پلورالیسم (کثرتانگاری یا فراوانی) نسبت به دین، نظریهای است که برخی از دانشمندان و متکلمین غربی با تأثیرپذیری از دیدگاه خاصی در پاسخ به بعضی مسائل عقیدتی و همچنین برای حل برخی از مشکلات اجتماعی ارائه میدهند.
پلورالیسم یا (کثرت باوری)، نظریه ای است که به لزوم کثرت عناصر و عوامل در جوامعه و مشروعیت منافع آنها باور دارد. فرهنگ معین. افتادن در دام (باور اکثریت/محافظه کاری جمعی) و غفلت کردن از همه چیز یا بیشتر چیزهای که مردم بدان اعتقاد دارند لیکن فاقد دلایل علمی است.
پلورالیسم دینی در دهههای اخیر با کار جانهیک در جهان مسیحی بالا گرفت. ایشان میدید که بسیاری از غیر مسیحیها تحت تأثیر ادیان دیگر، انسانهایی پاک و بیآزار بار آمدهاند، بنابراین گفت: پس نگوئیم که مسیح خداست و فقط بهوسیله او میتوان به بهشت رسید! چرا که اگر قرار باشد تنها گروه مسیحیان به بهشت بروند، پس عمل خیر بقیه چه میشود؟
اصطلاح شناخته شده پلورالیسم مأخوذ از فرهنگ غربی است و ابتدا در سنن کلیسایی مطرح بود؛ در مورد شخصی که دارای چند منصب کلیسایی بود اصطلاح پلورالیسم را به کار میبردند. اما امروزه در عرصه فرهنگی بدین معنی است که در یک عرصه فکری و مذهبی، عقاید و روشهای گوناگونی مورد قبول باشد. از همینجاها بود که بحث پلورالیسم دینی مطرح شد؛ بنابراین، مفاد پلورالیسم دینی از آثار و کشفیات عصر جدید است.
لوازم پلورالیسم دینی[ویرایش]
امروزه از پلورالیسم دینی معنای دیگری منظور میشود که با معنای اصلی متفاوت است و آن اینکه حقیقت مطلق و نجات و رستگاری را منحصر در یک دین و مذهب و پیروی از یک شریعت و آئین ندانیم بلکه معتقد شویم که حقیقت مطلق، مشترک میان همه ادیان است و ادیان مذاهب، شریعتها و آیینهای مختلف، جلوههای گوناگون حق مطلقاند و در نتیجه همه ادیان و مذاهب، به نجات دست مییابند.
انحصارگرایی و شمولگرایی[ویرایش]
در دنیای غرب، در برابر پلورالیسم دینی، دو مکتب فکری دیگر، با عنوان انحصارگرایی و شمول گرایی نیز مطرح است. انحصار گرایی بر آن است که راه نجات و رستگاری در مسیحیت است. نه از آن روی که حقیقت ناب تنها در آئین مسیحیت یافت میشود بلکه از آن روی که تجلی الهی، منحصراً در مسیح واقع شدهاست (در اعتقاد مسیحیان، عیسی مسیح و خداوند یکتا دارای یک ذات هستند) و چون راه نجات، در گرو عنایت و لطف الهی است که از طریق تجلّی او بر بشر دست یافتنی است و نیز تجلّی خداوند شخصی بوده و فقط در مسیح رخ دادهاست، پس راه نجات منحصراً در آیین مسیحیت است. کارل بارت متکلم مسیحی پیرو آئین پروتستان از طرفداران این نظریه است.
از دیدگاه شمولگرایی فقط یک راه رستگاری وجود دارد و این راه خاص، صرفاً در یک دین و مذهب خاص، قابل شناخت نیست و در عین حال، همه میتوانند در این راه قدم بگذارند هر چند که به شرایط خاصی که در آن دین مطرح شدهاست گردن ننهند. شمولگرایی، این اصل کثرتگرایی را که لطف و عنایت خداوند به انحاء مختلف در مورد پیروان ادیان گوناگون تجلی یافتهاست را نیز قبول دارد. هر کس میتواند رستگار شود هر چند از اصول اعتقادی دین حق چیزی نشنیده باشد. کارلرانر متکلم مسیحی پیرو مذهب کاتولیک از طرفداران این نظریه است.
