تحریک نوک پستان

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تحریک نوک پستان گابریل دیستری توسط خواهرش، حدود ۱۶۰۰ میلادی.[۱]

تحریک نوک پستان یا تحریک پستان یک رفتار جنسی متداول در انسان است. این عمل می‌تواند بخشی از یک فعالیت جنسی دیگر نیز باشد و می‌تواند توسط افراد از جنسیت‌ها و گرایش‌های جنسی مختلف انجام شود. تحریک پستان معمولاً برای آغاز یا افزایش برانگیختگی جنسی انجام می‌شود.[۲]

رشد و آناتومی[ویرایش]

نوک پستان و هاله پستان هم در جنین پسر و هم در جنین دختر به صورت یکسان نمو پیدا می‌کنند. در دوران بلوغ جنسی، پستان مردان به صورت ابتدایی باقی می‌ماند اما پستان زنان به علت مقدار بیشتر استروژن و پروژسترون رشد می‌کند و بسیار حساس‌تر از پستان مردان می‌شود.[۲] پستان‌های کوچک حساس‌تر از پستان‌های بزرگ هستند.[۲]

واکنش فيزيولوژيک[ویرایش]

تحریک دهانی نوک پستان

تحریک نوک پستان ممکن است باعث ایجاد هیجان جنسی شود. نوک پستان‌های برانگیخته‌شده می‌تواند شاخصه‌ای از برانگیختگی جنسی فرد باشد.[۳][۴] سینه‌ها و به خصوص نوک پستان، مناطق محرک احساسات جنسی هستند.

تحریک دهانی نوک پستان زنان و شیردهی، باعث تحریک ساخت و آزادسازی اکسی‌توسین و پرولاکتین می‌شود.[۵][۶] و علاوه بر ایجاد احساسات مادری، اضطراب زنان را کاهش می‌دهد و باعث ایجاد حس اعتماد و دلبستگی می‌شود.[۷][۸]

اکسی‌توسین در ایجاد برانگیختگی جنسی و رفتار جفت‌پیوندی نقش دارد.[۹] اما محققان در اینکه شیردهی به نوزاد باعث ایجاد احساسات جنسی می‌شود یا خیر، تردید دارند.[۱۰] برانگیختگی نوک پستان هم در هنگام شیردهی و هم درهنگام برانگیختگی جنسی رخ می‌دهد، که نتیجه آزادسازی اکسی‌توسین است. برانگیختگی نوک پستان ناشی از انقباض ماهیچه‌ای صاف است که توسط دستگاه عصبی خودگردان کنترل می‌شود.[۱۱] و یک محصول pilomotor رفلکس است که باعث برجستگی غاز.[۱۲] یک بررسی در سال ۲۰۰۶ میلادی نشان داد که تحریک نوک پستان‌ها باعث ایجاد برانگیختگی جنسی در ۸۲٪ زنان جوان و ۵۲٪ مردان جوان می‌شود. در ۷-۸٪ افراد نیز تحریک نوک پستان‌ها باعث کاهش برانگیختگی جنسی شد.

شمار اندکی از زنان تنها با تحریک نوک پستان به اوج لذت جنسی می‌رسند.[۱۳][۱۴] پیش از پژوهش اف‌ام‌آرآی کومیساروک بر روی تحریک نوک پستان در سال ۲۰۱۱ میلادی، گزارش‌های مبنی بر به ارگاسم رسیدن زنان توسط تحریک نوک پستان تنها بر شواهد حکایتی متکی بودند.[۱۵] پژوهش کومیساروک نقشه رابطه اندام‌های جنسی زنان با بخش‌های گوناگون مغز را تهیه کرد. این پژوهش نشان می دهد که احساس لمس نوک پستان در بخش‌هایی از مغز در یافت می‌شود که این بخش‌ها حس‌های واژن، کلیتوریس، گردن رحم را هم دریافت می‌کنند.[۱۶][۱۷]

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

منابع[ویرایش]

