تهامه

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به ناوبری پرش به جستجو
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نقشهٔ تهامه در غرب شبه جزیره عربستان که با رنگ سبز مشخص شده‌است.
تهامه

تهامه، (به انگلیسی: Tihamah)، (به عربی: تهامة) ناحیه ساحلی باریکی در بخش عربی دریای سرخ است. بخشی از این ناحیه در عربستان سعودی و بخش دیگری از آن در یمن است. در یک نگاه گسترده‌تر تهامه به خط ساحلی از خلیج عقبه تا باب‌المندب اشاره می‌کند.

در لغت نامه دهخدا این گونه ذکر شده:

تهامه سرزمینی است هموار و ساحلی که از سمت شمال از شبه جزیره سینا تا نواحی یمن جنوبی امتداد دارد. شهرهای مکه، نجران، جدّه، صفا در این منطقه واقع است. به مکه معظمه به همین دلیل، تهامه نیز گفته می‌شود. در این سرزمین قبائلی نیز پیش از اسلام زندگی می‌کردند. دربارهٔ رسول خدا نیز در کنار اوصاف قریشی، ابطحی، مکی و مدنی، تهامی نیز ذکر شده‌است. کوهی نیز در این ناحیه وجود دارد که به کوه تهامه معروف است.

کوه‌های تهامه[ویرایش]

نام موقعیت ارتفاع (متر)
کوه مدی قنا ۱۵۰۰ تقریبًا
کوه برکوک بارق ۱۹۲۲
کوه ضرم بللسمر ۲۲۰۰
کوه ثربان العرضیات ۱۷۴۶
کوه الناطف ۲۱۵۸
کوه الطارقی مکه ۹۰۰
کوه هادا بللسمر ۱۹۲۷
کوه ورقان جنوب غرب مدینه ۲۳۹۳
کوه العریف جازان ۲۶۳۲
کوه القهر جازان ۱۹۴۷
کوه ضجنان[۱] بین مکه و مدینه
کوه العرج[۲] بین مکه و مدینه
کوه ثافل الأکبر[۳][۴] بدر
کوه ثافل الأصغر[۳][۴]
کوه ریدان بارق
کوه نیس غرب الباحه ۱۷۳۰
کوه شدا الأعلی المخواه ۲۹۰۰
کوه شدا الأسفل المخواه
کوه رضوی[۵] ینبع ۲۲۸۲
کوه حراء مکه
کوه عرفه مکه
کوه أبی قبیس مکه
کوه الصفا مکه
کوه المروه مکه
کوه ثبیر مکه
کوه أثرب بارق
کوه أثرب قبیله حواله ۲۵۰۰

منابع[ویرایش]

مشارکت‌کنندگان ویکی‌پدیا. «تهامة». در دانشنامهٔ ویکی‌پدیای عربی، بازبینی‌شده در ۲۲ نوامبر ۲۰۱۸.

منابع[ویرایش]

  1. لسان العرب - محمد بن مکرم بن منظور الأفریقی المصری - دار صادر بیروت الطبعه الأولی - حرف الضاد
  2. معجم ما استعجم من أسماء البلاد والمواضع - عبدالله بن عبد العزیز البکری الأندلسی أبو عبید - عالم الکتب - بیروت الطبعه الثالثه، 1403، الصفحه 738
  3. ۳٫۰ ۳٫۱ معجم البلدان - یاقوت الحموی -دار الفکر بیروت- الجزء 2 الصفحه 71
  4. ۴٫۰ ۴٫۱ أسماء جبال تهامه وجبال مکه والمدینه - عرام بن الأصبغ السلمی - دار الکتب العلمیه - بیروت، نشر سنه 1990
  5. وفاء الوفاء بأخبار دار المصطفی -نور الدین أبو الحسن السمهودی - الطبعه الأولی دار الکتب العلمیه - بیروت - الجزء 4 الصفحه 81

مشارکت‌کنندگان ویکی‌پدیا. «Tihamah». در دانشنامهٔ ویکی‌پدیای انگلیسی، بازبینی‌شده در ۲۶ مارس ۲۰۱۲.

A map of the Arabian Peninsula with the western Tihama region in green

Tihamah or Tihama (Arabic: تِهَامَةTihāmah) refers to the Red Sea coastal plain of the Arabian Peninsula from the Gulf of Aqaba to the Bab el Mandeb.[1]

Etymology

Tihāmat is the Proto-Semitic language's term for 'sea'. Tiamat (or Tehom, in masculine form) was the ancient Canaanite god of the sea and of chaos. The word appears in the Hebrew creation myth as təhōm (Genesis 1:2), meaning ‘primordial ocean, abyss’.[2]