تعریف پلورالیسم دینی[ویرایش]
تعریف کاملی که بر اساس آن، ویژگیهای مورد اتفاق برای پلورالیسم دینی در نظر بگیریم، وجود ندارد اما دستکم چند نوع کاربرد مختلف برای این واژه سراغ داریم:
اول) پلورالیسم دینی به معنای مدارا و همزیستی مسالمتآمیز برای جلوگیری از جنگها و تخاصمات. به عبارت دیگر، کثرتها به عنوان واقعیتهای اجتماعی پذیرفته شوند و مصلحت جامعه، این نیست که به جان هم بیفتند بلکه باید همزیستی داشته باشند نه اینکه با هم یکی شوند. در قلمرو ادیان و مذاهب هم، دو فرقه، در عین حال که گرایشهای خاص و متفاوت از هم دارند، به هم احترام میگذارند و عملاً با یکدیگر درگیر نمیشوند در عین حال که هر کسی نظر خودش را صحیح و نظریه بقیه را نادرست میداند اما در عمل، برادرانه زندگی میکنند.
“برخی، تسامح (Tolerance) را غیر از پلورالیسم میدانند و میگویند در تسامح، انسان آزادی و حقوق دیگران را محترم میشمارد اگرچه معتقد باشد که همه حقیقت پیشخود اوست. “
این تعریف از پلورالیسم سه گونه تفسیر را متحمل است: اول آنکه متدینان با روش عقلی و منطقی و خردپذیر، باید به بررسی اصول دینی تمام ادیان بپردازند و با ضوابط معرفتشناسی و منطقی، به سایر ادیان، گوش فرا دهند تا به دین صحیحتر نایل آیند.
این که تمامی سخنان دینهای دیگر همزمان درست باشند امکانپذیر نیست چرا که یزدان لا یجتمعان اما از نظر اسلام میتوان به بعضی از نکات صحیح و درست سایر ادیان توجه نمود بهطور مثال آیه ۱۸ سوره زمر: «فبشّر عباد الذین یستمعون القول فیتّبعون أحسنه؛ آن بندگانی که سخن بشنوند و به نیکوتر آن عمل کنند». میتوان سخنان دیگران راشنید و به بهترین آنها که از نظر اسلامی اشتباه نباشد گوش فرا داد. چراکه اسلام ملاک صحت و سنجش را دین اسلام قرار دادهاست (روم، ۳۰). پس حق گرایانه روی دل خود را به سوی این دین کن همان طریقه و آیین فطری خدا که مردم را بر پایه آن آفریده و سرشته، هرگز تبدیلی در آفرینش خدا نباشد، این است دین ثابت و استوار، و لکن بیشتر مردم نمیدانند. ۱۱۵ انعام؛ و سخن پروردگارت از نظر راستی و عدل کامل شد، هرگز سخنان او را تبدیل کننده ای نخواهد بود، و اوست که شنوا و داناست.
دوم آنکه تفسیر تبادلنظر و گفتگوی بینالادیان از منظر روانشناسانه؛ بدین معنا که متدینان ادیان و مذاهب مختلف، با احساس همدلی و شرح صدر، برای تقریب قلبی و باطنی با یکدیگر به گفتگو بنشینند و با تسامح، برای زوال تشنجهای اجتماعی، حلقههایی ترتیب دهند، گرچه هیچگاه به نتایج یکسان معرفت شناختی نایل نیایند.
سوم آنکه رویکرد گفتگوی بینالادیان بر اساس تردید در معتقدات دینی خود.
