ایران بزرگ

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به ناوبری پرش به جستجو
فارسیEnglish
حدود ایران قدیم (تا قبل از قاجاریه)
نقشهٔ قلمرو سلسله‌های حاکم بر ایران و گسترهٔ حکومتیِ سلسله‌های مختلف از دودمان هخامنشیان تا حکومت جمهوری اسلامی. در این نقشه سلسله‌هایی که بر غالب مناطق ایران مسلط بوده‌اند، ذکر شده‌اند و حکومت‌های ملوک‌طوایفی و محلی ذکر نشده‌اند. همچنین، هنگامی که سرزمین کنونی ایران بخشی از مناطق اشغالی خارجیان بوده در این نقشه ثبت نشده‌است؛ به‌عنوان مثال، وقتی ایران موقتا جزو حکومت ایران ستیز سلوکیان ، مسلمانان و مغولان بوده‌است.
ازنظر جغرافیایی و فرهنگی، ایران بزرگ شامل تمام بخش‌های فلات ایران، بخش‌های آسیای مرکزی، بلخ و رشته کوه‌های هندوکُش در امتداد شمال‌شرقی، افغانستان و غرب پاکستان در بخش جنوب‌شرقی، و از سوی غرب، عراق و قفقاز در بخش شمال‌غربی است.
امپراتوری هخامنشی (۵۵۰ تا ۳۳۰ ق. م)

ایران بزرگ (همچنین ایران‌زمین یا ایرانشهر)[۱][۲] محدودهٔ جغرافیایی و حوزه تمدنی فلات ایران و جلگه‌های مجاور آن،[۳] شامل ایران کنونی، بخش بزرگی قفقاز، افغانستان و آسیای مرکزی است[۴] که در زبان‌های فرنگی از آن معمولاً با عنوان پرشیای بزرگ یا پارس بزرگ یاد می‌کنند.[۵][۶][۷] کاربرد تاریخی ایران صرفاً محدود به بخش غربی آن که هم‌اکنون به این نام خوانده می‌شود، نبوده و تمام مرزهای سیاسی کشوری که تحت تسلط ایرانیان بود همچون میان رودان و اغلب ارمنستان و جنوب قفقاز را هم در بر می‌گیرد.[۸][۹]

مفهوم ایران بزرگ از جهات گوناگون ریشه در تاریخ چند هزار ساله آن دارد و به دوران نخستین امپراتوری ایرانی که توسط پارس‌ها بنیان گذاشته‌شد بازمی‌گردد. در دوران قاجاریه، ایران بسیاری از سرزمین‌های خود را از دست داد از جمله واگذاری بخش‌های غربی در ترکیه و عراق امروزی به امپراتوری عثمانی (۱۵۳۳ میلادی)، واگذاری بخش‌های شرقی، افغانستان امروزی به بریتانیا طی معاهده پاریس در سال ١٨۵٧ میلادی و ١٩٠۵ میلادی [۱۰] [۱۱] [۱۲] و واگذاری سرزمین‌های قفقاز به روسیه در قرن هجدهم و نوزدهم میلادی بر طبق عهدنامه ترکمنچای در سال ١٨٢٨ و پس نبرد روسیه و ایران، استان‌های قفقازی برای همیشه به روسیه واگذار شد و مرزهای جدید در طول رودخانه ارس شکل گرفت.[۱۳][۱۴]و بر طبق عهدنامه گلستان در سال ۱۸۱۳، مناطق ارمنستان، جمهوری آذربایجان و شرق گرجستان نامرد که پیشتر بخشی از ایران بودند، به روسیه واگذار شدند.[۱۵] در اثر این تجزیه تاریخی کشورها و ملت‌های جدیدی تحت نفوذ روسیه و انگلستان شکل گرفتند که اگرچه از طریق زبان یا فرهنگ با ایران پیوستگی داشتند اما جوامع خاص خود را شکل دادند. در سال ۱۹۳۵ در زمان سلطنت رضا شاه پهلوی، نام ایران رسماً در مجامع بین‌المللی به‌عنوان نام بخش بجا مانده از سرزمین ایران بکار رفت.[۱۶]

ریشه نام ایران[ویرایش]

نام ایران به معنای سرزمین آریایی‌ها، شکل پارسی نو واژه آریانام از زبان پیشا ایرانی و به معنای آریایی‌ها است که نخستین بار در زبان اوستایی به صورت آریانم آمده‌است. (زبان اوستایی در شمال شرق ایران بزرگ یا آنچه امروز ترکمنستان و تاجیکستان خوانده می‌شود، مورد استفاده بود)[۱۷][۱۸][۱۹][۲۰]