History

Era of Muhammad

During the era of the Islamic Nabi (Prophet) Muhammad, many military expeditions took place here including the Battle of Hamra al-Asad and caravan raids. Beginning in January 623, some of the Muslims resorted to the tradition of raiding the Meccan caravans that traveled along the eastern coast of the Red Sea from Mecca to the Syrian region.[3] Communal life was essential for survival in desert conditions, as people needed support against the harsh environment and lifestyle. The tribal grouping was thus encouraged by the need to act as a unit. This unity was based on the bond of blood kinship that granted regional tribes a common heritage with each other.[4] Peoples of Arabian Peninsula were either nomadic or sedentary, the former constantly traveling from one place to another seeking water and pasture for their flocks, while the latter settled and focused on trade and agriculture. The survival of nomads (or Bedouins) was also partially dependent on raiding caravans or oases, thus they saw this as no crime.[5]

While at Hamra al-Asad, Muhammad made an agreement with Mabad al-Khuzaah at Tihamah, in which Mabad pledged not to conceal anything from him. Mabad was then sent to Mecca to dissuade Abu Sufyan ibn Harb from fighting.[6] In Mecca, Mabad met with Abu Sufyan and exaggerated that Muhammad had gathered a great force to fight Abu Sufyan. Abu Sufyan and his companions were planning a massive and decisive attack on Medina to finish off the Muslims once and for all. Hearing Mabad's talk of the great military strength of Muhammad, Abu Sufyan retreated from his plan of an immediate attack on the Muslims. In this fashion Muhammad successfully managed to prevent the massive onslaught the Meccans were planning.[7][7][8]

Geography

The region is sometimes subdivided into two parts, Tihamat Al-Hejaz (northern part) and Tihamat ʿAsir (southern part).[1] The Yemeni part (Tihamat Al-Yaman) is an extension of Tihamat ʿAsir.[9] The plain is constricted and attains its greatest widths (60 to 80 km) south of Medina and south of Mecca.[1]

The cities of Yanbu, Jeddah and Al Qunfudhah are located in the Hejazi part of Tihamah. The Asiri -Yemeni part of the Tihamah plain includes the cities of Jizan and Al Hudaydah.

The Tihamah coastal plain in the south of Yemen, 1931

The temperatures in Tihamah are probably some of the hottest on earth. Tihamah in Arabic means severe heat and lack of wind.[10]

Flora

The extensive sandy coastal plain (the Tihamah) is a hot and inhospitable area parallel to the Red Sea, and most of it north of Zabid (Yemen) is devoid of trees. However, in a few places there is dense shrub composed almost exclusively of Acacia ehrenbergiana and it may be assumed that this was originally the dominant natural vegetation of the Tihamah. Salvadora persica occurs in thickets, and there are odd trees of Balanites aegyptiaca and colonies of wild doum palm (Hyphaene thebaica) and planted date palms (Phoenix dactylifera).[11]

Archaeology

Over sixteen megalithic menhirs were discovered by Edward Keall, director of the Royal Ontario Museum's Canadian Archaeological Mission near the village of al-Mutaynah in the Tihamah area. The stones were made of granite and weighted up to 20 tonnes (20,000 kg). Three of the upright stones measured around 8 feet (2.4 m) tall with one fallen being over 20 metres (66 ft) in length. Copper tools suggested to date to the same era as the construction of the stones were dated to around 2400 to 1800 BCE. An even more archaic lithic industry was found along with pottery sherds that were dated between 1200 and 800 BCE.[12]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "Arabia", on Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 20 March 2013 :

    The Red Sea coastal plain is constricted throughout its length, attaining its greatest widths, 40 to 50 miles, south of Medina and south of Mecca. The name Tihāmah, used for the whole plain, is sometimes subdivided into Tihāmat Al-Ḥijāz and Tihāmat ʿAsīr.

  2. ^ Semitic languages: an international handbook, edited by Stefan Weninger, Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin/Boston, 2011.
  3. ^ Lapidus, Ira M. (2002). A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge University Press. p. 27. ISBN 9780521779333.
  4. ^ Watt (1953), pp. 16-18
  5. ^ Loyal Rue, Religion Is Not about God: How Spiritual Traditions Nurture Our Biological,2005, p.224
  6. ^ Al-Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman (2002), Sealed Nectar, Dar us Salam, p. 341
  7. ^ a b Habriel, Richard A (2005), Muhammad, Islams first Great general, Blackwell, p. 124, ISBN 978-0-8061-3860-2
  8. ^ Al-Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman (2002), Sealed Nectar, Dar us Salam, p. 342
  9. ^ "Yemen", on Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 20 March 2013 :

    Yemen may be divided into five major regions: a coastal plain running north-south known as the Tihāmah (an extension of the Tihāmat ʿAsīr), the western highlands, the central mountains (the Yemen Highlands), the eastern highlands, and finally the eastern and northeastern desert regions.

  10. ^ Dr. Shawqi Abu Khalil (2004). Atlas on the prophet's Biography. Darussalam. p. 31. ISBN 9960897710. Retrieved 20 March 2013. :

    It is so called because of its severe heat and lack of wind, from the word At-Taham which refers to extreme heat and lack of wind.

  11. ^ Hepper, F.N. (July 1978). "Were There Forests in the Yemen?". Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies. 9 (1979): 65–71. JSTOR 41223217.
  12. ^ Harrington, Spencer., Yemeni Megaliths, Archaeology, the Archaeological Institute of America, December 10, 1997

Further reading