این تفسیر با چنین پیش فرض علاوه بر آنکه نظام گفتگو را برهم میزند و اصل مسئله را محو میسازد، با دستاوردهای مکتب اهل بیت (خانواده محمد پیامبر مسلمانان) نیز ناسازگار است. امام علی در باب استقامت در دین و حفظ آن میگوید: افضلالسعاده استقامه الدین(غررالحکم، ص۸۵)
کاربرد دوم) اینکه دین واحدی از طرف خداوند آمده که چهرههایی مختلف دارد. در اعتقاد اسلام، مسیحیت، یهودیت و اسلام و زرتشتیت به معنای خاص، همه ادیان، چهرههای یک حقیقتند. اختلاف در جوهر ادیان نیست بلکه در فهم دین است. کسانی به گونهای آن امرالهی را فهمیدند و یهودی شدند، عدهای دیگر، به شکلدیگری فهمیدند و مسیحی شدند و کسانی، به شکلدیگری فهمیدند و مسلمان شدند. نباید بگوئیم که این مذهب، درست است و آن نادرست. یا این دین درست است و دیگری نادرست. اصلاً این بحثها، جایی ندارد. برای اینکه هر کس، طبق ذهنیت و شرایط خود، درکی از این واقعیت دارد. آنچه در اختیار ماست، فهمهای مختلفی است که به صورت قاطع نمیتوان ادعا کرد که کدام بهتر یا درست است. البته با یک قراینی میتوان فهمی را بر فهم دیگر ترجیح داد. ما صراط مستقیم نداریم بلکه صراطهای مستقیم داریم. این پلورالیسم یعنی پذیرفتن چند نوع فهم و چند نوع برداشت و چند نوع معرفت نسبت به یک حقیقت واحد، حتی اگر با یکدیگر متضاد باشند.
کاربرد سوم) نظر دوم دست کم به صورت فرض حقیقت واحدی به نام اسلام را نزد خدا میپذیرفت که حق است منتها ما به آن دسترسی نداریم و لذا هر کسی هر چه میفهمد، همان حق است. اما دیدگاه سوم، دیدگاه دیگری است و آن اینکه اصلاً، حقایق هم حقایق کثیرند. در این قلمرو اصلاً با تناقض روبرو هستیم؛ چون نمیشود گفت، وجود و عدم، راست و دروغ هر دو با هم هستند.
چهارم) نوع چهارمی از پلورالیسم نیز هست و آن اینکه: حقیقت، مجموعهای از اجزا و عناصری است که هر یک از این عناصر در یک دین از ادیان یافت میشود و در این صورت، حقیقت، مطلب واحدی نسبت به یک موضوع واحد نیست و ماهم هیچ دین جامعی نداریم بلکه مجموعی از ادیان، دارای حقیقتند که هر یک سهمی از حقیقت دارند. خلاصه هیچ دینی که جامع همه حقایق و خالص از همه باطلها باشد، وجود ندارد. نه مسلمان و نه هیچکس دیگری نمیتواند بگوید که دین من به تمام حقیقت رسیدهاست.
پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]
Definition and scopes
Religious pluralism, to paraphrase the title of a recent academic work, goes beyond mere toleration. Chris Beneke, in Beyond Toleration: The Religious Origins of American Pluralism, explains the difference between religious tolerance and religious pluralism by pointing to the situation in the late 18th century United States. By the 1730s, in most colonies religious minorities had obtained what contemporaries called religious toleration: "The policy of toleration relieved religious minorities of some physical punishments and some financial burdens, but it did not make them free from the indignities of prejudice and exclusion. Nor did it make them equal. Those 'tolerated' could still be barred from civil offices, military positions, and university posts." In short, religious toleration is only the absence of religious persecution, and does not necessarily preclude religious discrimination. However, in the following decades something extraordinary happened in the Thirteen Colonies, at least if one views the events from "a late eighteenth-century perspective". Gradually the colonial governments expanded the policy of religious toleration, but then, between the 1760s and the 1780s, they replaced it with "something that is usually called religious liberty". Mark Silka, in "Defining Religious Pluralism in America: A Regional Analysis", states that Religious pluralism "enables a country made up of people of different faiths to exist without sectarian warfare or the persecution of religious minorities. Understood differently in different times and places, it is a cultural construct that embodies some shared conception of how a country's various religious communities relate to each other and to the larger nation whole."