اگرچه عنوان ایران تا اواخر دوران امپراتوری اشکانی، مفهوم قومی، زبانی و دینی معلوم داشت، اما هنوز دارای بار سیاسی نبود. امپراتوری یا پادشاهی ایران در مفهوم سیاسی به دوران ساسانیان بازمی‌گردد که در نتیجه پیوند میان سلسله جدید و روحانیت زرتشتی پدید آمد. آنطور که از شواهد موجود بر می‌آید این همگرایی ایده پادشاهی ایران یا ایرانشهر را تقویت کرد.[۱۷]

مفهوم[ویرایش]

ریچارد فولتس می‌گوید: «گمان می‌رود مردمان ایران بزرگ - منطقهٔ فرهنگی که از خاورمیانه تا قفقاز، خوارزم، ماوراءالنهر، بلخ و پامیر امتداد دارد و مردمان آن مادها، پارسها و پارتها و سغدیان بودند - پیش از اسلام همگی آیین زرتشتی داشتند». این دیدگاه اگرچه در میان دانشمندان رواج دارد اما تا حدی هم اغراق‌آمیز است. فولتس استدلال می‌کند: «اگرچه ایرانیان معابد، نمادها و اساطیر مذهبی مشابه داشتند. اما در حقیقت خدایان متعددی پرستیده می‌شدند علی‌الخصوص میترا خدای پیمان‌ها و آناهیتا خدای آبها اما خدایان دیگری هم برحسب زمان، مکان یا گروه‌های مختلف مورد پرستش قرار می‌گرفتند».[۲۱]

ریچارد فرای ایران بزرگ را شامل بخش اعظم قفقاز، عراق، افغانستان، پاکستان و آسیای مرکزی می‌داند که از طریق نفوذ فرهنگی تا چین و غرب هند گسترش می‌یابد. به گفته فرای: «ایران شامل تمام مردمان و سرزمین‌هایی است که در آن‌ها زبان‌های ایرانی بکار می‌رود و تمام بخش‌هایی که فرهنگ ایرانی در آن پیروزمند و مسلط بود».[۲۲]

به گفته جی پی مالری و داگلاس کیو آدامز در بیشتر بخش غربی ایران بزرگ در زمان هخامنشی، زبان‌های ایرانی شاخهٔ جنوب غربی بکار می‌رفت در صورتی که در بخش شرقی آن زبان‌های ایرانی شاخه شرقی که با زبان اوستایی خویشاوندی داشت، متداول بود.[۲۳]

پس از چیرگی مغول بر ایران سلسله ایلخانان بر ایران مسلط شدند[۲۴] و اولجایتو در طول سال‌های ۱۳۰۴–۱۳۱۷ میلادی بر این سرزمین فرمان می‌راند.[۲۵]

منابع اولیه همچون میر خاوند تاریخ‌نویس دوران تیموری، محدوده ایرانشهر (ایران بزرگ) را از رود فرات تا رود سیحون توصیف می‌کنند.[۲۶]

از دیرباز تاکنون قومیت هیچ‌گاه عامل جدایی در ایران بزرگ نبوده؛ ریچارد فرای می‌گوید:

من بارها عنوان کردم که مردمان آسیای مرکزی چه ایرانی زبان و چه ترک‌زبان تنها یک فرهنگ، یک مذهب و ارزش‌ها و سنت‌های یکسان دارند و تنها عامل جدایی ایشان زبان است.

در دوران مدرن، مداخله استعمار غرب و قومیت موجب جدایی استانهای ایران بزرگ شد. همان‌طور که پاتریک کلاسن می‌گوید ناسیونالیسم قومی حتی اگر به گذشته‌های دورتر نسبت داده شود، پدیده‌ای مربوط به قرن نوزدهم است.[۲۷] با این حال ایران بزرگ پس از یک جغرافیای سیاسی که در ابتدا شکل گرفت، بیشتر به یک ابر کشور فرهنگی تبدیل شد.

حمدالله مستوفی، جغرافی‌دان قرون وسطی در نزهت القلوب می‌نویسد:

چند شهر است اندر ایران مرتفع تر از همهبهتر و سازنده تر از خوشی آب و هوا
گنجه پر گنج در اران، صفاهان در عراقدر خراسان مرو و طوس، در روم باشد اقسرا

تاریخ ایران کمبریج محدوده تاریخی و فرهنگی ایران بزرگ را شامل ایران امروز، بخش‌هایی از چین، افغانستان و جمهوری‌های جدا شده از شوروی سابق معرفی می‌کند.[۲۸] فهرستی از این مناطق در دنباله این نوشته درج شده‌است.

