تبار داوود ( که بیت داوود نیز گفته میشود در عبری:מלכות בית דוד به معنی بیت پادشاهی داوود) به نسل داوود نبی در عهد عتیق و عهد جدید اشاره میکند. واژه "بیت داوود" در بسیاری قسمتهای کتاب مقدس به کار رفتهاست.
در عبری این مراسم مسح شدن نام دارد که برای مسیحا به کار میرود. اینکار سمبل ریخته شدن قداست خداوند بر روی او (کدوشا) و پیمانی است که هیچ وقت از بین نمیرود.در ابتدا داوود تنها به قبیله یهودا حکومت میکرد ولیکن بعد از هفت سال تمامی اسرائیل او را به عنوان پادشاه قبول کردند. تمامی پادشاهان بعدی پادشاهی اسرائیل (پادشاهی متحد) و بعداً پادشاهی یهودا از نسل داوود بوده و دلیل مقبول بودن آنها به عنوان شاه همین نسل پادشاهی بود. بعد از مرگ سلیمان ده قبیله پادشاهی شمالی اسرائیل نسل داوود را رد کرده و رهبعام را که نسل داوود را نداشت به عنوان شاه خود انتخاب کردند.
نفرین ارمیا به نسل سلیمان[ویرایش]
به دلیل کارهای کفرآمیز جهویاشین در حدود سال ۵۰۰ قبل از میلاد، ارمیای نبی نسل سلیمان را نفرین کرد و وعده داد که از کونیاه هیچ پادشاهی به اسرائیل حکومت نخواهد کرد. بعضی تصور میکنند به دلیل این نفرین است که زروبابل که از نسل سلیمان بود در زمان نحمیا و پادشاهی پارسیان به عنوان استاندار یهودا انتخاب نشد. بعضی مسیحیان تصور میکنند که به دلیل این نفرین است که نسل سلیمان در انجیل متی ۱ مربوط به نسل پدرخوانده عیسی، یوسف است. تبار مریم مادر عیسی که در انجیل لوقا ۳ ذکر شدهاست به ناتان برادر سلیمان میرسد.
بعد از حمله بابلیان به پادشاهی یهودا و اسارت یهودیان در بابل راس جالوت در بابل ایجاد شد. تمامی راس جالوتها قادر بودند که تبار خود را تا داوود دنبال کنند. این راس جالوتها به صورت سنتی به عنوان پادشاهانی بودند که در انتظار بودند.
در فرجامشناسی یهودی[ویرایش]
در فرجامشناسی یهودی مسیحای یهودی باید از نسل داوود ("درخت زندگی") باشد. بسیاری دعاهای یهودی نظیر سیدور در مورد بازگشت پادشاهی داوود و ظهور مسیح بن داوود صحبت میکند. به دلیل مشکل بودن شناخت مسیحا، یهودیان برای ظهور مجدد الیاس نبی دعا میکنند که آنها را در شناخت مسیحا یاری دهد.
مشارکتکنندگان ویکیپدیا. «دانشنامهٔ ویکیپدیای انگلیسی، بازبینیشده در ۵ مرداد ۹۳٫.». در
The Davidic line or House of David (known in Hebrew as Malkhut Beit David, מלכות בית דוד – "Kingdom of the House of David") refers to the lineage of King David through the texts in the Hebrew Bible, in the New Testament, and through the succeeding centuries.
Initially, David was king over the Tribe of Judah only and ruled from Hebron, but after seven and a half years, the other Israelite tribes, who found themselves leaderless after the death of Ish-bosheth, chose him to be their king as well.
All subsequent kings in both the ancient first united Kingdom of Israel and the later Kingdom of Judah claimed direct descent from King David to validate their claim to the throne in order to rule over the Israelite tribes.
After the death of David's son, King Solomon, the ten northern tribes of the Kingdom of Israel rejected the Davidic line, refusing to accept Solomon's son, Rehoboam, and instead chose as king Jeroboam and formed the northern Kingdom of Israel. This kingdom was conquered by the Neo-Assyrian Empire in the 8th century BCE which exiled much of the Northern Kingdom population and ended its sovereign status. The bulk population of the Northern Kingdom of Israel was forced to relocate to Mesopotamia and mostly disappeared from history as The Ten Lost Tribes or intermixed with exiled Judean populations two centuries later, while the remaining Israelite peoples in Samaria highlands have become known as Samaritans during the classic era and to modern times.