Religious pluralism can be defined as "respecting the otherness of others". Freedom of religion encompasses all religions acting within the law in a particular region. Exclusivist religions teach that theirs is the only way to salvation and to religious truth, and some of them would even argue that it is necessary to suppress the falsehoods taught by other religions. Some Protestant sects argue fiercely against Roman Catholicism, and fundamentalist Christians of all kinds teach that religious practices like those of Paganism and witchcraft are pernicious. This was a common historical attitude prior to the Enlightenment, and has appeared as governmental policy into the present day under systems like Afghanistan's Taliban regime, which destroyed the ancient Buddhas of Bamyan.
Giving one religion or denomination special rights that are denied to others can weaken religious pluralism. This situation was observed in Europe through the Lateran Treaty and Church of England. In modern era, many Islamic countries have laws that criminalize the act of leaving Islam to someone born in Muslim family, forbid entry to non-Muslims into Mosques, and forbid construction of Church, Synagogue or Temples inside their countries.
Relativism, the belief that all religions are equal in their value and that none of the religions give access to absolute truth, is an extreme form of inclusivism. Likewise, syncretism, the attempt to take over creeds of practices from other religions or even to blend practices or creeds from different religions into one new faith is an extreme form of inter-religious dialogue. Syncretism must not be confused with ecumenism, the attempt to bring closer and eventually reunite different denominations of one religion that have a common origin but were separated by a schism.
German philosophers of religion Ludwig Feuerbach and Ernst Troeltsch concluded that Asian religious traditions, in particular Hinduism and Buddhism, were the earliest proponents of religious pluralism and granting of freedom to the individuals to choose their own faith and develop a personal religious construct within it (see also Relationship between Buddhism and Hinduism); Jainism, another ancient Indian religion, as well as Daoism have also always been inclusively flexible and have long favored religious pluralism for those who disagree with their religious viewpoints. The Age of Enlightenment in Europe triggered a sweeping transformation about religion after the French Revolution (liberalism, democracy, civil and political rights, freedom of thought, separation of Church and State, secularization), with rising acceptance of religious pluralism and decline of Christianity. According to Chad Meister, these pluralist trends in the Western thought, particularly since the 18th century, brought mainstream Christianity and Judaism closer to the Asian traditions of philosophical pluralism and religious tolerance.
Bahá'u'lláh, founder of Bahá'í Faith, a religion that developed in Persia, though not a sect of Islam, urged the elimination of religious intolerance. He taught that God is one, and has manifested himself to humanity through several historic messengers. Bahá'u'lláh taught that Bahá'ís must associate with peoples of all religions, showing the love of God in relations with them, whether this is reciprocated or not.
Bahá'í's refer to the concept of Progressive revelation, which means that God's will is revealed to mankind progressively as mankind matures and is better able to comprehend the purpose of God in creating humanity. In this view, God's word is revealed through a series of messengers: Abraham, Krishna, Moses, Buddha, Jesus, Muhammad, and Bahá'u'lláh (the founder of the Bahá'í Faith) among them. In the Kitáb-i-Íqán (Book of Certitude), Bahá'u'lláh explains that messengers of God have a twofold station, one of divinity and one of an individual. According to Bahá'í writings, there will not be another messenger for many hundreds of years. There is also a respect for the religious traditions of the native peoples of the planet who may have little other than oral traditions as a record of their religious figures.
