ایمی رایان

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به: ناوبری، جستجو
فارسیEnglish
ایمی رایان
Amy Ryan Gersh NY Official 1.31.13.jpg
نام اصلی ایمی رایان
تولد ۳۰ نوامبر ۱۹۶۹(۱۹۶۹-11-۳۰) ‏(۴۷ سال)
کویینز، نیویورک
ملیت آمریکایی
پیشه بازیگر
سال‌های فعالیت ۱۹۸۷–اکنون
همسر(ها) اِریک سلوین
فرزندان ۱
صفحه در وب‌گاه IMDb

اِیمی رایان (به انگلیسی: Amy Ryan) (زاده ۳۰ نوامبر ۱۹۶۹)، بازیگر آمریکایی است. او به خاطر نامزد شدن در جایزه‌های اسکار و گلدن گلاب برای بازی در فیلم "Gone baby Gone" محصول سال ۲۰۰۷ و سریال "The wire" شناخته شده است. او همچنین در فیلم‌های نقشه فرار، اطلاعات مرکزی، ماشین‌های هیولا و سریال اداره به ایفای نقش پرداخته است.

زندگی نامه[ویرایش]

ایمی در محله کویینز شهر نیویورک زاده شد. مادرش پرستار، و پدرش مشغول به تجارت حمل و نقل است.[۱] او ریشه انگلیسی، ایرلندی و همچنین لهستانی دارد.[۲] در دوران کودکی دهه ۱۹۷۰، به همراه خواهرش، روزنامهٔ خبرهای روز را با دوچرخه پخش می‌کردند. او در سن هفده سالگی، از دبیرستان هنرهای نمایشی نیویورک، فارغ التصحیل شد. کار بازیگری خود را در سال ۱۹۸۷، با شرکت در چند تیاتر آغاز کرد؛ سپس به تلویزیون راه یافت و با چند کار، کار خود را در سینما آغاز کرد.

زندگی خصوصی[ویرایش]

فرزند ایمی و همسرش، اریک سلوین، در ۱۵ اکتبر ۲۰۰۹ به دنیا آمد.[۳] آن دو در سال ۲۰۱۱ با هم ازدواج کردند.[۴]

منابع[ویرایش]

  1. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/10/07/AR2010100707613.html
  2. Gross, Terry (2010). "Amy Ryan: From 'The Office' To The 'Green Zone'". NPR. Archived from the original on 14 March 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-12. 
  3. Everett, Cristina (October 21, 2009). "Amy Ryan and fiance Eric Slovin welcome baby girl, Georgia Gracie". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on 24 October 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-05. 
  4. Mottram, James (28 October 2011). "Amy Ryan: Hollywood, motherhood and being unemployed". The Independent. Retrieved 16 May 2013. 
Amy Ryan
Amy Ryan Gersh NY Official 1.31.13.jpg
Ryan at the Changeling premiere, October 2008[1]
Born Amy Beth Dziewiontkowski[2][3]
(1969-11-30) November 30, 1969 (age 47)
Flushing, Queens, New York City, New York, United States
Occupation Actress
Years active 1987–present
Spouse(s) Eric Slovin (m. 2011)
Children 1

Amy Ryan (born Amy Beth Dziewiontkowski; November 30, 1969) is an American actress of stage and screen. A graduate of New York's High School of Performing Arts, she is an Academy Award nominee and two-time Tony Award nominee.

Ryan began her professional stage career in 1987 and made her Broadway debut in 1993 as a replacement in the original production of The Sisters Rosensweig. She went on to receive Tony Award nominations for Best Featured Actress in a Play for the 2000 revival of Uncle Vanya and the 2005 revival of A Streetcar Named Desire. She was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her performance as Helene McCready in the 2007 film Gone Baby Gone. The role also earned her a Golden Globe nomination and won her a Critics' Choice Award. Her other films include Changeling (2008), Win Win (2011) and Birdman or (The Unexpected Virtue of Ignorance) (2014). On television, she played Beadie Russell in HBO's The Wire (2002–08), Holly Flax in NBC's The Office (2008–11) and Adele Brousse in HBO's In Treatment (2010).

