰۱۸ تأثیر نخواهند گذاشت.»[۲۱]

جایزه نوبل ادبیات ۲۰۱۸ در سال ۲۰۱۹ به اولگا توکارچوک، نویسنده لهستانی، اهدا شد.[۲۲]

درخواست سلب صلاحیت[ویرایش]

در آوریل ۲۰۱۸ صدها نویسنده و مدرس دانشگاه در سوئد به‌شدت به آکادمی نوبل تاختند و گفتند که این نهاد، دیگر برای اعطای این جایزه صلاحیت ندارد. آن‌ها این نهاد را به فساد مالی و پارتی‌بازی، اعطای جوایز نوبل اقتصاد به اقتصاددانان نئولیبرال، چشمگیر بودن شمار دانشمندان آمریکایی در بین دیگر برندگان، عدم اعطای جوایز به زنانِ دانشمند و دانشمندان کشورهای غیر غربی متهم کردند و در آخرین مورد، اهدای جایزه به پائولو ماکیارینی اشاره کردند.[۲۳]

نمودار توزیع جوایز کل نوبل بر حسب کشورها تا سال ۲۰۱۰. تعداد جوایز و سهم تقریبی از کل جوایز اعطاشده برای هر کشور نیز قید شده‌است.

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

پانویس[ویرایش]

  1. ۱٫۰ ۱٫۱ ۱٫۲ آیا جایزهٔ نوبل احتیاج به بازبینی دارد؟, رادیو زمانه
  2. The History Channel, This Day in History, First Nobel Prizes: December 10, 1901 Retrieved on July 30.
  3. "Nobel Prizes", The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Retrieved on 2007-10-18.
  4. "Prize in Economic Sciences", The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Retrieved on 2007-10-18.
  5. "The Nobel Prize in Literature", آکادمی سوئد Retrieved on 2007-10-13.
  6. برندگان جایزه نوبل پزشکی سال ۲۰۰۹ معرفی شدند, بی‌بی‌سی فارسی
  7. ۷٫۰ ۷٫۱ «جایزه صلح نوبل؛ نامزدی دونالد ترامپ 'احتمالاً جعلیست'». بی‌بی‌سی فارسی. ۹ اسفند ۱۳۹۶.
  8. Nobel Foundation, [۱] External link in |title= (help) Retrieved on July 30.
  9. The Nomination Database
  10. The Scientist, Volume 3, Issue 1, Page ۲۰۰۲۱۲۱۱–۰۳, Nobel Prize controversy Retrieved on July 30.
  11. Nobel Foundation, The Discovery of the Molecular Structure of DNA - The Double Helix Retrieved on July 30.
  12. B. A. BOLTO, R. MCNEILL,"a nd D. E. WEISS (7 June 1963). "ELECTRONIC CONDUCTION IN POLYMERS" (PDF).
  13. McGinness J, Corry P, Proctor P. (1 March 1974). "Amorphous semiconductor switching in melanins".
  14. The Nobel Prize Internet Archive, Why is there no Nobel Prize in Mathematics? Retrieved on July 30.
  15. Public Broadcasting Service, The Prize: Controversy and Landmarks Retrieved on July 30. Archive copy https://web.archive.org/web/20050213115242/http://www.pbs.org/kqed/nobel/sttimeline.html
  16. «نوبل ادبیات ۲۰۱۸ اهدا نمی‌شود/ آکادمی سوئد گرفتار رسوایی جنسی». خبرگزاری مهر. ۱۴ اردیبهشت ۱۳۹۷. دریافت‌شده در ۲۴ مهٔ ۲۰۱۸.
  17. Jean-Claude Arnault
  18. Dagens Nyheter
  19. «نوبل ادبیات ۲۰۱۸ اهدا نمی‌شود/ آکادمی سوئد گرفتار رسوایی جنسی». خبرگزاری مهر. ۱۴ اردیبهشت ۱۳۹۷. دریافت‌شده در ۲۴ مهٔ ۲۰۱۸.
  20. «برندگان جوایز نوبل سال 2018». گوناگون. ۲۰۱۸-۱۰-۰۳.
  21. Carl-Henrik Heldin
  22. «برندگان جوایز نوبل سال 2019». گوناگون.
  23. «ایستگاه خبر؛ دوشنبه ۲۷ فروردین-نخبگان سوئد: آکادمی نوبل دیگر صلاحیت ندارد». بی‌بی‌سی فارسی. ۲۷ فروردین ۱۳۹۷.

منابع[ویرایش]

پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]

Nobel Prize
A golden medallion with an embossed image of Alfred Nobel facing left in profile. To the left of the man is the text "ALFR•" then "NOBEL", and on the right, the text (smaller) "NAT•" then "MDCCCXXXIII" above, followed by (smaller) "OB•" then "MDCCCXCVI" below.
Awarded forOutstanding contributions for humanity in chemistry, literature, peace, physics, and physiology or medicine
Country
  • Sweden (all prizes except the Peace Prize)
  • Norway (Peace Prize only)
Presented by
Reward(s)Prize money of 9 million SEK, approx. US$986,000 (2018);[1]
a medal;[2] and a diploma
First awarded1901; 118 years ago (1901)
Number of laureates590 prizes to 935 laureates (as of 2018)[1]
Websitenobelprize.org