The earliest reference to Buddhist views on religious pluralism in a political sense is found in the Edicts of Emperor Ashoka:
When asked, "Don’t all religions teach the same thing? Is it possible to unify them?" the Dalai Lama said:
Classical civilization: Greek and Roman religions
For the Romans, religion was part of the daily life. Each home had a household shrine at which prayers and libations to the family's domestic deities were offered. Neighborhood shrines and sacred places such as springs and groves dotted the city. The Roman calendar was structured around religious observances; in the Imperial Era, as many as 135 days of the year were devoted to religious festivals and games (ludi). Women, slaves, and children all participated in a range of religious activities. Some public rituals could be conducted only by women, and women formed what is perhaps Rome's most famous priesthood, the state-supported Vestal Virgins, who tended Rome's sacred hearth for centuries, until disbanded under Christian persecution and domination.
The Romans are known for the great number of deities they honored. The presence of Greeks on the Italian peninsula from the beginning of the historical period influenced Roman culture, introducing some religious practices that became as fundamental as the cult of Apollo. The Romans looked for common ground between their major gods and those of the Greeks, adapting Greek myths and iconography for Latin literature and Roman art. Etruscan religion was also a major influence, particularly on the practice of augury, since Rome had once been ruled by Etruscan kings.
Mystery religions imported from the Near East (Ptolemaic Egypt, Persia and Mesopotamia), which offered initiates salvation through a personal God and eternal life after the death, were a matter of personal choice for an individual, practiced in addition to carrying on one's family rites and participating in public religion. The mysteries, however, involved exclusive oaths and secrecy, conditions that conservative Romans viewed with suspicion as characteristic of "magic", conspiracy (coniuratio), and subversive activity. Sporadic and sometimes brutal attempts were made to suppress religionists who seemed to threaten traditional Roman morality and unity, as with the Senate's efforts to restrict the Bacchanals in 186 BC.
As the Romans extended their dominance throughout the Mediterranean world, their policy in general was to absorb the deities and cults of other peoples rather than try to eradicate them, since they believed that preserving tradition promoted social stability.
One way that Rome incorporated diverse peoples was by supporting their religious heritage, building temples to local deities that framed their theology within the hierarchy of Roman religion. Inscriptions throughout the Empire record the side-by-side worship of local and Roman deities, including dedications made by Romans to local Gods. By the height of the Empire, numerous international deities were cultivated at Rome and had been carried to even the most remote provinces (among them Cybele, Isis, Osiris, Serapis, Epona), and Gods of solar monism such as Mithras and Sol Invictus, found as far north as Roman Britain. Because Romans had never been obligated to cultivate one deity or one cult only, religious tolerance was not an issue in the sense that it is for competing monotheistic religions. The monotheistic rigor of Judaism posed difficulties for Roman policy that led at times to compromise and the granting of special exemptions, but sometimes to intractable conflict.
Some Christians have argued that religious pluralism is an invalid or self-contradictory concept based upon passages of the Bible such as:
Maximal forms of religious pluralism claim that all religions are equally true, or that one religion can be true for some and another for others. Some Christians hold this idea to be logically impossible from the Principle of contradiction.
Other Christians have held that there can be truth value and salvific value in other faith traditions. John Macquarrie, described in the Handbook of Anglican Theologians (1998) as "unquestionably Anglicanism's most distinguished systematic theologian in the second half of the twentieth century", wrote that "there should be an end to proselytizing but that equally there should be no syncretism of the kind typified by the Baha'i movement" (p. 2). In discussing 9 founders of major faith traditions (Moses, Zoroaster, Lao-zu, Buddha, Confucius, Socrates, Krishna, Jesus, and Muhammad), which he called "mediators between the human and the divine", Macquarrie wrote that:
Classical Christian views
Before the Great Schism, mainstream Christianity confessed "one holy catholic and apostolic church", in the words of the Nicene Creed. Roman Catholics, Orthodox Christians, Episcopalians and most Protestant Christian denominations still maintain this belief. Furthermore, the Catholic Church makes the claim that is the one and only true Church founded by Jesus Christ, but the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox Churches also make this claim in respect to themselves.
