بی‌خدایی یهودی

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بی‌خدایی یهودی به نوعی بی‌خدایی اطلاق می‌شود که در آن فرد از نظر نژادی و تا حدودی فرهنگی یهودی است. چون یهودی‌بودن به جز بخش مذهبی، مؤلفه نژادی هم دارد، عبارت «بی‌خدایی یهودی» لزوماً متناقض نیست. حتی برخی یهودیان ارتدکس هم فرد بی‌خدایی که مادر یهودی داشته باشد کاملاً یهودی می‌دانند زیرا یهودیت بر اساس شرع یهودی یا هلاخا از طریق نژاد و نه عقیده به خدا منتقل می‌شود.[۱] بر اساس آمار از جامعه یهودیان آمریکا بیش از نیمی یهودیان آمریکا بیخدا هستند در صورتی که این رقم در مورد گروه‌های دیگر مذهبی بین ۱۰ تا ۱۵ درصد است.

زندگی یهودی[ویرایش]

بیشتر یهودیان بیخدا در بین گروه‌های مذهبی یهودی نظیر یهودیت رفرم، محافظه کار و ساختارگار احساس راحتی می‌کنند. این تضاد ممکن است کمتر از آن باشد که به نظر می‌رسد زیرا یهودیت اهمیت بیشتری بر اعمال نسبت به اعتقادات دارد. بعضی شاخه‌های یهودیت اعتقاد دارند که اعتقاد به خداوند لازمه انجام عبادات یهودی نیست.

افراد مشهور[ویرایش]

به صورت تاریخی بسیاری یهودیان وجود خدا را انکار کرده‌اند. در سال ۱۶۵۶ فیلسوف یهودی باروخ اسپینوزا ایده جدیدی از خدا ارائه کرد که با پانتئیسم همخوانی داشت و پایه‌گذار بیخدایی یهودی شد. آلبرت اینشتین که خود را به شدت یهودی می‌دانست، وجود خداوند را به عنوان خدای شخصی انکار می‌کرد. ستاره‌شناس معروف کارل ساگان که در یک خانواده یهودی به دنیا آمده بود و با یهودی بودن خود مشکلی نداشت، وجود خداوند را انکار می‌نمود.

معروفترین یهودی بیخدا کارل مارکس رهبر جنبش کمونیسم بود. او که در یک خانواده یهودی به دنیا آمده بود و در تعالیم مسیحی لوتران بزرگ شده بود دین را افیون توده‌ها می‌خواند. او به همراه متفکرین یهودی دیگر نظیر موسی هس بنیانگذار جنبشهای بیخدایی مدرن گردیدند.

بسیاری دیگر از یهودیان معروف نیز بیخدا بودند. سیگموند فروید روانشناس معروف دین را مورد انتقاد قرار می‌داد ولیکن به همکار یهودی خود توصیه می‌کرد که فرزند خود را در دین یهودیت بزرگ کند. اما گلدمن آنارشیست معروف در یک خانواده یهودی ارتدوکس به دنیا آمده بود. گلدا میر رئیس‌جمهور سابق کشور اسرائیل وقتی از او سؤال شد که آیا به خدا اعتقاد دارد گفت: «من به قوم یهود اعتقاد دارم و قوم یهود به خدا اعتقاد دارد.» ژاک دریدا فیلسوف یهودی فرانسوی خود را یک آتئیست خواند. وودی آلن کارگردان معروف یهودی بارها به تضاد درونی خود در مورد یهودی بودن و باورهای خود اشاره کرده بود. دیوید سیلورمن رئیس حزب آتئیستهای آمریکایی بعد از بارمیتزوا خود بیان کرد که دیگر دربارهٔ آتئیست بودن خود دروغ نخواهد گفت.

منابع[ویرایش]

Jewish atheism refers to the atheism of people who are ethnically and (at least to some extent) culturally Jewish. Because Jewish identity is ethnoreligious (i.e., it encompasses ethnic as well as religious components), the term "Jewish atheism" does not inherently entail a contradiction.