Following the conquest of Judah by Babylon and the exile of its population, the Babylonian Exilarchate was established. The highest official of Babylonian Jewry was the exilarch (Reish Galuta, "Head of the Diaspora"). Those who held the position traced their ancestry to the House of David in the male line. The position holder was regarded as a king-in-waiting, residing in Babylon and later in the Achaemenid Empire during the classic era. Zerubbabel of the Davidic line is mentioned as one of the leaders of the Jewish community in the 5th century BCE, holding the title of Achaeminid Governor of Yehud Medinata.
During the Hasmonean and Herodian periods
The Hasmoneans, also known as the Maccabees, were a priestly group (kohanim) from the Tribe of Levi. They established their own monarchy in Judea following their revolt against the Hellenistic Seleucid dynasty. The Hasmoneans were not considered connected to the Davidic line nor to the Tribe of Judah. The Levites had always been excluded from the Israelite monarchy, so when the Maccabees assumed the throne in order to rededicate the defiled Second Temple, a cardinal rule was broken. According to scholars within Orthodox Judaism, this is considered to have contributed to their downfall and the eventual downfall of Judea; internal strife allowing for Roman occupation and the violent installation of Herod the Great as client king over the Roman province of Judea; and the subsequent destruction of the Second Temple by the future Emperor Titus.
During the Hasmonean period the Davidic line was largely excluded from the royal house in Judea, but some members had risen to prominence as religious and communal leaders. One of the most notable of those was Hillel the Elder, who moved to Judea from his birthplace in Babylon. His great grandson Simeon ben Gamliel became one of the Jewish leaders during the Great Revolt.
The Exilarchate institution in Sasanian Persia was briefly abolished as a result of revolt by the Mar-Zutra II (the 30th Exilarch) in the late 5th century, with his son Mar-Zutra III being denied of the office and relocating to Tiberias - then within the Byzantine Empire. Mar Ahunai lived in the period succeeding Mar Zutra II, but for almost fifty years after the failed revolt he did not dare to appear in public, and it is not known whether even then (c. 550) he really acted as Exilarch. The names of Kafnai and his son Haninai, who were Exilarchs in the second half of the 6th century, have been preserved.
The Exilarchate in Mesopotamia was officially restored after the Arab conquest in the 7th century and continued to function during the early Caliphates. Haninai's posthumous son Bostanai was the first of the Exilarchs under Arabic rule. Exilarchs continued to be appointed until the 11th century, with some members of the Davidic line dispersing across the Islamic world. Natronai ben Habibai for instance was a rival Exilarch candidate of Judah Zakkai, but was defeated and sent to the West in banishment; this Natronai was a great scholar and according to tradition while in Spain compiled the entire Talmud of his memory. There are conflicting accounts of the fate of the Exlarch family in the 11th century - according to one version Hezekiah ben David, who was the last Exilarch and also the last Gaon, was imprisoned and tortured to death. Two of his sons fled to al-Andalus, where they found refuge with Joseph, the son and successor of Samuel ha-Nagid. However, Jewish Quarterly Review mentions that Hezekiah was liberated from prison, and became head of the academy, and is mentioned as such by a contemporary in 1046. An unsuccessful attempt of David ben Daniel of the Davidic line to establish an Exilarchate in the Fatimid Caliphate failed and ended with his downfall in 1094.
Descendants of the house of exilarchs were living in various places long after the office became extinct. The grandson of Hezekiah ben David through his eldest son David ben Chyzkia, Hiyya al-Daudi, Gaon of Andalucia, died in 1154 in Castile according to Abraham ibn Daud and is the ancestor of the ibn Yahya family. Hezekiah ben David's second son Yitzhak (Isaac) ben Chyzkia is the progenitor of the Benveniste family and its Halevi Benveniste and Benveniste de la Cavalleria branches. Several families, as late as the 14th century, traced their descent back to Josiah, the brother of David ben Zakkai who had been banished to Chorasan (see the genealogies in [Lazarus 1890] pp. 180 et seq.). The descendants of the Karaite Exilarchs have been referred to above.