پیشینه[ویرایش]

در دوران پیش از اسلام، ایرانیان سرزمین‌های زیر دست خود را به دو بخش تقسیم کرده‌بودند و آن‌ها را ایران و اَنیران می‌خواندند. ایران شامل بخش‌هایی بود که در آن مردمان ایرانی‌تبار باستان سکونت داشتند و آن منطقه از کشوری که هم‌اکنون به نام ایران خوانده می‌شود، به‌مراتب گسترده‌تر بود. چنین مفهومی از ایران (به‌عنوان یک سرزمین) ایران بزرگ را شکل داد. بعدها تغییرات بسیاری در مرزها و مناطقی که ایرانیان در آن زندگی می‌کردند، ایجاد شد؛ اما کماکان زبان و فرهنگ ایرانی بر بسیاری از بخش‌های ایران بزرگ مسلط ماند.

برای نمونه، پیش از اشغال آسیای مرکزی و قفقاز توسط روسیه، زبان فارسی در این مناطق زبان اصلی ادبی بود. آسیای مرکزی همانجایی است که زبان پارسی نو در آن شکل گرفت. حتی فراتر از این‌ها به اعتراف دولت انگلستان، پیش از اشغال عراق توسط انگلستان در سال‌های ۱۹۱۸–۱۹۳۲ میلادی و اعمال ممنوعیت‌ها، در کردستان عراق زبان فارسی بکار می‌رفت.[۳]

با پیشروی مدام امپراتوری روسیه به سرزمین‌های جنوبی پس از دو جنگی که به ایران تحمیل شد و عهدنامه‌های گلستان و ترکمانچای و همین‌طور مرگ نابهنگام عباس میرزا در سال ۱۸۲۳ و قتل میرزا ابوالقاسم قائم مقام فراهانی، صدر اعظم ایران، بسیاری از خانات آسیای مرکزی امید خود را به پشتیبانی ایران در مقابل ارتش تزاری از دست دادند.[۲۹] ارتش روسیه سواحل آرال را در ۱۸۴۹، تاشکند را در سال ۱۸۶۴، بخارا را در سال ۱۸۶۷، سمرقند را در سال ۱۸۶۸ و نواحی خیوه و آمودریا را در سال ۱۸۷۳ تصرف کرد.

پاتریک کلاسون از انستیتو سیاست‌های خاور نزدیک در واشینگتن:

«بسیاری از ایرانیان منطقه نفوذ فرهنگی خود را فراتر از مرزهای کنونی ایران می‌دانند. ایران زمانی بسیار بزرگتر از مرزهای کنونی بود. در قرن ۱۶ و ۱۷ نیروهای پرتغالی جزایر و بندرگاه‌های آن را تصرف کردند. در قرن ۱۹ امپراتوری روسیه آنچه را که همینک ارمنستان و جمهوری آذربایجان خوانده می‌شود و بخش‌هایی از گرجستان را از تهران غصب کرد. کتاب‌های دانش آموزان دبستانی ایرانی دربارهٔ پیشینه ایرانیان نه تنها از شهرهایی مانند باکو می‌گویند بلکه دربارهٔ مناطقی فراتر در شمال همچو دربند در جنوب روسیه، آموزش می‌دهند. شاه [ایران] بیشتر آنچه را که در غرب افغانستان بر آن ادعای مالکیت داشت طی جنگ‌های ایران و انگلستان ۱۸۵۶–۱۸۵۷ از دست داد. در سال ۱۹۷۰ سازمان ملل متحد برای جداسازی بحرین که ایران ادعای تملک بر آن را داشت، رایزنی کرد. قرنها پیش نفوذ ایرانیان از جانب غرب به عراق کنونی و قراتر از آن می‌رسید. وقتی جهان غرب ایران را به مداخله در مناطقی فراتر از مرزهای خود متهم می‌کند، حکومت ایران اغلب باور دارد که اعمال نفوذش صرفاً در سرزمین‌هایی است که زمانی به او متعلق بودند. به همین نهج ایران از دست همان قدرتها شکایت دارد که اسباب شکستهایش تا امروز شدند.»[۳۰]

پاتریک کلاسون:

