بافت (زبان‌شناسی)

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منظور از بافت (به انگلیسی: Context) در زبان‌شناسی عبارت از محیط، متن، حالات و شرایطی است که در آن به بیان کلام[۱] اقدام گردیده است.

مغلطهٔ یک کلمه، یک معنی[ویرایش]

معانی کلمات، همواره، در حال تغییر و جابجایی است. معمولاً، مردم این را از دید بدشانسی نگاه می‌کنند، چرا که، خود همین می‌تواند به تفکر نادقیق و نیز سردرگمی ذهنی برخی از انسان‌ها بینجامد. به منظور مرتفع نمودن این مشکل، ممکن است عده‌ای بیندیشند که خوب است همهٔ آدم‌ها توافق کنند که هر کلمه در زبان تنها یک معنی داشته باشد، و آن کلمه همیشه و توسط همگان به همان معنای توافق‌شده به‌کار رود.

قدم بعدی عبارت از تلاش در راستای کسب اطمینان از حسن اجرای چنین توافقی‌ست، که همواره عدم امکان آن در عمل پیش خواهد آمد، حتی اگر که، کمیته‌ای از واژه‌گزینان و لغت‌نویسان تشکیل دهیم تا با سخت‌ترین شیوه‌های دیکته نمودن، همهٔ دفاتر روزنامه‌ها را سانسور کرده، و در هر خانه‌ای یک ضبط صوت قرار دهیم.[۲]

اصالت جوهر در زبان‌شناسی[ویرایش]

مقالهٔ اصلی: اصالت جوهر در زبان‌شناسی

معمولاً، اصالت جوهر در زبان‌شناسی را به معنای اعتقاد به وجود یک معنای صحیح برای هر کلمه، و نیز، قدرت و توانایی ما بر تعریف دقیق و عینی[۳] اطلاعات نهایی پیرامون ذات و جوهر شیئی است که آن واژه بدان دلالت دارد.

پانوشته‌ها[ویرایش]

  1. Discourse
  2. LANGUAGE IN ACTION, A Guide to Accurate Thinking, p. 64
  3. Objective

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

منابع[ویرایش]

  • Hayakawa, S(amuel) I(chiye)، LANGUAGE IN ACTION, A Guide to Accurate Thinking، به کوشش Leo Hamalian and Geoffrey Wagner.، New York: Harcourt, Brace & World

پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]

In semiotics, linguistics, sociology and anthropology, context refers to those objects or entities which surround a focal event, in these disciplines typically a communicative event, of some kind. Context is "a frame that surrounds the event and provides resources for its appropriate interpretation".[1]:2–3 It is thus a relative concept, only definable with respect to some focal event within a frame, not independently of that frame.

In linguistics

Verbal context refers to the text or speech surrounding an expression (word, sentence, or speech act). Verbal context influences the way an expression is understood; hence the norm of not citing people out of context. Since much contemporary linguistics takes texts, discourses, or conversations as the object of analysis, the modern study of verbal context takes place in terms of the analysis of discourse structures and their mutual relationships, for instance the coherence relation between sentences.

Neurolinguistic analysis of context has shown that the interaction between interlocutors defined as parsers creates a reaction in the brain that reflects predictive and interpretative reactions. It can be said then, that mutual knowledge, co-text, genre, speakers, hearers create a neurolinguistic composition of context.[2]

Traditionally, in sociolinguistics, social contexts were defined in terms of objective social variables, such as those of class, gender, age or race. More recently, social contexts tend to be defined in terms of the social identity being construed and displayed in text and talk by language users. Influenced by space.

The influence of context parameters on language use or discourse is usually studied in terms of language variation, style or register (see Stylistics). The basic assumption here is that language users adapt the properties of their language use (such as intonation, lexical choice, syntax, and other aspects of formulation) to the current communicative situation. In this sense, language use or discourse may be called more or less 'appropriate' in a given context. It is the language or derigitave[neologism?] terms surrounding set paragraph, novel or article.

In linguistic anthropology

In the theory of sign phenomena, adapted from that of Charles Sanders Peirce, which forms the basis for much contemporary work in linguistic anthropology, the concept of context is integral to the definition of the index, one of the three classes of signs comprising Peirce's second trichotomy. An index is a sign which signifies by virtue of "pointing to" some component in its context, or in other words an indexical sign is related to its object by virtue of their co-occurrence within some kind of contextual frame.[3]

Contextual variables

Communicative systems presuppose contexts that are structured in terms of particular physical and communicative dimensions, for instance time, location, and communicative role.

See also

References

  1. ^ Goodwin, Charles; Duranti, Alessandro, eds. (1992). "Rethinking context: an introduction" (PDF). Rethinking context: Language as an interactive phenomenon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–42. Retrieved February 19, 2017.
  2. ^ Finkbeiner, Rita; Meibauer, Jörg; Schumacher, Petra B. (2012). What is a Context?: Linguistic Approaches and Challenges. John Benjamins Publishing. ISBN 978-9027255792.
  3. ^ Silverstein, Michael (1992). "The Indeterminacy of Contextualization: When Is Enough Enough?". In Auer, Peter; Di Luzio, Aldo (eds.). The Contextualization of Language. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. pp. 55–76. ISBN 978-9027250346. Retrieved February 19, 2017.