  1. Hagen, Rose-Marie; Rainer Hagen (2002). What Great Paintings Say, Volume 2. Köln: Taschen. p. 205. ISBN 9783822813720. Retrieved 2015-10-22.
  2. ۲٫۰ ۲٫۱ ۲٫۲ Levin, Roy J. "The breast/nipple/areola complex and human sexuality". Sexual & Relationship Therapy. Vol.21, Issue 2 (May 2006). p.237–249
  3. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, Vol 3, May 2006. by Roy Levin.
  4. Levin, R.; Meston, C. (2006). "Nipple/Breast Stimulation and Sexual Arousal in Young Men and Women". The Journal of Sexual Medicine. 3 (3): 450–454. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2006.00230.x. PMID 16681470.
  5. Lauralee Sherwood (2011). Fundamentals of Human Physiology. Cengage Learning. p. 619. ISBN 0840062257. Retrieved August 12, 2017.
  6. E. Malcolm Symonds, Ian M. Symonds, Sabaratnam Arulkumaran (2013). Essential Obstetrics and Gynaecology E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 37. ISBN 0702054755. Retrieved August 12, 2017.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  7. "Physiologic Mechanism of Nipple Stimulation". Medscape Today from WebMD. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
  8. Lee HJ, Macbeth AH, Pagani JH, Young WS (June 2009). "Oxytocin: the Great Facilitator of Life". Progress in Neurobiology. 88 (2): 127–51. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2009.04.001. PMC 2689929. PMID 19482229.
  9. David A. Lovejoy (2005). Neuroendocrinology: An Integrated Approach. John Wiley & Sons. p. 322. ISBN 0470015683. Retrieved August 12, 2017.
  10. Margaret Neville (2013). Lactation: Physiology, Nutrition, and Breast-Feeding. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 358. ISBN 1461336880. Retrieved August 12, 2017.
  11. Jahangir Moini (2015). Anatomy and Physiology for Health Professionals. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. p. 568. ISBN 1284090353. Retrieved August 12, 2017.
  12. Kevin T. Patton (2015). Anatomy and Physiology - E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 186. ISBN 0323316875. Retrieved August 12, 2017.
  13. Alfred C. Kinsey, Wardell B. Pomeroy, Clyde E. Martin, Paul H. Gebhard (1998). Sexual Behavior in the Human Female. Indiana University Press. p. 587. ISBN 0253019249. Retrieved August 12, 2017. There are some females who appear to find no erotic satisfaction in having their breasts manipulated; perhaps half of them derive some distinct satisfaction, but not more than a very small percentage ever respond intensely enough to reach orgasm as a result of such stimulation (Chapter 5). [...] Records of females reaching orgasm from breast stimulation alone are rare.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  14. Boston Women's Health Book Collective (1996). The New Our Bodies, Ourselves: A Book by and for Women. Simon & Schuster. p. 575. ISBN 0684823527. Retrieved August 12, 2017. A few women can even experience orgasm from breast stimulation alone.
  15. Merril D. Smith (2014). Cultural Encyclopedia of the Breast. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 71. ISBN 0759123322. Retrieved August 12, 2017.
  16. Justin J. Lehmiller (2013). The Psychology of Human Sexuality. John Wiley & Sons. p. 120. ISBN 1118351320. Retrieved August 12, 2017.
  17. Komisaruk, B. R., Wise, N., Frangos, E., Liu, W.-C., Allen, K. and Brody, S. (2011). "Women's Clitoris, Vagina, and Cervix Mapped on the Sensory Cortex: fMRI Evidence". The Journal of Sexual Medicine. 8 (10): 2822–30. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2011.02388.x. PMC 3186818. PMID 21797981.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
Gabrielle d'Estrées's rouged nipple is tweaked by her sister, the Duchess of Villars, circa 1600.[1]

Nipple stimulation or breast stimulation is stimulation of the breast. Stimulation may be by breastfeeding, sexual activity, or an indirect non-sexual response. As part of sexual activity, the practice may be performed upon, or by, people of any gender or sexual orientation. It may occur with the use of fingers, orally, such as by sucking or licking, as well as by use of an object. Nipple stimulation may produce sexual excitement, and erect nipples can be an indicator of an individual's sexual arousal. Adult women and men report that breast stimulation may be used to both initiate and enhance sexual arousal,[2] and a few women report experiencing orgasm from nipple stimulation.[3][4]

Development and anatomy

Male and female breasts, nipples and areolas develop similarly in the fetus and during infancy. At puberty, the male's breasts remain rudimentary but the female's develop further, mainly due to the presence of estrogen and progesterone, and become much more sensitive than the male ones.[2] Smaller female breasts, however, are more sensitive than larger ones.[2]

Physiological response

Oral nipple stimulation

Breasts, and especially the nipples, are erogenous zones. Nipple stimulation may result in sexual arousal, and erect nipples can be an indicator of an individual's sexual arousal. The individual's sexual partner may find such erection erotically stimulating.[5][6] A survey in 2006 found that sexual arousal in about 82% of young females and 52% of young males occurs or is enhanced by direct stimulation of nipples, with only 7–8% reporting that it decreased their arousal.[5][6]

The stimulation of women's nipples from suckling, including breastfeeding, promotes the production and release of oxytocin and prolactin.[7][8] Besides creating maternal feelings, it also decreases a woman's anxiety and increases feelings of bonding and trust.[9][10] Oxytocin is linked to sexual arousal and pair bonding,[11] but researchers are divided on whether breastfeeding commonly incites sexual feelings.[12] Nipple erection during sexual arousal or breastfeeding are both caused by the release of oxytocin.[12] Nipple erection is due to the contraction of smooth muscle under the control of the autonomic nervous system,[13] and is a product of the pilomotor reflex which causes goose bumps.[14]