Early life

Ryan was born Amy Beth Dziewiontkowski in Flushing, Queens, New York City, the daughter of Pamela (née Ryan), a nurse, and John Dziewiontkowski, a trucking business owner.[4][5][6][7] She is of Polish, Irish, and English descent.[8] Growing up in the 1970s, Ryan and her sister Laura delivered the Daily News by bike. At a young age, Ryan attended the Stagedoor Manor Performing Arts Center in upstate New York.[6][7] At 17, she graduated from New York's High School of Performing Arts.[6][7] Hired for the national tour of Biloxi Blues right out of high school, Ryan worked steadily off-Broadway for the next decade. She chose her mother's maiden name as her stage name.[7][9]

Career

Theatre

Ryan made her off-Broadway debut in the Westside Theatre's 1987 production of A Shayna Maidel, playing the role of Hanna. The following year she was seen in the Second Stage Theatre Company's revival of The Rimers of Eldritch.[10][11] Additional off-Broadway credits include As Bees In Honey Drown, Crimes of the Heart and Saved.[12][13][14][15] She also worked in regional theater, where she originated roles in new plays by Neil LaBute, Arthur Miller and Neil Simon. On Broadway she has appeared as Tess in The Sisters Rosensweig, Natasha in the 1997 revival of The Three Sisters, and Peggy in the 2001–2002 revival of The Women.[7][16]

Ryan was nominated for the Tony Award for Best Performance by a Featured Actress in a Play twice: in 2000, for her portrayal of Sonya Alexandrovna in Uncle Vanya, and in 2005, for her performance as Stella Kowalski opposite John C. Reilly in A Streetcar Named Desire.[7][16][17][18]

Ryan received some of the best reviews of her career for her leading role in the Roundabout Theater Company's 2016 production of Love, Love, Love. Ben Brantley of The New York Times praised her "smashing comic performance,"[19] The Hollywood Reporter called her work "emotionally vital,"[20] and The Associated Press raved that "Ryan is absolutely magnetic ... nailing her charming, unpredictable character with perfect comedic timing."[21] In an article exploring various famous actresses working on the stage, Washington Post theater critic Peter Marks highlighted Ryan's work in the play:

The revelation is not that Amy Ryan is good. It’s that she’s this good ... Ryan, whose range has been apparent for years, in dramatic performances nominated for Tonys (Uncle Vanya) and Oscars (Gone Baby Gone), as well as in nuanced comic turns on television shows like The Office, manages a feat in Love, Love, Love that she’s never accomplished so fluidly before: taking charge. She delivers a front-and-center performance of such beguiling dynamism (in a thoroughly convincing English accent) that you feel this Roundabout Theatre Company production has done for her precisely what was intended. It exposes a new facet of her talent — and leaves us with that uplifting itch, to be there the next time she’s on a stage.[22]

For her performance in Love, Love, Love, Ryan won the Obie Award for Distinguished Performance by an Actress, and was nominated for the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Actress in a Play[23] and the Drama League Award for Distinguished Performance.[24]

Television

Following a brief stint playing a runaway on As the World Turns, Ryan was cast in television series such as I'll Fly Away,[7][25] in which she played a high school temptress, and Brooklyn Bridge, where she played Marion Ross's character in flashbacks.[26] After roles on ER and Chicago Hope, Ryan became a series regular on The Naked Truth as Téa Leoni's spoiled stepdaughter.[25][27][28] In 1993, she made her first appearance on NBC's Law & Order, appearing in several episodes over the years.[7][25]

By 2001, director Sidney Lumet cast her in 100 Centre Street playing three different roles (Ellen, Paris and Rebecca).[6][29] Ryan went on to feature prominently in the second season of HBO's The Wire, playing Port Authority Officer Beadie Russell.[25][30][31] She appeared for a six-episode arc on The Office as dorky HR rep Holly Flax. She reprised her role on The Office in seasons 5 and 7.[32]

Ryan joined the cast of HBO's In Treatment for its third season, playing the therapist of Dr. Paul Weston.[33]