The Nobel Prize (/ˈnbɛl/, NOH-bel; Swedish: Nobelpriset, [nʊ²bɛlːˌpriːsɛt]; Norwegian: Nobelprisen) is a set of annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances. The will of the Swedish chemist, engineer and industrialist Alfred Nobel established the five Nobel prizes in 1895. The prizes in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901.[1][3][4] The prizes are widely regarded as the most prestigious awards available in their respective fields.[5][6][7]

In 1968, Sveriges Riksbank, Sweden's central bank, established the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel. The award is based on a donation received by the Nobel Foundation in 1968 from Sveriges Riksbank on the occasion of the bank's 300th anniversary. The first Prize in Economic Sciences was awarded to Ragnar Frisch and Jan Tinbergen in 1969. The Prize in Economic Sciences is awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden, according to the same principles as for the Nobel Prizes that have been awarded since 1901.[8]

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, the Nobel Prize in Physics, and the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel; the Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute awards the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine; the Swedish Academy grants the Nobel Prize in Literature; and the Norwegian Nobel Committee awards the Nobel Peace Prize.

Between 1901 and 2018, the Nobel Prizes (and the Prizes in Economic Sciences, from 1969 on) were awarded 590 times to 935 people and organizations.[1] With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 27 organizations and 908 individuals.[1][9] The prize ceremonies take place annually in Stockholm, Sweden (with the exception of the Peace Prize ceremony, which is held in Oslo, Norway). Each recipient (known as a "laureate") receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money that has been decided by the Nobel Foundation. (As of 2017, each prize is worth 9,000,000 SEK, or about US$1,110,000, €944,000, or £836,000.[10]) Medals made before 1980 were struck in 23-carat gold, and later in 18-carat green gold plated with a 24-carat gold coating.

The prize is not awarded posthumously; however, if a person is awarded a prize and dies before receiving it, the prize may still be presented.[11] A prize may not be shared among more than three individuals, although the Nobel Peace Prize can be awarded to organizations of more than three people.[12]

History

A black and white photo of a bearded man in his fifties sitting in a chair.
Alfred Nobel had the unpleasant surprise of reading his own obituary, which was titled The merchant of death is dead, in a French newspaper.

Alfred Nobel (About this soundlisten ) was born on 21 October 1833 in Stockholm, Sweden, into a family of engineers.[13] He was a chemist, engineer, and inventor. In 1894, Nobel purchased the Bofors iron and steel mill, which he made into a major armaments manufacturer. Nobel also invented ballistite. This invention was a precursor to many smokeless military explosives, especially the British smokeless powder cordite. As a consequence of his patent claims, Nobel was eventually involved in a patent infringement lawsuit over cordite. Nobel amassed a fortune during his lifetime, with most of his wealth coming from his 355 inventions, of which dynamite is the most famous.[14]

In 1888, Nobel was astonished to read his own obituary, titled The merchant of death is dead, in a French newspaper. It was Alfred's brother Ludvig who had died; the obituary was eight years premature. The article disconcerted Nobel and made him apprehensive about how he would be remembered. This inspired him to change his will.[15] On 10 December 1896, Alfred Nobel died in his villa in San Remo, Italy, from a cerebral haemorrhage. He was 63 years old.[16]

Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime. He composed the last over a year before he died, signing it at the Swedish–Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895.[17][18] To widespread astonishment, Nobel's last will specified that his fortune be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace.[19] Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets, 31 million SEK (c. US$186 million, €150 million in 2008), to establish the five Nobel Prizes.[20][21] Owing to skepticism surrounding the will, it was not approved by the Storting in Norway until 26 April 1897.[22] The executors of the will, Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of the fortune and to organise the awarding of prizes.[23]

Nobel's instructions named a Norwegian Nobel Committee to award the Peace Prize, the members of whom were appointed shortly after the will was approved in April 1897. Soon thereafter, the other prize-awarding organizations were designated. These were Karolinska Institute on 7 June, the Swedish Academy on 9 June, and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on 11 June.[24] The Nobel Foundation reached an agreement on guidelines for how the prizes should be awarded; and, in 1900, the Nobel Foundation's newly created statutes were promulgated by King Oscar II.[19] In 1905, the personal union between Sweden and Norway was dissolved.

Nobel Foundation

Formation of Foundation

A paper with stylish handwriting on it with the title "Testament"
Alfred Nobel's will stated that 94% of his total assets should be used to establish the Nobel Prizes.

According to his will and testament read in Stockholm on 30 December 1896, a foundation established by Alfred Nobel would reward those who serve humanity. The Nobel Prize was funded by Alfred Nobel's personal fortune. According to the official sources, Alfred Nobel bequeathed from the shares 94% of his fortune to the Nobel Foundation that now forms the economic base of the Nobel Prize.[25]