Based on Jewish law's emphasis on matrilineal descent, even religiously conservative Orthodox Jewish authorities would accept an atheist born to a Jewish mother as fully Jewish.[1] A 2011 study found that half of all American Jews have doubts about the existence of God, compared to 10–15% of other American religious groups.[2]

Organized Jewish life

There has been a phenomenon of atheistic and secular Jewish organizations, mostly in the past century, from the Jewish socialist Bund in early twentieth-century Poland to the modern Congress of Secular Jewish Organizations and the Society for Humanistic Judaism in the United States. Many Jewish atheists feel comfortable within any of the three major non-Orthodox Jewish denominations (Reform, Conservative, and Reconstructionist). This presents less of a contradiction than might first seem apparent, given Judaism's emphasis on practice over belief, with even mainstream guides to Judaism suggesting that belief in God is not a necessary prerequisite to Jewish observance.[3] However, Orthodox Judaism regards the acceptance of the "Yoke of Heaven" (the sovereignty of the God of Israel in the world and the divine origin of the Torah) as a fundamental obligation for Jews. Even among non-Orthodox Jews, espousing atheism remains problematic outside of the Congress of Secular Jewish Organizations and the Society for Humanistic Judaism. The Reform movement, for example, has rejected efforts at affiliation by atheistic temples.[4] The presence of atheists in all denominations of modern Judaism, from Secular Humanistic Judaism to Orthodoxy, has been noted.[5]

Jewish theology

Liberal Jewish theology makes few metaphysical claims, and is thus compatible with atheism on an ontological level. The founder of Reconstructionist Judaism, Mordechai Kaplan, espoused a naturalistic definition of God, while some post-Holocaust theology has also eschewed a personal god.[6][7] The Jewish philosopher Howard Wettstein has advanced a non-metaphysical approach to religious commitment, according to which metaphysical theism-atheism is not the issue.[8] Harold Schulweis, a Conservative rabbi trained in the Reconstructionist tradition, has argued that Jewish theology should move from a focus on God to an emphasis on "godliness." This "predicate theology", while continuing to use theistic language, again makes few metaphysical claims that non-believers would find objectionable.[9][10]

However, some Jewish atheists remain deeply uncomfortable with the use of any kind of theistic language. For such Jews traditional practice and symbolism can still retain powerful meaning. They may continue to engage in Jewish rituals such as the lighting of Shabbat candles and find meaning in many aspects of Jewish culture and religion. For example, to an atheist Jew, the Menorah might represent the power of the Jewish spirit or stand as a symbol of the fight against assimilation or simply as a celebration of a historical event, which is a debate even in theistic Jewish circles. No mention of a divine force in Jewish history would be accepted literally; the Torah may be viewed as a common mythology of the Jewish people, not a faith document or correct history.[citation needed]

Secular Jewish culture

Many Jewish atheists would reject even this level of ritualized and symbolic identification, instead embracing a thoroughgoing secularism and basing their Jewishness entirely in ethnicity and secular Jewish culture. Possibilities for secular Jewishness include an identification with Jewish history and peoplehood, immersion in Jewish literature (including such non-religious Jewish authors as Philip Roth and Amos Oz), the consumption of Jewish food, the use of Jewish humor, and an attachment to Jewish languages such as Yiddish, Hebrew or Ladino. A high percentage of Israeli Jews identify themselves as secular, rejecting some religious practices (see Religion in Israel). While some non-believers of Jewish ancestry do not consider themselves Jews, preferring to define themselves solely as atheists, some would argue that Judaism is arguably a culture and tradition that can be embraced without religious faith, despite Jewish culture revolving around Abrahamic conceptions of God.[11]

Notable people

Historically, many well-known Jews have rejected a belief in deities. Some have denied the existence of a traditional deity while continuing to use religious language. In 1656, the seventeenth-century Jewish philosopher Baruch Spinoza was excommunicated by Amsterdam's Sephardic synagogue after advancing a pantheist notion of God that, according to some observers, is both compatible with and paved the way for modern atheism.[12] Deeply influenced by Spinoza, Albert Einstein used theistic language and identified strongly as a Jew, while rejecting the notion of a personal god.[13] The astrophysicist Carl Sagan was born into a Jewish family and was a non-theist.[14]

Karl Marx was born into an ethnically Jewish family but raised as a Lutheran, and is among the most notable and influential atheist thinkers of modern history; he developed dialectical and historical materialism which became the basis for his critique of capitalism and his theories of scientific socialism. Marx became a major influence among other prominent Jewish intellectuals including Moses Hess. In one of his most cited comments on religion he stated: "Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opium of the people."