Church unity for these groups, as in the past, is something very visible and tangible, and schism was just as serious an offense as heresy. Following the Great Schism, Roman Catholicism sees and recognizes the Orthodox Sacraments as valid but illicit and without canonical jurisdiction. Eastern Orthodoxy does not have the concept of "validity" when applied to Sacraments, but it considers the form of Roman Catholic Sacraments to be acceptable, and there is some recognition of Catholic sacraments among some, but not all, Orthodox. Both generally mutually regard each other as "heterodox" and "schismatic", while continuing to recognize each other as Christian, at least secundum quid. (See ecumenicism).
Modern Christian views
Some other Protestants hold that only believers who believe in certain fundamental doctrines know the true pathway to salvation. The core of this doctrine is that Jesus Christ was a perfect man, is the Son of God and that he died and rose again for the wrongdoing of those who will accept the gift of salvation. They continue to believe in "one" church, believing in fundamental issues there is unity and non-fundamental issues there is liberty. Some evangelicals are doubtful if Roman Catholicism or Eastern Orthodoxy are still valid manifestations of the Church and usually reject religious (typically restorationist) movements rooted in 19th century American Christianity, such as Mormonism, Christian Science, or Jehovah's Witnesses as not distinctly Christian.
Hinduism is naturally pluralistic. A well-known Rig Vedic hymn says: "Truth is One, though the sages know it variously" (Ékam sat vipra bahudā vadanti). Similarly, in the Bhagavad Gītā (4:11), God, manifesting as an incarnation, states: "As people approach me, so I receive them. All paths lead to me" (ye yathā māṃ prapadyante tāṃs tathāiva bhajāmyaham mama vartmānuvartante manuṣyāḥ pārtha sarvaśaḥ). The Hindu religion has no theological difficulties in accepting degrees of truth in other religions. According to Swami Bhaskarananda, Hinduism emphasizes that everyone actually worships the same God, whether one knows it or not.
While some claim that religious pluralism is controversial Islam, Islamic civilizations have been characterized as one of the most religiously pluralist. The primary sources that guide Islam, namely Quran and hadiths, promote the fundamental right to practise an individual's belief, even though it may be a false belief. The acceptability of religious pluralism within Islam remains a topic of active debate, however the vast majority of Islamic scholars and historical evidences reveal Islam's commitment to no coercion in religion, supporting pluralism.
In several Surah, Quran asks Muslims to remain steadfast with Islam, and not yield to the vain desires of other religions and unbelievers. These verses have been interpreted to imply pluralism in religions. For example, Surah Al-Ma'idah verses 47 through 49 state:
Surah Al-Ankabut verse 45 through 47 state:
Surah Al-E-Imran verses 62 through 66 state:
Surah Al-Kafiroon verse 1 through 6 state:
Several verses of the Quran state that Islam rejects religious pluralism. For example, Surah Al-Tawba verse 1 through 5 seems to command the Muslim to slay the pagans (with verse 9.5 called the 'sword verse'):
However, this verse has been explained.
Bernard Lewis presents some of his conclusions about Islamic culture, Shari'a law, jihad, and the modern day phenomenon of terrorism in his text, Islam: The Religion and the People. He writes of jihad as a distinct "religious obligation", but suggests that "it is a pity" that people engaging in terrorist activities are not more aware of their own religion:
In Surah Al-Tawba, verse 29 demands Muslims to fight all those who do not believe in Islam, including Christians and Jews (People of the Book), until they pay the Jizya, a tax, with willing submission.
Some people have concluded from verse 9:29, that Muslims are commanded to attack all non-Muslims until they pay money, but Shaykh Jalal Abualrub writes:
In Surah Al-Nisa, verse 89 has been misquoted to seem that it says to slay the apostates. In actuality, it only commands Muslims to fight those who practice oppression or persecution, or attack the Muslims.