The Nobel Foundation was founded as a private organization on 29 June 1900. Its function is to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes.[26] In accordance with Nobel's will, the primary task of the Foundation is to manage the fortune Nobel left. Robert and Ludvig Nobel were involved in the oil business in Azerbaijan, and according to Swedish historian E. Bargengren, who accessed the Nobel family archives, it was this "decision to allow withdrawal of Alfred's money from Baku that became the decisive factor that enabled the Nobel Prizes to be established".[27] Another important task of the Nobel Foundation is to market the prizes internationally and to oversee informal administration related to the prizes. The Foundation is not involved in the process of selecting the Nobel laureates.[28][29] In many ways, the Nobel Foundation is similar to an investment company, in that it invests Nobel's money to create a solid funding base for the prizes and the administrative activities. The Nobel Foundation is exempt from all taxes in Sweden (since 1946) and from investment taxes in the United States (since 1953).[30] Since the 1980s, the Foundation's investments have become more profitable and as of 31 December 2007, the assets controlled by the Nobel Foundation amounted to 3.628 billion Swedish kronor (c. US$560 million).[31]

According to the statutes, the Foundation consists of a board of five Swedish or Norwegian citizens, with its seat in Stockholm. The Chairman of the Board is appointed by the Swedish King in Council, with the other four members appointed by the trustees of the prize-awarding institutions. An Executive Director is chosen from among the board members, a Deputy Director is appointed by the King in Council, and two deputies are appointed by the trustees. However, since 1995, all the members of the board have been chosen by the trustees, and the Executive Director and the Deputy Director appointed by the board itself. As well as the board, the Nobel Foundation is made up of the prize-awarding institutions (the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institute, the Swedish Academy, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee), the trustees of these institutions, and auditors.[31]

Foundation capital and cost

The capital of the Nobel Foundation today is invested 50% in shares, 20% bonds and 30% other investments (e.g. hedge funds or real estate). The distribution can vary by 10 percent.[32] At the beginning of 2008, 64% of the funds were invested mainly in American and European stocks, 20% in bonds, plus 12% in real estate and hedge funds.[33]

In 2011, the total annual cost was approximately 120 million krona, with 50 million krona as the prize money. Further costs to pay institutions and persons engaged in giving the prizes were 27.4 million krona. The events during the Nobel week in Stockholm and Oslo cost 20.2 million krona. The administration, Nobel symposium, and similar items had costs of 22.4 million krona. The cost of the Economic Sciences prize of 16.5 Million krona is paid by the Sveriges Riksbank.[32]

First prizes

A black and white photo of a bearded man in his fifties sitting in a chair.
Wilhelm Röntgen received the first Physics Prize for his discovery of X-rays.

Once the Nobel Foundation and its guidelines were in place, the Nobel Committees began collecting nominations for the inaugural prizes. Subsequently, they sent a list of preliminary candidates to the prize-awarding institutions.

The Nobel Committee's Physics Prize shortlist cited Wilhelm Röntgen's discovery of X-rays and Philipp Lenard's work on cathode rays. The Academy of Sciences selected Röntgen for the prize.[34][35] In the last decades of the 19th century, many chemists had made significant contributions. Thus, with the Chemistry Prize, the Academy "was chiefly faced with merely deciding the order in which these scientists should be awarded the prize".[36] The Academy received 20 nominations, eleven of them for Jacobus van 't Hoff.[37] Van 't Hoff was awarded the prize for his contributions in chemical thermodynamics.[38][39]

The Swedish Academy chose the poet Sully Prudhomme for the first Nobel Prize in Literature. A group including 42 Swedish writers, artists, and literary critics protested against this decision, having expected Leo Tolstoy to be awarded.[40] Some, including Burton Feldman, have criticised this prize because they consider Prudhomme a mediocre poet. Feldman's explanation is that most of the Academy members preferred Victorian literature and thus selected a Victorian poet.[41] The first Physiology or Medicine Prize went to the German physiologist and microbiologist Emil von Behring. During the 1890s, von Behring developed an antitoxin to treat diphtheria, which until then was causing thousands of deaths each year.[42][43]

The first Nobel Peace Prize went to the Swiss Jean Henri Dunant for his role in founding the International Red Cross Movement and initiating the Geneva Convention, and jointly given to French pacifist Frédéric Passy, founder of the Peace League and active with Dunant in the Alliance for Order and Civilization.

Second World War

In 1938 and 1939, Adolf Hitler's Third Reich forbade three laureates from Germany (Richard Kuhn, Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt, and Gerhard Domagk) from accepting their prizes.[44] Each man was later able to receive the diploma and medal.[45] Even though Sweden was officially neutral during the Second World War, the prizes were awarded irregularly. In 1939, the Peace Prize was not awarded. No prize was awarded in any category from 1940 to 1942, due to the occupation of Norway by Germany. In the subsequent year, all prizes were awarded except those for literature and peace.[46]

During the occupation of Norway, three members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee fled into exile. The remaining members escaped persecution from the Germans when the Nobel Foundation stated that the Committee building in Oslo was Swedish property. Thus it was a safe haven from the German military, which was not at war with Sweden.[47] These members kept the work of the Committee going, but did not award any prizes. In 1944, the Nobel Foundation, together with the three members in exile, made sure that nominations were submitted for the Peace Prize and that the prize could be awarded once again.[44]

Prize in Economic Sciences

Map of Nobel laureates by country

In 1968, Sweden's central bank Sveriges Riksbank celebrated its 300th anniversary by donating a large sum of money to the Nobel Foundation to be used to set up a prize in honour of Alfred Nobel. The following year, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel was awarded for the first time. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences became responsible for selecting laureates. The first laureates for the Economics Prize were Jan Tinbergen and Ragnar Frisch "for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes".[48][49] The Board of the Nobel Foundation decided that after this addition, it would allow no further new prizes.[50]