Some other famous Jews have wholeheartedly embraced atheism, rejecting religiosity altogether. Sigmund Freud penned The Future of an Illusion, in which he both eschewed religious belief and outlined its origins and prospects. At the same time he urged a Jewish colleague to raise his son within the Jewish religion, arguing that "If you do not let your son grow up as a Jew, you will deprive him of those sources of energy which cannot be replaced by anything else."[15] The anarchist Emma Goldman was born to an Orthodox Jewish family and rejected belief in God,[16] while the Israeli prime minister Golda Meir, when asked if she believed in God, answered "I believe in the Jewish people, and the Jewish people believe in God."[17] More recently, the French Jewish philosopher Jacques Derrida stated somewhat cryptically, "I rightly pass for an atheist".[18] In the world of entertainment, Woody Allen has made a career out of the tension between his Jewishness and religious doubt ("Not only is there no God, but try getting a plumber on weekends").[19] David Silverman, president of the American Atheists since 2010, swore after his bar mitzvah that he would never again lie about not being an atheist.[20]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "What Makes a Jew "Jewish"?". Chabad.org. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
  2. ^ Winston, Kimberly (September 26, 2011). "Judaism without God? Yes, say American atheists". USA Today. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
  3. ^ Septimus, Daniel (January 10, 2003). "Must a Jew Believe in God?". MyJewishLearning.com. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
  4. ^ "Reform Jews Reject a Temple Without God". New York Times. June 13, 1994. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
  5. ^ Berlinerblau, Jacques (November 6, 2007). "In Praise of Jewish Atheism". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
  6. ^ Kaplan, Mordechai (1937). The Meaning of God in Modern Jewish Religion. New York: Behrman's Jewish book house.
  7. ^ Rubenstein, Richard (1966). After Auschwitz: Radical Theology and Contemporary Judaism. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. p. 87. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
  8. ^ Wettstein, Howard (2012). The Significance of Religious Experience. Oxford University Press. pp. 27, 212–213. ISBN 9780199841363.
  9. ^ Schulweis, Harold M. (1984). Evil and the Morality of God. Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College Press. p. 87. ISBN 9780878201563.
  10. ^ Schulweis, Harold M. (1995). For Those Who Can't Believe: Overcoming the Obstacles to Faith. Harper Perennial. p. 133. ISBN 9780060926519.
  11. ^ An example of an atheist rejecting Jewish identification is cited here: Blowdryer, Jennifer; Orloff, Alvin (January 2005). "Hipster Antisemitism". Zeek.com. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
  12. ^ Hitchens, Christopher, ed. (2007). The Portable Atheist. Philadelphia: Da Capo Press. p. 21. ISBN 9780306816086.
  13. ^ "Einstein and his God". Moment. April 2007. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
  14. ^ Sagan, Carl (February 12, 1986). "23". Broca's Brain: Reflections on the Romance of Science. Ballantine Book. p. 335. ISBN 0-345-33689-5.
  15. ^ Ariel, David S. (1995). What Do Jews Believe?. New York: Shocken Books. p. 248. ISBN 9780805210590.
  16. ^ Hitchens, Christopher, ed. (2007). "The Philosophy of Atheism". The Portable Atheist. Philadelphia: Da Capo Press. pp. 129–133. ISBN 9780306816086.
  17. ^ Rosen, Jonathan (December 14, 2003). "So Was It Odd of God?". The New York Times. Retrieved December 22, 2018. He seems to subscribe to Golda Meir's observation: "I believe in the Jewish people, and the Jewish people believe in God."
  18. ^ McLemee, Scott (October 11, 2004). "Jacques Derrida, Thinker Who Influenced and Infuriated a Range of Humanistic Fields, Dies at 74". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
  19. ^ "Woody Allen Quotes". Retrieved December 22, 2018.
  20. ^ Freethought Arizona (December 12, 2013). "Dave Silverman "I'm an Atheist (And So Are You); Why I've Changed My Mind on Jewish Atheism"". Retrieved December 22, 2018.