Film

Because of the deletion of the scene where she played Eric Stoltz's wife in Allison Anders's Grace of My Heart,[6] Ryan made her 1999 film debut in Roberta.[25][28] She then briefly appeared in You Can Count on Me, which starred Laura Linney and Mark Ruffalo,[7][34] and the mystery/thriller Keane.[7][28][35] Albert Brooks chose her to play his wife in Looking for Comedy in the Muslim World in 2005, and 2007 brought both Dan in Real Life and Before the Devil Knows You're Dead.[7][25][29] Her role as a star-struck sheriff's wife in Capote[7][25] earned her positive reviews, but it was playing a hardened welfare mom in Ben Affleck's Gone Baby Gone that finally brought her national attention.[7][9][29][31]

After being voted Best Supporting Actress for Gone Baby Gone by the National Board of Review,[36] as well as the critics circles in New York, Los Angeles, Boston, San Francisco and Washington, D.C., Ryan's performance was also nominated for a Golden Globe Award, a Screen Actors Guild Award,[37] and an Oscar for Best Performance by an Actress in a Supporting role at the 80th Academy Awards.[38]

Ryan appeared in Changeling (2008), directed by Clint Eastwood,[7][25] and opposite Matt Damon in Paul Greengrass's Green Zone (2010).[7][39][40] In September 2010, she completed filming a role in Philip Seymour Hoffman's directorial film debut, Jack Goes Boating, taking over the role of Connie originally played by Beth Cole in the stage version.[30][41] Ryan received strong notices for her performance in Tom McCarthy's Win Win the next year, winning Best Supporting Actress awards from multiple regional critics groups.

Ryan was a part of the core ensemble of the 2014 Best Picture Academy Award winning film Birdman, sharing in the cast's Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture victory. In 2015, she starred as Mary Donovan opposite Tom Hanks in the film Bridge of Spies,[42] and reunited with her In Treatment co-star Gabriel Byrne in Louder Than Bombs, the English-language debut of Joachim Trier. Early the next year, Ryan was cast as Tracy, her first on-screen leading role, in Abundant Acreage Available, a rural family drama from Junebug screenwriter Angus MacLachlan. Upon the film's premiere at the 2017 Tribeca Film Festival, Ryan drew universal acclaim for her performance, with The Wrap noting that she "holds the screen no matter what she's doing and who she's with"[43] and Flavorwire raving that Ryan "sounds notes that are quietly dazzling in their complexity."[44] Variety chief film critic Peter Debruge dubbed the performance a career highlight:

It’s a pleasure to see such a fine actress navigate the nuances of her role ... Only on the big screen are we able to fully appreciate the minutely detailed nature of Ryan’s performance, revealing Tracy’s soul via the slightest narrowing of the eyes or the almost-subliminal tensing of her cheekbones. As we know, Junebug earned Amy Adams an Oscar nomination, and if the world were fair, this role would bring another Amy similar attention.[45]

Ryan recently filmed Beautiful Boy for Amazon Studios, a dark family drama which reunites her with The Office star Steve Carell, and Strange But True, a noir-thriller based on the novel by John Searles.[46][47] Both are due to premiere in 2018.

Personal life

Ryan married Eric Slovin in 2011.[48] They have one daughter, Georgia Gracie (born October 15, 2009).[49]

Filmography

Film

Year Title Role Notes
1999 Roberta Judy
2000 You Can Count on Me Rachel Louise Prescott
2000 A Pork Chop for Larry Beth Short film
2004 Keane Lynn Bedik
2005 War of the Worlds Neighbor with Toddler
2005 Capote Marie Dewey
2005 Looking for Comedy in the Muslim World Emily Brooks
2006 Marvelous Queenie
2007 Gone Baby Gone Helene McCready
2007 Neal Cassady Carolyn Cassady
2007 Before the Devil Knows You're Dead Martha Hanson
2007 Dan in Real Life Eileen Burns
2008 Changeling Carol Dexter
2009 The Missing Person Miss Charley Also executive producer
2010 Jack Goes Boating Connie
2010 Green Zone Lawrie Dayne
2011 Win Win Jackie Flaherty
2013 Breathe In Megan Reynolds
2013 Escape Plan Abigail Ross
2013 Devil's Knot Margaret Lax
2014 Birdman or (The Unexpected Virtue of Ignorance) Sylvia
2015 Don Verdean Carol
2015 Louder Than Bombs Hannah
2015 Goosebumps Gale Cooper
2015 Bridge of Spies Mary McKenna Donovan
2016 Central Intelligence Agent Pamela Harris
2016 The Infiltrator Bonni Tischler
2016 Monster Trucks Cindy Coley
2017 Abundant Acreage Available Tracy Ledbetter
2018 Beautiful Boy Vicki Sheff In post-production
2018 Strange But True Charlene In post-production