Award process

The award process is similar for all of the Nobel Prizes, the main difference being who can make nominations for each of them.[51]

The announcement of the laureates in Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009 by Gunnar Öquist, permanent secretary of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
2009 Nobel Prize in Literature announcement by Peter Englund in Swedish, English, and German

Nominations

Nomination forms are sent by the Nobel Committee to about 3,000 individuals, usually in September the year before the prizes are awarded. These individuals are generally prominent academics working in a relevant area. Regarding the Peace Prize, inquiries are also sent to governments, former Peace Prize laureates, and current or former members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee. The deadline for the return of the nomination forms is 31 January of the year of the award.[51][52] The Nobel Committee nominates about 300 potential laureates from these forms and additional names.[53] The nominees are not publicly named, nor are they told that they are being considered for the prize. All nomination records for a prize are sealed for 50 years from the awarding of the prize.[54][55]

Selection

The Nobel Committee then prepares a report reflecting the advice of experts in the relevant fields. This, along with the list of preliminary candidates, is submitted to the prize-awarding institutions.[56] The institutions meet to choose the laureate or laureates in each field by a majority vote. Their decision, which cannot be appealed, is announced immediately after the vote.[57] A maximum of three laureates and two different works may be selected per award. Except for the Peace Prize, which can be awarded to institutions, the awards can only be given to individuals.[58]

Posthumous nominations

Although posthumous nominations are not presently permitted, individuals who died in the months between their nomination and the decision of the prize committee were originally eligible to receive the prize. This has occurred twice: the 1931 Literature Prize awarded to Erik Axel Karlfeldt, and the 1961 Peace Prize awarded to UN Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld. Since 1974, laureates must be thought alive at the time of the October announcement. There has been one laureate, William Vickrey, who in 1996 died after the prize (in Economics) was announced but before it could be presented.[59] On 3 October 2011, the laureates for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine were announced; however, the committee was not aware that one of the laureates, Ralph M. Steinman, had died three days earlier. The committee was debating about Steinman's prize, since the rule is that the prize is not awarded posthumously.[11] The committee later decided that as the decision to award Steinman the prize "was made in good faith", it would remain unchanged.[60]

Recognition time lag

Nobel's will provided for prizes to be awarded in recognition of discoveries made "during the preceding year". Early on, the awards usually recognised recent discoveries.[61] However, some of those early discoveries were later discredited. For example, Johannes Fibiger was awarded the 1926 Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his purported discovery of a parasite that caused cancer.[62] To avoid repeating this embarrassment, the awards increasingly recognised scientific discoveries that had withstood the test of time.[63][64][65] According to Ralf Pettersson, former chairman of the Nobel Prize Committee for Physiology or Medicine, "the criterion 'the previous year' is interpreted by the Nobel Assembly as the year when the full impact of the discovery has become evident."[64]

A room with pictures on the walls. In the middle of the room there is a wooden table with chairs around it.
The committee room of the Norwegian Nobel Committee

The interval between the award and the accomplishment it recognises varies from discipline to discipline. The Literature Prize is typically awarded to recognise a cumulative lifetime body of work rather than a single achievement.[66][67] The Peace Prize can also be awarded for a lifetime body of work. For example, 2008 laureate Martti Ahtisaari was awarded for his work to resolve international conflicts.[68][69] However, they can also be awarded for specific recent events.[70] For instance, Kofi Annan was awarded the 2001 Peace Prize just four years after becoming the Secretary-General of the United Nations.[71] Similarly Yasser Arafat, Yitzhak Rabin, and Shimon Peres received the 1994 award, about a year after they successfully concluded the Oslo Accords.[72]

Awards for physics, chemistry, and medicine are typically awarded once the achievement has been widely accepted. Sometimes, this takes decades – for example, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar shared the 1983 Physics Prize for his 1930s work on stellar structure and evolution.[73][74] Not all scientists live long enough for their work to be recognised. Some discoveries can never be considered for a prize if their impact is realised after the discoverers have died.[75][76][77]

Award ceremonies

Two men standing on a stage. The man to the left is clapping his hands and looking towards the other man. The second man is smiling and showing two items to an audience not seen on the image. The items are a diploma which includes a painting and a box containing a gold medal. Behind them is a blue pillar clad in flowers.
A man in his fifties standing behind a desk with computers on it. On the desk is a sign reading "Kungl. Vetensk. Akad. Sigil".
Left: Barack Obama after receiving the Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo City Hall from the hands of Norwegian Nobel Committee Chairman Thorbjørn Jagland in 2009; Right: Giovanni Jona-Lasinio presenting Yoichiro Nambu's Nobel Lecture at Aula Magna, Stockholm in 2008

Except for the Peace Prize, the Nobel Prizes are presented in Stockholm, Sweden, at the annual Prize Award Ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death. The recipients' lectures are normally held in the days prior to the award ceremony. The Peace Prize and its recipients' lectures are presented at the annual Prize Award Ceremony in Oslo, Norway, usually on 10 December. The award ceremonies and the associated banquets are typically major international events.[78][79] The Prizes awarded in Sweden's ceremonies' are held at the Stockholm Concert Hall, with the Nobel banquet following immediately at Stockholm City Hall. The Nobel Peace Prize ceremony has been held at the Norwegian Nobel Institute (1905–1946), at the auditorium of the University of Oslo (1947–1989), and at Oslo City Hall (1990–present).[80]