«ایران امروز تنها گوشه‌ای از آن چیزی است که زمانی بود. از نظر وسعت، عراق، افغانستان، غرب پاکستان، بیشتر آسیای مرکزی و قفقاز تحت تسلط ایرانیان بود. بسیاری از ایرانیان امروز این نواحی را بخش‌های ایران بزرگ به‌شمار می‌آورند.»[۳۱]
«از زمان هخامنشیان، ایران به وسیله عوامل جغرافیایی تحت حفاظت بود. اما کوه‌های بلند و خالی بودن گستره فلات ایران دیگر در برابر ارتش روسیه یا نیروی دریایی انگلستان کافی نبود و ایران سقوط کرد. در ابتدای قرن نوزده، آذربایجان، ارمنستان و افغانستان ایرانی بودند اما در انتهای آن سده تمامی این سرزمین‌ها در اثر مداخله نظامی اروپاییان از دست رفتند.»[۳۲]

استان‌ها[ویرایش]

در سده میانی (قرون وسطی) سرزمین ایران بزرگ شامل دو بخش بود. عراق عجم (بخش باختری) و خراسان (بخش خاوری) و علی‌الخصوص غزنویان، سلجوقیان و تیموریان امپراتوری خود را به بخش‌های خراسانی و عراقی تقسیم کرده بودند. این موضوع در کتاب‌هایی مانند تاریخ بیهقی نوشته ابوالفضل بیهقی و فضائل الأنام من رسائل حجت‌الاسلام (مجموعه نامه‌های غزالی) و کتاب‌های دیگر دیده می‌شود. فرارود و خوارزم عموماً بخشی از خراسان محسوب می‌شدند.

خاورمیانه (به انگلیسی: Middle East) منطقه‌ای استراتژیک از نظر جغرافیایی و انرژی است، به‌طوری‌که ۵۶٫۶[۱] درصد از نفت کره زمین در این منطقه وجود دارد.

این ناحیه گروه‌های فرهنگی و نژادی گوناگونی مانند ایرانیان، آشوری‌ها، آذربایجانی‌ها، ترک‌های آناتولی، کردها، عرب‌ها و بربرها را در خود جای داده‌است. زبان‌های اصلی این منطقه عبارت است از فارسی، ترکی آذربایجانی، کردی، لری، بلوچی، آشوری، ترکی استانبولی، عربی و عبری. در برخی زمینه‌ها واژه بسط یافته خاورمیانه به تازگی شامل کشورهای افغانستان، پاکستان، قفقاز، آسیای مرکزی و آفریقای شمالی شده‌است که علاوه بر آنچه یاد شد زبان اردو و پشتو را نیز در بر می‌گیرد.

بسیاری از تعریف‌های «خاورمیانه» —چه در کتاب‌های مرجع و چه در اصطلاح عامیانه— آن را ناحیه‌ای در جنوب غربی آسیا و دربرگیرندهٔ کشورهای بین ایران و مصر معرفی می‌کنند. با این که بخش بیشتر کشور مصر (به جز صحرای سینا) در آفریقای شمالی واقع شده ولی آن را جزو «خاور میانه» می‌دانند. کشورهای شمال آفریقا از قبیل لیبی، تونس و مراکش بر خلاف خاورمیانه، در رسانه‌های عمومی کشورهای آفریقای شمالی خوانده می‌شوند.

عراق[ویرایش]

NE 565ad

عراق بخشی از امپراتوری‌های متعدد ایران بود و از فرهنگ ایرانی تأثیر عمیقی گرفته؛ یکی از پایتخت‌های ساسانیان به نام تیسفون هم در عراق قرار داشت و هنوز هم برخی شهرها و استان‌های عراق همچون الانبار یا بغداد نام‌های ایرانی دارند. شهرهای دیگر عراق هم نام‌های ایرانی داشتند مانند سورستان -->> کوفه، شهربان-->> مقدادیه، آشب-->> عمادیه.[۳۳]

در دوران مدرن و سلسله صفوی، ایران در طول سال‌های ۱۵۰۱–۱۵۳۳ و ۱۶۲۲–۱۶۳۸ عراق را در کنترل داشت.