Television

Year Title Role Notes
1990 As the World Turns Renee
1991 Quantum Leap Libby McBain Episode: "Raped - June 20, 1980"
1991 Brooklyn Bridge Young Sophie Episode: "Old Fools"
1992 Home Improvement Robin Episode: "Luck Be a Taylor Tonight"
1992 I'll Fly Away Parkie Sasser 6 episodes
1993; 2006 Law & Order Amy / Valerie Messick 2 episodes
1995 Sirens April Ward Episode: "The Abduction"
1995 ER Sister Episode: "Love Among the Ruins"
1995–1996 The Naked Truth Chloe Banks 20 episodes
1998 Chicago Hope Helen Sherwood Episode: "Liver, Hold the Mushrooms"
1998 A Will of Their Own Carrie Baker Miniseries
1999 Homicide: Life on the Street Helen Sherwood Episode: "Liver, Hold the Mushrooms"
2000 Law & Order: Special Victims Unit Lorraine Hansen Episode: "Bad Blood"
2001–2002 100 Centre Street Rebecca Rifkind / Ellen 7 episodes
2003; 2007 Law & Order: Criminal Intent Julie Turner / Edie Nelson 2 episodes
2003–2008 The Wire Beadie Russell 20 episodes
2004 Third Watch Dr. Jenny Hanson Episode: "Last Will and Testament"
2006 American Experience Luzena Wilson Episode: "The Gold Rush"
2006–2007 Kidnapped Maureen Campbell 2 episodes
2008 Independent Lens Anita Hoffman Episode: "Chicago 10"
2008–2011 The Office Holly Flax 17 episodes
2010 In Treatment Adele 8 episodes
2013 Clear History Wendy the Waitress Television film
2015 Broad City Oliver's Mother Episode: "Kirk Steele"
2016 High Maintenance Gigi Episode: "Museebat"