The highlight of the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony in Stockholm occurs when each Nobel laureate steps forward to receive the prize from the hands of the King of Sweden. In Oslo, the Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee presents the Nobel Peace Prize in the presence of the King of Norway.[79][81] At first, King Oscar II did not approve of awarding grand prizes to foreigners. It is said[by whom?] that he changed his mind once his attention had been drawn to the publicity value of the prizes for Sweden.[82]

Nobel Banquet

A set table with a white table cloth. There are many plates and glasses plus a menu visible on the table.
Table at the 2005 Nobel Banquet in Stockholm

After the award ceremony in Sweden, a banquet is held in the Blue Hall at the Stockholm City Hall, which is attended by the Swedish Royal Family and around 1,300 guests. The Nobel Peace Prize banquet is held in Norway at the Oslo Grand Hotel after the award ceremony. Apart from the laureate, guests include the President of the Storting, on occasion the Swedish prime minister, and, since 2006, the King and Queen of Norway. In total, about 250 guests attend.

Nobel lecture

According to the statutes of the Nobel Foundation, each laureate is required to give a public lecture on a subject related to the topic of their prize.[83] The Nobel lecture as a rhetorical genre took decades to reach its current format.[84] These lectures normally occur during Nobel Week (the week leading up to the award ceremony and banquet, which begins with the laureates arriving in Stockholm and normally ends with the Nobel banquet), but this is not mandatory. The laureate is only obliged to give the lecture within six months of receiving the prize, but some have happened even later. For example, US President Theodore Roosevelt received the Peace Prize in 1906 but gave his lecture in 1910, after his term in office.[85] The lectures are organized by the same association which selected the laureates.[86]

Prizes

Medals

The Nobel Foundation announced on 30 May 2012 that it had awarded the contract for the production of the five (Swedish) Nobel Prize medals to Svenska Medalj AB. Between 1902 and 2010, the Nobel Prize medals were minted by Myntverket (the Swedish Mint), Sweden's oldest company, which ceased operations in 2011 after 107 years. In 2011, the Mint of Norway, located in Kongsberg, made the medals. The Nobel Prize medals are registered trademarks of the Nobel Foundation.[87]

Each medal features an image of Alfred Nobel in left profile on the obverse. The medals for physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, and literature have identical obverses, showing the image of Alfred Nobel and the years of his birth and death. Nobel's portrait also appears on the obverse of the Peace Prize medal and the medal for the Economics Prize, but with a slightly different design. For instance, the laureate's name is engraved on the rim of the Economics medal.[88] The image on the reverse of a medal varies according to the institution awarding the prize. The reverse sides of the medals for chemistry and physics share the same design.[89]

A heavily decorated paper with the name "Fritz Haber" on it.
Laureates receive a heavily decorated diploma together with a gold medal and the prize money. Here Fritz Haber's diploma is shown, which he received for the development of a method to synthesise ammonia.

All medals made before 1980 were struck in 23 carat gold. Since then, they have been struck in 18 carat green gold plated with 24 carat gold. The weight of each medal varies with the value of gold, but averages about 175 grams (0.386 lb) for each medal. The diameter is 66 millimetres (2.6 in) and the thickness varies between 5.2 millimetres (0.20 in) and 2.4 millimetres (0.094 in).[90] Because of the high value of their gold content and tendency to be on public display, Nobel medals are subject to medal theft.[91][92][93] During World War II, the medals of German scientists Max von Laue and James Franck were sent to Copenhagen for safekeeping. When Germany invaded Denmark, Hungarian chemist (and Nobel laureate himself) George de Hevesy dissolved them in aqua regia (nitro-hydrochloric acid), to prevent confiscation by Nazi Germany and to prevent legal problems for the holders. After the war, the gold was recovered from solution, and the medals re-cast.[94]

Diplomas

Nobel laureates receive a diploma directly from the hands of the King of Sweden, or in the case of the peace prize, the Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee. Each diploma is uniquely designed by the prize-awarding institutions for the laureates that receive them.[88] The diploma contains a picture and text in Swedish which states the name of the laureate and normally a citation of why they received the prize. None of the Nobel Peace Prize laureates has ever had a citation on their diplomas.[95][96]

Award money

The laureates are given a sum of money when they receive their prizes, in the form of a document confirming the amount awarded.[88] The amount of prize money depends upon how much money the Nobel Foundation can award each year. The purse has increased since the 1980s, when the prize money was 880,000 SEK per prize (c. 2.6 million SEK altogether, US$350,000 today). In 2009, the monetary award was 10 million SEK (US$1.4 million).[97][98] In June 2012, it was lowered to 8 million SEK.[99] If two laureates share the prize in a category, the award grant is divided equally between the recipients. If there are three, the awarding committee has the option of dividing the grant equally, or awarding one-half to one recipient and one-quarter to each of the others.[100][101][102] It is common for recipients to donate prize money to benefit scientific, cultural, or humanitarian causes.[103][104]

Controversies and criticisms

Controversial recipients

When it was announced that Henry Kissinger was to be awarded the Peace Prize, two of the Norwegian Nobel Committee members resigned in protest.