The Sufis were practitioners of the esoteric mystic traditions within an Islam at a certain point. Sufism is defined by the Sufi master or Pir (Sufism) or fakeer or Wali in the language of the people by dancing and singing and incorporating various philosophies, theologies, ideologies and religions together (e.g., Christianity, Judaism, Paganism, Platonism, Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Sikhism and so forth with time). Famous Sufi masters are Rumi, Shadhili, Sheikh Farid, Bulleh Shah, Shah Hussain, Shams Tabrizi, Waris Shah, Ghazali, Mian Mir, Attar of Nishapur, Amir Khusrow, Salim Chishti. See many more famous Sufis at the List of Sufis. The Sufis were considered by many to have divine revelations with messages of peace, tolerance, equality, pluralism, love for all and hate for no one, humanitarians, philosophers, psychologists and much more. Many had the teaching if you want to change the world, change yourself and you will change the whole world. The views of the Sufi poets, philosophers and theologians have inspired multiple forms of modern-day academia as well as philosophers of other religions. See also Blind men and an elephant. But undoubtedly, the most influential Sufi scholar to have embraced the world is Jalaluddin Muhammad Rumi. He was born in 1207 AD in a northern province of Afghanistan, however, he later had to seek refuge in Turkey following the invasion of Afghanistan by Mongols. Rumi, through his poetry and teachings, propagated inter-faith harmony like none other. He served as a uniting figure for people of different faiths and his followers included Muslims, Christians and Jews. Even today, Rumi’s popularity does not cease to exist within the Sufi Muslim community and his message of peace and harmony transcends religious and geographical boundaries.
Rumi also says:
Rumi also says:
Ahmadis recognize many founders of world religions to be from God, who all brought teaching and guidance from God to all peoples. According to the Ahmadiyya understanding of the Quran, every nation in the history of mankind has been sent a prophet, as the Quran states: And there is a guide for every people. Though the Quran mentions only 24 prophets, the founder of Islam, Muhammad states that the world has seen 124,000 prophets. Thus other than the prophets mentioned in the Quran, Ahmadis, with support from theological study also recognize Buddha, Krishna, founders of Chinese religions to be divinely appointed individuals.
The Second Khalifatul Maish of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community writes: "According to this teaching there has not been a single people at any time in history or anywhere in the world who have not had a warner from God, a teacher, a prophet. According to the Quran there have been prophets at all times and in all countries. India, China, Russia, Afghanistan, parts of Africa, Europe, America—all had prophets according to the theory of divine guidance taught by the Quran. When, therefore, Muslims hear about prophets of other peoples or other countries, they do not deny them. They do not brand them as liars. Muslims believe that other peoples have had their teachers. If other peoples have had prophets, books, and laws, these constitute no difficulty for Islam."
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, founder of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community wrote in his book A Message of Peace: "Our God has never discriminated between one people and another. This is illustrated by the fact that all the potentials and capabilities (Prophets) which have been granted to the Aryans (Hindus) have also been granted to the races inhabiting Arabia, Persia, Syria, China, Japan, Europe and America."
In modern practice
Religious pluralism is a contested issue in modern Islamic countries. Twenty three (23) Islamic countries have laws, as of 2014, which make it a crime, punishable with death penalty or prison, for a Muslim, by birth or conversion, to leave Islam or convert to another religion. In Muslim countries such as Algeria, it is illegal to preach, persuade or attempt to convert a Muslim to another religion. Saudi Arabia and several Islamic nations have strict laws against the construction of Christian churches, Jewish synagogues, Hindu temples and Buddhist stupas anywhere inside the country, by anyone including minorities working there. Brunei in southeast Asia adopted Sharia law in 2013 that prescribes a death penalty for any Muslim who converts from Islam to another religion. Other Islamic scholars state Sharia does not allow non-Muslim minorities to enjoy religious freedoms in a Muslim-majority nation, but other scholars disagree.