Awards and nominations

Year Award Category Nominated work Result
2000 Tony Award Best Featured Actress in a Play
Uncle Vanya
Nominated
2001 Drama League Award Distinguished Performance
Saved
Nominated
2005 Tony Award Best Featured Actress in a Play
A Streetcar Named Desire
Nominated
Outer Critics Circle Award Outstanding Featured Actress in a Play Won
2007 Academy Award Best Supporting Actress
Gone Baby Gone
Nominated
Alliance of Women Film Journalists Award Best Supporting Actress Won
Best Breakthrough Performance Nominated
Boston Society of Film Critics Award Best Supporting Actress Won
Chicago Film Critics Association Award Best Supporting Actress Nominated
Critics' Choice Movie Award Best Supporting Actress Won
Dallas-Fort Worth Film Critics Association Award Best Supporting Actress Nominated
Detroit Film Critics Society Award Best Supporting Actress Nominated
Florida Film Critics Circle Award Best Supporting Actress Won
Golden Globe Award Best Supporting Actress – Motion Picture Nominated
Houston Film Critics Society Award Best Supporting Actress Won
Iowa Film Critics Award Best Supporting Actress Won
Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award Best Supporting Actress Won
National Board of Review Award Best Supporting Actress Won
National Society of Film Critics Award Best Supporting Actress Nominated
New York Film Critics Circle Award Best Supporting Actress Won
Oklahoma Film Critics Circle Award Best Supporting Actress Won
Online Film Critics Society Award Best Supporting Actress Won
Phoenix Film Critics Society Award Best Supporting Actress Won
San Diego Film Critics Society Award Best Supporting Actress Won
San Francisco Film Critics Circle Award Best Supporting Actress Won
Satellite Award Best Supporting Actress - Motion Picture Won
Screen Actors Guild Award Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Supporting Role Nominated
Southeastern Film Critics Association Award Best Supporting Actress Won
St. Louis Gateway Film Critics Association Award Best Supporting Actress Won
Toronto Film Critics Association Award Best Supporting Actress Nominated
Utah Film Critics Association Award Best Supporting Actress Won
Vancouver Film Critics Circle Award Best Supporting Actress Nominated
Washington D.C. Area Film Critics Association Award Best Supporting Actress Won
Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award Best Supporting Actress
Before the Devil Knows You're Dead
Won
Washington D.C. Area Film Critics Association Award Best Supporting Actress Won
2009 Golden Nymph Award Outstanding Actress - Comedy Series
The Office
Nominated
2010 Comedy Film Award Best Leading Actress
Jack Goes Boating
Nominated
2011 Utah Film Critics Association Award Best Supporting Actress
Win Win
Won
Indiana Film Critics Association Award Best Supporting Actress Nominated
2014 Alliance of Women Film Journalists Award Best Ensemble
Birdman or (The Unexpected Virtue of Ignorance)
Won
Boston Society of Film Critics Award Best Cast Runner-up
Boston Online Film Critics Association Awards Best Ensemble Won
Critics' Choice Movie Award Best Acting Ensemble Won
Central Ohio Film Critics Association Award Best Ensemble Nominated
Detroit Film Critics Society Award Best Ensemble Won
Florida Film Critics Circle Award for Best Cast Best Cast Nominated
Georgia Film Critics Association Award Best Ensemble Nominated
Las Vegas Film Critics Society Award Won
New York Film Critics Online Awards Best Ensemble Cast Won
North Texas Film Critics Association Award Best Ensemble Cast Won
Phoenix Film Critics Society Award Best Ensemble Acting Won
San Diego Film Critics Society Awards Best Film Ensemble Won
Screen Actors Guild Award Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture Won
Southeastern Film Critics Association Award Best Ensemble Nominated
Washington D.C. Area Film Critics Association Awards Best Acting Ensemble Won
2017 Drama Desk Award Outstanding Actress in a Play
Love, Love, Love
Nominated
Obie Award Distinguished Performance by an Actress Won
Drama League Award Distinguished Performance Nominated