Among other criticisms, the Nobel Committees have been accused of having a political agenda, and of omitting more deserving candidates. They have also been accused of Eurocentrism, especially for the Literature Prize.[105][106][107]

Peace Prize

Among the most criticised Nobel Peace Prizes was the one awarded to Henry Kissinger and Lê Đức Thọ. This led to the resignation of two Norwegian Nobel Committee members.[108] Kissinger and Thọ were awarded the prize for negotiating a ceasefire between North Vietnam and the United States in January 1973. However, when the award was announced, both sides were still engaging in hostilities.[109] Critics sympathetic to the North announced that Kissinger was not a peace-maker but the opposite, responsible for widening the war. Those hostile to the North and what they considered its deceptive practices during negotiations were deprived of a chance to criticise Lê Đức Thọ, as he declined the award.[54][110]

Yasser Arafat, Shimon Peres, and Yitzhak Rabin received the Peace Prize in 1994 for their efforts in making peace between Israel and Palestine.[54][111] Immediately after the award was announced, one of the five Norwegian Nobel Committee members denounced Arafat as a terrorist and resigned.[112] Additional misgivings about Arafat were widely expressed in various newspapers.[113]

Another controversial Peace Prize was that awarded to Barack Obama in 2009.[114] Nominations had closed only eleven days after Obama took office as President of the United States, but the actual evaluation occurred over the next eight months.[115] Obama himself stated that he did not feel deserving of the award, or worthy of the company in which it would place him.[116][117] Past Peace Prize laureates were divided, some saying that Obama deserved the award, and others saying he had not secured the achievements to yet merit such an accolade. Obama's award, along with the previous Peace Prizes for Jimmy Carter and Al Gore, also prompted accusations of a left-wing bias.[118]

Literature Prize

The award of the 2004 Literature Prize to Elfriede Jelinek drew a protest from a member of the Swedish Academy, Knut Ahnlund. Ahnlund resigned, alleging that the selection of Jelinek had caused "irreparable damage to all progressive forces, it has also confused the general view of literature as an art". He alleged that Jelinek's works were "a mass of text shovelled together without artistic structure".[119][120] The 2009 Literature Prize to Herta Müller also generated criticism. According to The Washington Post, many US literary critics and professors were ignorant of her work.[121] This made those critics feel the prizes were too Eurocentric.[122]

Science prizes

In 1949, the neurologist António Egas Moniz received the Physiology or Medicine Prize for his development of the prefrontal leucotomy. The previous year, Dr. Walter Freeman had developed a version of the procedure which was faster and easier to carry out. Due in part to the publicity surrounding the original procedure, Freeman's procedure was prescribed without due consideration or regard for modern medical ethics. Endorsed by such influential publications as The New England Journal of Medicine, leucotomy or "lobotomy" became so popular that about 5,000 lobotomies were performed in the United States in the three years immediately following Moniz's receipt of the Prize.[123][124]

Overlooked achievements

The Norwegian Nobel Committee declined to award a prize in 1948, the year of Gandhi's death, on the grounds that "there was no suitable living candidate."

The Norwegian Nobel Committee confirmed that Mahatma Gandhi was nominated for the Peace Prize in 1937–39, 1947, and a few days before he was assassinated in January 1948.[125] Later, members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee expressed regret that he was not given the prize.[126] Geir Lundestad, Secretary of Norwegian Nobel Committee in 2006, said, "The greatest omission in our 106 year history is undoubtedly that Mahatma Gandhi never received the Nobel Peace prize. Gandhi could do without the Nobel Peace prize. Whether Nobel committee can do without Gandhi is the question".[127] In 1948, the year of Gandhi's death, the Nobel Committee declined to award a prize on the grounds that "there was no suitable living candidate" that year.[126][128] Later, when the 14th Dalai Lama was awarded the Peace Prize in 1989, the chairman of the committee said that this was "in part a tribute to the memory of Mahatma Gandhi".[129] Other high-profile individuals with widely recognised contributions to peace have been missed out. Foreign Policy lists Eleanor Roosevelt, Václav Havel, Ken Saro-Wiwa, Sari Nusseibeh, and Corazon Aquino as people who "never won the prize, but should have".[130]

In 1965, UN Secretary General U Thant was informed by the Norwegian Permanent Representative to the UN that he would be awarded that year's prize and asked whether or not he would accept. He consulted staff and later replied that he would. At the same time, Chairman Gunnar Jahn of the Nobel Peace prize committee, lobbied heavily against giving U Thant the prize and the prize was at the last minute awarded to UNICEF. The rest of the committee all wanted the prize to go to U Thant, for his work in defusing the Cuban Missile Crisis, ending the war in the Congo, and his ongoing work to mediate an end to the Vietnam War. The disagreement lasted three years and in 1966 and 1967 no prize was given, with Gunnar Jahn effectively vetoing an award to U Thant.[131][132]