Anekāntavāda, the principle of relative pluralism, is one of the basic principles of Jainism. In this view, the truth or the reality is perceived differently from different points of view, and no single point of view is the complete truth. Jain doctrine states that an object has infinite modes of existence and qualities and they cannot be completely perceived in all its aspects and manifestations, due to inherent limitations of the humans. Only the Kevalins—the omniscient beings—can comprehend the object in all its aspects and manifestations, and all others are capable of knowing only a part of it. Consequently, no one view can claim to represent the absolute truth--only relative truths. Jains compare all attempts to proclaim absolute truth with andhgajnyaya or the "maxim of the blind men and elephant", wherein all the blind men claimed to explain the true appearance of the elephant, but could only partly succeed due to their narrow perspective. For Jains, the problem with the blind men is not that they claim to explain the true appearance of the elephant; the problem is doing so to the exclusion of all other claims. Since absolute truth is many-sided, embracing any truth to the exclusion of others is to commit the error of ekānta (one-sidedness). Openness to the truths of others is one way in which Jainism embodies religious pluralism.
The Mosaic law categorically warns the Jews to refrain from polytheism. First and the second commandment, you shall not have another God except me, worship your God with all your heart and with all your soul. Throughout the Hebrew Bible the sovereignty of Yahweh as the only God is the key pillar of a chosen community of Israel.
The Sikh gurus have propagated the message of "many paths" leading to the one God and ultimate salvation for all souls who treading on the path of righteousness. They have supported the view that proponents of all faiths, by doing good and virtuous deeds and by remembering the Lord, can certainly achieve salvation. Sikhs are told to accept all leading faiths as possible vehicles for attaining spiritual enlightenment, provided the faithful study, ponder and practice the teachings of their prophets and leaders. Sikhism had many interactions with Sufism as well as Hinduism, influenced them and was influenced by them.
As well as:
The Guru Granth Sahib also says that Bhagat Namdev and Bhagat Kabir, who were both believed to be Hindus, both attained salvation though they were born before Sikhism took root and were clearly not Sikhs. This highlights and reinforces the Guru's saying that "peoples of other faiths" can join with God as true and also at the same time signify that Sikhism is not the exclusive path for liberation.
Additionally the Guru Granth Sahib says:
Again, the Guru Granth Sahib Ji provides this verse:
Most of the 15 Sikh Bhagats who are mentioned in their holy book were non-Sikhs and belonged to Hindu and Muslim faiths, which were the most prevalent religions of this region.
The pluralistic dialogue of Sikhism began with the founder of Sikhism Guru Nanak after becoming enlightened saying the words Na koi hindu na koi musalman - "There is no Hindu, there is no Muslim". He recognised that religious labels held no value and it is the deeds of human that will be judged in the hereafter what we call ourselves religiously holds no value.
Sikhs have been considered eager exponents of interfaith dialogue and not only accept the right of others to practice their faith but have in the past fought and laid down their lives to protect this right for others; the Martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadar, who on the pleas of a pandit of the Kashmiris, agreed to fight against a tyrannic Moghul Empire (that was forcing them to convert to Islam) in order that they might gain the freedom to practice their religion, which differed from his own.
Religious pluralism and human service professions
The concept of religious pluralism is also relevant to human service professions, such as psychology and social work, as well as medicine and nursing, in which trained professionals may interact with clients from diverse faith traditions. For example, psychologist Kenneth Pargament has described four possible stances toward client religious and spiritual beliefs, which he called rejectionist, exclusivist, constructivist, and pluralist. Unlike the constructivist stance, the pluralist stance:
Importantly, "the pluralistic therapist can hold personal religious beliefs while appreciating those of a client with different religious beliefs. The pluralist recognizes that religious value differences can and will exist between counselors and clients without adversely affecting therapy" (p. 168). The stances implied by these four helping orientations on several key issues, such as "should religious issues be discussed in counseling?", have also been presented in tabular form (p. 362, Table 12.1).
The profession of chaplaincy, a religious profession, must also deal with issues of pluralism and the relevance of a pluralistic stance. For example, Friberg (2001) argues: "With growing populations of immigrants and adherents of religions not previously seen in significant numbers in North America, spiritual care must take religion and diversity seriously. Utmost respect for the residents' spiritual and religious histories and orientations is imperative" (p. 182).