References

  1. ^ "Amy Ryan at the Changeling New York Premiere Inside Arrivals". Zimbio.com. Retrieved 2017-05-23. 
  2. ^ [1] Archived 2014-10-31 at the Wayback Machine.
  3. ^ "Wyborcza.pl". Wyborcza.pl. 1980-01-01. Retrieved 2017-05-23. 
  4. ^ "Saturday (Day 2) at the Fair". Njherald.mycapture.com. Retrieved 2017-05-23. 
  5. ^ Marks, Peter (2010-10-10). "Amy Ryan: A journeyman's actress co-stars in 'Jack Goes Boating'". The Washington Post. 
  6. ^ a b c d e "Amy Ryan". imdb. Retrieved 2009-11-04. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Amy Ryan". Hello. Archived from the original on 23 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-13. 
  8. ^ Gross, Terry (2010). "Amy Ryan: From 'The Office' To The 'Green Zone'". NPR. Archived from the original on 14 March 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-12. 
  9. ^ a b "Who2 Biographies: Amy Ryan". answers.com. Retrieved 2009-11-04. 
  10. ^ "The Rimers of Eldritch". Lortel Archives—the Internet off-Broadway database. Archived from the original on 2007-10-26. Retrieved 2009-11-04. 
  11. ^ Review/Theater; Brooding Look at Dismal Lives in Wilson Revival , NY Times
  12. ^ "Amy Ryan". Lortel Archives—the Internet off-Broadway database. Archived from the original on 2012-10-03. Retrieved 2009-11-04. 
  13. ^ As Bees in Honey Drown.(Lucille Lortel Theater, New York), Variety | July 28, 1997
  14. ^ Crimes of the Heart, CurtainUp
  15. ^ "Saved, a CurtainUp review". Curtainup.com. 2001-02-25. Retrieved 2017-05-23. 
  16. ^ a b "Amy Ryan". ibdb.com. Retrieved 2009-11-04. 
  17. ^ "A Streetcar Named Desire, Studio 54". ibdb.com. Retrieved 2009-11-04. 
  18. ^ "IBDB Person Awards". ibdb.com. Archived from the original on 2012-10-21. Retrieved 2009-11-04. 
  19. ^ Brantley, Ben (2016-10-19). "Review: In 'Love, Love, Love,' All You Need Is Selfishness". The New York Times. Retrieved 2017-05-06. 
  20. ^ Scheck, Frank (2016-10-19). "'Love, Love, Love': Theater Review". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 2017-05-06. 
  21. ^ Farrar, Jennifer (2016-10-20). "Review: The Kids Are Not Alright in Play 'Love, Love, Love'". Associated Press. Retrieved 2017-05-06. 
  22. ^ Marks, Peter (2016-11-07). "When Casting About for Famous Actresses for the Stage, Choose Carefully". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-08-15. 
  23. ^ Cox, Gordon (2017-04-27). "'Hello, Dolly!' Dominates 2017 Drama Desk Nominations (Full List)". Variety. Retrieved 2017-05-06. 
  24. ^ Cox, Gordon (2017-04-19). "Daniel Craig, Cate Blanchett, Allison Janney Nominated for Drama League Awards". Variety. Retrieved 2017-05-06. 
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h "Amy Ryan filmography". imdb. Retrieved 2009-11-04. 
  26. ^ "Brooklyn Bridge". imdb. Retrieved 2009-11-04. 
  27. ^ TV Review – THE NAKED TRUTH, EW.com
  28. ^ a b c Amy Ryan Archived February 5, 2010, at the Wayback Machine., Yahoo Movies
  29. ^ a b c Spotlight on Amy Ryan, Comingsoon.net
  30. ^ a b Speakeasy AMY RYAN[permanent dead link] two.one.five magazine
  31. ^ a b Actress Amy Ryan keeps things interesting, taking parts on stage, on screen and on TV, Monterey Herald
  32. ^ Amy Ryan Returning to The Office, TVGuide.com
  33. ^ "Amy Ryan Books Role on In Treatment". TVGuide.com. 
  34. ^ You Can Count on Me (2000), IMDB
  35. ^ Keane (2004), IMDB
  36. ^ "Past Awards". National Board of Review. Archived from the original on 8 December 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-05. 
  37. ^ Amy Ryan, Screen Actors Guild Award nominee Archived July 3, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  38. ^ [2][dead link]
  39. ^ Green Zone (2010), IMDB
  40. ^ Q&A – Amy Ryan on What Affleck, Eastwood, and the Green Zone Director Have in Common Archived July 8, 2010, at the Wayback Machine., FilmCritic.com
  41. ^ Jack Goes Boating (2010), IMDB
  42. ^ Rylance, Mark; Lombardozzi, Domenick; Verhaeghe, Victor; Fichera, Mark (2015-10-16), Bridge of Spies, retrieved 2017-01-20 
  43. ^ Pond, Steve (2017-04-20). "Abundant Acreage Available Tribeca Review: Amy Ryan Owns This Quiet Family Drama". The Wrap. Retrieved 2017-08-15. 
  44. ^ Bailey, Jason (2017-05-01). "The Best and Worst Movies of the Tribeca Film Festival". Flavorwire. Retrieved 2017-08-15. 
  45. ^ Debruge, Peter (2017-04-21). "Tribeca Film Review: Abundant Acreage Available". Variety. Retrieved 2017-08-15. 
  46. ^ Hipes, Patrick (2017-03-15). "Amy Ryan Reunites With Steve Carell For Amazon's Beautiful Boy". Deadline. Retrieved 2017-08-15. 
  47. '^ Mitchell, Robert (2017-05-17). "La La Lands' Fred Berger to Produce Noir Thriller Strange but True". Variety. Retrieved 2017-08-15. 
  48. ^ Mottram, James (28 October 2011). "Amy Ryan: Hollywood, motherhood and being unemployed". The Independent. Retrieved 16 May 2013. 
  49. ^ Everett, Cristina (October 21, 2009). "Amy Ryan and fiance Eric Slovin welcome baby girl, Georgia Gracie". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on 24 October 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-05. 

External links