James Joyce, one of the controversial omissions of the Literature Prize

The Literature Prize also has controversial omissions. Adam Kirsch has suggested that many notable writers have missed out on the award for political or extra-literary reasons. The heavy focus on European and Swedish authors has been a subject of criticism.[133][134] The Eurocentric nature of the award was acknowledged by Peter Englund, the 2009 Permanent Secretary of the Swedish Academy, as a problem with the award and was attributed to the tendency for the academy to relate more to European authors.[135] This tendency towards European authors still leaves some European writers on a list of notable writers that have been overlooked for the Literature Prize, including Europe's Leo Tolstoy, Anton Chekhov, J. R. R. Tolkien, Émile Zola, Marcel Proust, Vladimir Nabokov, James Joyce, August Strindberg, Simon Vestdijk, Karel Čapek, the New World's Jorge Luis Borges, Ezra Pound, John Updike, Arthur Miller, Mark Twain, and Africa's Chinua Achebe.[136]

Candidates can receive multiple nominations the same year. Gaston Ramon received a total of 155[137] nominations in physiology or medicine from 1930 to 1953, the last year with public nomination data for that award as of 2016. He died in 1963 without being awarded. Pierre Paul Émile Roux received 115[138] nominations in physiology or medicine, and Arnold Sommerfeld received 84[139] in physics. These are the three most nominated scientists without awards in the data published as of 2016.[140] Otto Stern received 79[141] nominations in physics 1925–43 before being awarded in 1943.[142]

The strict rule against awarding a prize to more than three people is also controversial.[143] When a prize is awarded to recognise an achievement by a team of more than three collaborators, one or more will miss out. For example, in 2002, the prize was awarded to Koichi Tanaka and John Fenn for the development of mass spectrometry in protein chemistry, an award that did not recognise the achievements of Franz Hillenkamp and Michael Karas of the Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry at the University of Frankfurt.[144][145] According to one of the nominees for the prize in physics, the three person limit deprived him and two other members of his team of the honor in 2013: the team of Carl Hagen, Gerald Guralnik, and Tom Kibble published a paper in 1964 that gave answers to how the cosmos began, but did not share the 2013 Physics Prize awarded to Peter Higgs and François Englert, who had also published papers in 1964 concerning the subject. All five physicists arrived at the same conclusion, albeit from different angles. Hagen contends that an equitable solution is to either abandon the three limit restriction, or expand the time period of recognition for a given achievement to two years.[146]

Similarly, the prohibition of posthumous awards fails to recognise achievements by an individual or collaborator who dies before the prize is awarded. The Economics Prize was not awarded to Fischer Black, who died in 1995, when his co-author Myron Scholes received the honor in 1997 for their landmark work on option pricing along with Robert C. Merton, another pioneer in the development of valuation of stock options. In the announcement of the award that year, the Nobel committee prominently mentioned Black's key role.

Political subterfuge may also deny proper recognition. Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann, who co-discovered nuclear fission along with Otto Hahn, may have been denied a share of Hahn's 1944 Nobel Chemistry Award due to having fled Germany when the Nazis came to power.[147] The Meitner and Strassmann roles in the research was not fully recognised until years later, when they joined Hahn in receiving the 1966 Enrico Fermi Award.

Emphasis on discoveries over inventions

Alfred Nobel left his fortune to finance annual prizes to be awarded "to those who, during the preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind".[148] He stated that the Nobel Prizes in Physics should be given "to the person who shall have made the most important 'discovery' or 'invention' within the field of physics". Nobel did not emphasise discoveries, but they have historically been held in higher respect by the Nobel Prize Committee than inventions: 77% of the Physics Prizes have been given to discoveries, compared with only 23% to inventions. Christoph Bartneck and Matthias Rauterberg, in papers published in Nature and Technoetic Arts, have argued this emphasis on discoveries has moved the Nobel Prize away from its original intention of rewarding the greatest contribution to society.[149][150]

Gender disparity

In terms of the most prestigious awards in STEM fields, only a small proportion have been awarded to women. Out of 210 laureates in Physics, 181 in Chemistry and 216 in Medicine between 1901 and 2018, there were only three female laureates in physics, five in chemistry and 12 in medicine.[151][152][153][154] Factors proposed to contribute to the discrepancy between this and the roughly equal human sex ratio include biased nominations, fewer women than men being active in the relevant fields, Nobel Prizes typically being awarded decades after the research was done (reflecting a time when gender bias in the relevant fields was greater), a greater delay in awarding Nobel Prizes for women's achievements making longevity a more important factor for women (Nobel Prizes are not awarded posthumously), and a tendency to omit women from jointly awarded Nobel Prizes.[155][156][157][158][159][160] Despite these factors, Marie Curie is to date the only person awarded Nobel Prizes in two different sciences (Physics in 1903, Chemistry in 1911); she is one of only three people who have received two Nobel Prizes in sciences (see Multiple laureates below).