A number of Jewish families in the Iberian peninsula and within Mesopotamia continued to preserve the tradition of descent from Exilarchs in the Late Middle Ages, including the families of Abravanel, Benveniste, ibn Yahya and Ben-David. One tradition also traces the ancestry of Judah Loew ben Bezalel to Babylonian Exilarchs (during the era of the geonim) and therefore also from the Davidic dynasty, which is however disputed.
In the 11th-15th century, these families referred as heads of the Diaspora or Exiliarchs from Babylon lived in the South of France (Narbonne and Provence) and in northern Spain (Barcelona, Aragon and Castile). These families received the title "Nasi" in the communities and were called "free men". They had a special economic and social status in the Jewish community. They were close to the government, and some served as advisers and tax collectors/finance ministers.
These families had special rights in Narbonne, Barcelona, the Knights Templar and Castile. They possessed real state and received the title "Don" and "de la Kblriih" ("De la Cavalleria"). Among the families of the "Sons of the Free" are the families of ibn Ezra, HaLevi, Abulafia, Benvenisti, Shaltiel and others. There is evidence (including a mix of names) that some of these families married each other (especially Hasdai, Shaltiel, Halevi and Benveniste) in Barcelona and Castile in the 12th-14th centuries.
In Jewish eschatology, the term mashiach, or "Messiah", came to refer to a future Jewish King from the Davidic line, who is expected to be anointed with holy anointing oil and rule the Jewish people during the Messianic Age. The Messiah is often referred to as "King Messiah", or, in Hebrew, מלך משיח (melekh mashiach), and, in Aramaic, malka meshiḥa.
Orthodox views have generally held that the Messiah will be a patrilineal descendant of King David, and will gather the Jews back into the Land of Israel, usher in an era of peace, build the Third Temple, father a male heir, re-institute the Sanhedrin, and so on. Jewish tradition alludes to two redeemers, both of whom are called mashiach and are involved in ushering in the Messianic age: Mashiach ben David; and Mashiach ben Yosef. In general, the term Messiah unqualified refers to Mashiach ben David (Messiah, son of David).
In Christian interpretation the "Davidic covenant" of a Davidic line in 2 Samuel 7 is understood in various ways, traditionally referring to the genealogies of Christ in the New Testament. One Christian interpretation of the Davidic line counts the line continuing to Jesus of Nazareth via adoption of Joseph of Nazareth, according to the family tree of the kings of Judah in Matthew 1:1-16 (the later part of which is not recorded in the Hebrew Bible), and also in Luke 3:23-38.
As it has been historically accepted among Jews that the Messiah will be a male-line descendant of David, the lineage of Jesus of Nazareth is sometimes cited as a factor as to why Jews do not believe him to have been the Messiah. As the proposed son of God, he could not have been a male-line descendant of David and, if going through his earthly parents, Mary and Joseph, he would not have had the proper lineage either, as he would not have been a male-line descendant through Mary and Joseph descended from Jeconiah, whose descendants are explicitly barred by God from ever ruling Israel.
Another Christian interpretation emphasizes the minor, non-royal, line of David through Solomon's brother Nathan as recorded in Gospel of Luke chapter 3 (entirely undocumented in the Hebrew Bible), which is often understood to be the family tree of Mary's father. A widely spread traditional Christian interpretation relates the non-continuation of the main Davidic line from Solomon as related the godlessness of Jehoiachin in the early 500s BC, where Jeremiah cursed the main branch of the Solomonic line, saying that no descendant of "[Je]Coniah" would ever again reign on the throne of Israel (Jeremiah 22:30). This same "curse" is also considered by some Christian commentators as the reason that Zerubbabel, the rightful Solomonic king during the time of Nehemiah, was not given a kingship under the Persian empire.
The Tree of Jesse (referencing David' father) is a traditional Christian artistic representation of Jesus' genealogical connection to David.
Latter Day Saint interpretations
The Latter Day Saint movement accepts Christ as the "Stem of Jesse" and as the Messiah. In addition, Mormon eschatology includes multiple references to other prophesied Davidic figures, including one by the name of David who would come in the last days to inherit the throne and kingdom of David.
According to some Islamic sources, some of the Jewish settlers in Arabia were of the Davidic line, Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi recorded: "A Jewish man from the Davidic line entered Medina and found the people in deep sorrow. He enquired the people, 'What is wrong?' Some of the people replied: Prophet Mohamed passed away".