Few women report experiencing orgasm from nipple stimulation.[3][4] Before Komisaruk et al.'s functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) research on nipple stimulation in 2011, reports of women achieving orgasm from nipple stimulation relied solely on anecdotal evidence.[15] Komisaruk's study was the first to map the female genitals onto the sensory portion of the brain; it indicates that sensation from the nipples travels to the same part of the brain as sensations from the vagina, clitoris and cervix, and that these reported orgasms are genital orgasms caused by nipple stimulation, and may be directly linked to the genital sensory cortex ("the genital area of the brain").[15][16][17]

Fondling breasts and pat-downs

Images galantes et esprit de l'etranger (“Gallant images and spirit of the foreigner“) (1905)

Even in places where the public display of affection is considered acceptable, fondling or touching a woman's breasts in public is generally considered groping and an assault, and is commonly regarded as unacceptable. This is especially the case if the woman has not expressly consented.[18] Touching a consenting woman's body during sexual activity, massage, or medical examination is not usually considered groping.

The practice of women being subjected to a pat down by officers, such as customs or security officers at airports, is controversial,[19] though most women reluctantly accept being touched in this manner as a fact of modern life.[20] Such behaviour by public officials requires a clear legal authorization. To mitigate the objections to the practice, full body scanners are being widely installed, especially at airports; but these devices are subject to other objections.

See also

References

  1. ^ Hagen, Rose-Marie; Rainer Hagen (2002). What Great Paintings Say, Volume 2. Köln: Taschen. p. 205. ISBN 9783822813720. Retrieved 22 October 2015.
  2. ^ a b c Levin, Roy J. "The breast/nipple/areola complex and human sexuality". Sexual & Relationship Therapy. Vol.21, Issue 2 (May 2006). p.237–249
  3. ^ a b Alfred C. Kinsey, Wardell B. Pomeroy, Clyde E. Martin, Paul H. Gebhard (1998). Sexual Behavior in the Human Female. Indiana University Press. p. 587. ISBN 978-0253019240. Retrieved 12 August 2017. There are some females who appear to find no erotic satisfaction in having their breasts manipulated; perhaps half of them derive some distinct satisfaction, but not more than a very small percentage ever respond intensely enough to reach orgasm as a result of such stimulation (Chapter 5). [...] Records of females reaching orgasm from breast stimulation alone are rare.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  4. ^ a b Boston Women's Health Book Collective (1996). The New Our Bodies, Ourselves: A Book by and for Women. Simon & Schuster. p. 575. ISBN 978-0684823522. Retrieved 12 August 2017. A few women can even experience orgasm from breast stimulation alone.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  5. ^ a b The Journal of Sexual Medicine, Vol 3, May 2006. by Roy Levin.
  6. ^ a b Levin, R.; Meston, C. (2006). "Nipple/Breast Stimulation and Sexual Arousal in Young Men and Women". The Journal of Sexual Medicine. 3 (3): 450–454. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.421.7798. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2006.00230.x. PMID 16681470.
  7. ^ Lauralee Sherwood (2011). Fundamentals of Human Physiology. Cengage Learning. p. 619. ISBN 978-0840062253. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  8. ^ E. Malcolm Symonds, Ian M. Symonds, Sabaratnam Arulkumaran (2013). Essential Obstetrics and Gynaecology E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 37. ISBN 978-0702054754. Retrieved 12 August 2017.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  9. ^ "Physiologic Mechanism of Nipple Stimulation". Medscape Today from WebMD. Retrieved 20 November 2010.
  10. ^ Lee HJ, Macbeth AH, Pagani JH, Young WS (June 2009). "Oxytocin: the Great Facilitator of Life". Progress in Neurobiology. 88 (2): 127–51. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2009.04.001. PMC 2689929. PMID 19482229.
  11. ^ David A. Lovejoy (2005). Neuroendocrinology: An Integrated Approach. John Wiley & Sons. p. 322. ISBN 978-0470015681. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  12. ^ a b Margaret Neville (2013). Lactation: Physiology, Nutrition, and Breast-Feeding. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 358. ISBN 978-1461336884. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  13. ^ Jahangir Moini (2015). Anatomy and Physiology for Health Professionals. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. p. 568. ISBN 978-1284090352. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  14. ^ Kevin T. Patton (2015). Anatomy and Physiology - E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 186. ISBN 978-0323316873. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  15. ^ a b Merril D. Smith (2014). Cultural Encyclopedia of the Breast. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 71. ISBN 978-0759123328. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  16. ^ Justin J. Lehmiller (2013). The Psychology of Human Sexuality. John Wiley & Sons. p. 120. ISBN 978-1118351321. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  17. ^ Komisaruk, B. R., Wise, N., Frangos, E., Liu, W.-C., Allen, K. and Brody, S. (2011). "Women's Clitoris, Vagina, and Cervix Mapped on the Sensory Cortex: fMRI Evidence". The Journal of Sexual Medicine. 8 (10): 2822–30. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2011.02388.x. PMC 3186818. PMID 21797981.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  18. ^ Nurse who fondled mental health patient's breasts struck off
  19. ^ Diana Ross’ TSA pat-down investigation closed
  20. ^ Miley Cyrus says she enjoys airport security pat-downs