Specially distinguished laureates

Multiple laureates

A black and white portrait of a woman in profile.
Marie Curie, one of four people who have received the Nobel Prize twice (Physics and Chemistry)

Four people have received two Nobel Prizes. Marie Curie received the Physics Prize in 1903 for her work on radioactivity and the Chemistry Prize in 1911 for the isolation of pure radium,[161] making her the only person to be awarded a Nobel Prize in two different sciences. Linus Pauling was awarded the 1954 Chemistry Prize for his research into the chemical bond and its application to the structure of complex substances. Pauling was also awarded the Peace Prize in 1962 for his activism against nuclear weapons, making him the only laureate of two unshared prizes. John Bardeen received the Physics Prize twice: in 1956 for the invention of the transistor and in 1972 for the theory of superconductivity.[162] Frederick Sanger received the prize twice in Chemistry: in 1958 for determining the structure of the insulin molecule and in 1980 for inventing a method of determining base sequences in DNA.[163][164]

Two organizations have received the Peace Prize multiple times. The International Committee of the Red Cross received it three times: in 1917 and 1944 for its work during the world wars; and in 1963 during the year of its centenary.[165][166][167] The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees has been awarded the Peace Prize twice for assisting refugees: in 1954 and 1981.[168]

Family laureates

The Curie family has received the most prizes, with four prizes awarded to five individual laureates. Marie Curie received the prizes in Physics (in 1903) and Chemistry (in 1911). Her husband, Pierre Curie, shared the 1903 Physics prize with her.[169] Their daughter, Irène Joliot-Curie, received the Chemistry Prize in 1935 together with her husband Frédéric Joliot-Curie. In addition, the husband of Marie Curie's second daughter, Henry Labouisse, was the director of UNICEF when he accepted the Nobel Peace Prize in 1965 on that organisation's behalf.[170]

Although no family matches the Curie family's record, there have been several with two laureates. The husband-and-wife team of Gerty Cori and Carl Ferdinand Cori shared the 1947 Prize in Physiology or Medicine[171] as did the husband-and-wife team of May-Britt Moser and Edvard Moser in 2014 (along with John O'Keefe).[172] J. J. Thomson was awarded the Physics Prize in 1906 for showing that electrons are particles. His son, George Paget Thomson, received the same prize in 1937 for showing that they also have the properties of waves.[173] William Henry Bragg and his son, William Lawrence Bragg, shared the Physics Prize in 1915 for inventing the X-ray crystallography.[174] Niels Bohr was awarded the Physics prize in 1922, as was his son, Aage Bohr, in 1975.[170][175] Manne Siegbahn, who received the Physics Prize in 1924, was the father of Kai Siegbahn, who received the Physics Prize in 1981.[170][176] Hans von Euler-Chelpin, who received the Chemistry Prize in 1929, was the father of Ulf von Euler, who was awarded the Physiology or Medicine Prize in 1970.[170] C. V. Raman was awarded the Physics Prize in 1930 and was the uncle of Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, who was awarded the same prize in 1983.[177][178] Arthur Kornberg received the Physiology or Medicine Prize in 1959; Kornberg's son, Roger later received the Chemistry Prize in 2006.[179] Jan Tinbergen, who was awarded the first Economics Prize in 1969, was the brother of Nikolaas Tinbergen, who received the 1973 Physiology or Medicine Prize.[170] Alva Myrdal, Peace Prize laureate in 1982, was the wife of Gunnar Myrdal who was awarded the Economics Prize in 1974.[170] Economics laureates Paul Samuelson and Kenneth Arrow were brothers-in-law. Frits Zernike, who was awarded the 1953 Physics Prize, is the great-uncle of 1999 Physics laureate Gerard 't Hooft.[180]

Refusals and constraints

A black and white portrait of a man in a suit and tie. Half of his face is in a shadow.
Richard Kuhn, who was forced to decline his Nobel Prize in Chemistry

Two laureates have voluntarily declined the Nobel Prize. In 1964, Jean-Paul Sartre was awarded the Literature Prize but refused, stating, "A writer must refuse to allow himself to be transformed into an institution, even if it takes place in the most honourable form."[181] Lê Đức Thọ, chosen for the 1973 Peace Prize for his role in the Paris Peace Accords, declined, stating that there was no actual peace in Vietnam.[182]

During the Third Reich, Adolf Hitler hindered Richard Kuhn, Adolf Butenandt, and Gerhard Domagk from accepting their prizes. All of them were awarded their diplomas and gold medals after World War II. In 1958, Boris Pasternak declined his prize for literature due to fear of what the Soviet Union government might do if he travelled to Stockholm to accept his prize. In return, the Swedish Academy refused his refusal, saying "this refusal, of course, in no way alters the validity of the award."[182] The Academy announced with regret that the presentation of the Literature Prize could not take place that year, holding it back until 1989 when Pasternak's son accepted the prize on his behalf.[183][184]

Aung San Suu Kyi was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991, but her children accepted the prize because she had been placed under house arrest in Burma; Suu Kyi delivered her speech two decades later, in 2012.[185] Liu Xiaobo was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2010 while he and his wife were under house arrest in China as political prisoners, and he was unable to accept the prize in his lifetime.

Cultural impact

Being a symbol of scientific or literary achievement that is recognisable worldwide, the Nobel Prize is often depicted in fiction. This includes films like The Prize and Nobel Son about fictional Nobel laureates as well as fictionalised accounts of stories surrounding real prizes such as Nobel Chor, a film based on the theft of Rabindranath Tagore's prize.[186][187]

The memorial symbol "Planet of Alfred Nobel" was opened in Dnipropetrovsk University of Economics and Law in 2008. On the globe, there are 802 Nobel laureates' reliefs made of a composite alloy obtained when disposing of military strategic missiles.[188][189]

See also

References

Notes

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Sources

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