کردستان[ویرایش]

از لحاظ تاریخی و فرهنگی، کردستان بخشی است از آنچه که امروز با عنوان ایران بزرگ شناخته می‌شود. کردها به زبان ایرانی شاخه شمال غربی تکلم می‌کنند که با زبان فارسی خویشاوندی نزدیکی دارد.[۳۴]

قفقاز[ویرایش]

ارمنستان[ویرایش]

ارمنی‌ها از دوران هخامنشی بخشی از امپراتوری‌های متعدد ایران بودند؛ و از فرهنگ ایرانی به شدت تأثیر پذیرفتند. ارمنی‌ها البته از شاخه دیگری از گویشگران زبانهای هند و اروپایی هستند که به زبان‌های ایرانی مستقیماً مربوط نیست. در واقع ارمنستان باستانی ترکیبی از فرهنگ بومی، فرهنگ ایرانی و فرهنگ هلنی/مسیحی را در خود داشت. در طول قرن‌های بعد دامنه این تأثیرات در اثر برخورد با روسها، رومی‌ها، اقوام اروپایی و لبنانی‌ها فراتر رفت.

سرزمین‌های آذربایجان[ویرایش]

پس از عهدنامه گلستان، ایران تمامی خانات جنوب قفقاز، شامل خانات باکو، خانات شیروان، خانات قره باغ، خانات گنجه، خانات شکی، خانات قبا و بخشی از خانات تالش را از دست داد. دربند هم به همین شیوه به روس‌ها واگذار شد. این خانات امروز منطقه‌ای را تشکیل می‌دهند که جمهوری آذربایجان خوانده می‌شود. پس از عهدنامه ترکمانچای ایران علاوه بر این سرزمین‌ها خانات نخجوان و مغان و همین‌طور ایروان را هم به روس‌ها واگذار کرد. این مناطق امروز جمهوری‌های آذربایجان و ارمنستان را تشکیل می‌دهند. بیشتر این مناطق هنوز هم نام‌های ایرانی یا نام‌هایی برگرفته از زبان‌های ایرانی دارند.

گرجستان[ویرایش]

در شرق گرجستان مناطق کارتلی و کاختی در دوران ساسانی مناطق ایرانی بودند. (مخصوصا در زمان هرمز چهارم) در دوران صفوی هم برخی رجال حکومتی از گرجی‌ها بودند.[۳۵]

شرق گرجستان تا سال ۱۷۸۳ هم تحت قیومیت ایران بود تا اینکه در طی عهدنامه گرجیوسک در ۲۴ ژوئیه ۱۷۸۳ میان حکمران کارتلی و کاختی و امپراتوری روسیه، این مناطق بخشی از روسیه شناخته شد. ایران بعدها طی قرارداد گلستان و ترکمانچای رسماً از ادعای مالکیت بر این مناطق چشم پوشی کرد.

نخجوان[ویرایش]

در دوران ساسانی، نرسه، هفتمین پادشاه از این سلسله، استحکامات نظامی در این منطقه ایجاد کرد. برخی شخصیت‌های فرهنگی و ادبی ایران در دوره قاجار هم از این منطقه بودند. نخجوان هم در قرن نوزدهم و طی دو قرار داد گلستان و ترکمانچای از ایران جدا شد.

شمال قفقاز[ویرایش]

بخش شمالی قفقاز که امروز در جنوب روسیه قرار دارد، شامل جمهوری‌های داغستان، چچن، اوستیای شمالی-آلانیا، کاباردینو-بالکاریا برای مدت‌های طولانی قسمت‌هایی از ایران و در حوزه تمدنی ایران بود تا اینکه در قرون هجدهم و نوزدهم توسط روسیه تصاحب شد. تأثیرات فرهنگ ایرانی حتی تا تاتارستان در مرکز روسیه هم قابل مشاهده‌است. برای نمونه بسیاری از مناطق در قفقاز از سبک معماری ساسانیان در دربند تقلید می‌کنند. حتی امروز هم پس از دهه‌ها جدایی این مناطق، رگه‌هایی از فرهنگ ایرانی همچو بزرگداشت نوروز در آن‌ها دیده می‌شود.[۳۶]

آسیای مرکزی[ویرایش]

خوارزم[ویرایش]

خوارزم بخشی از ایران‌زمین یا همان ایران بزرگ، سرزمین ایرانیان کهن بود. بر طبق نظر برخی پژوهشگران مدرن از کتاب باستانی اوستا، خوارزم همانجایی است که در ابتدا ایرییانم وَئِجه (ایران‌ویج) یا ایران خوانده شد. این منابع می‌گویند کهنه‌گرگانج در متن پهلوی وندیداد هشتمین سرزمین اهورا مزدا، یا اروه نامیده می‌شود. برخی پژوهشگران هم مانند التون ال دنیل، مورخ دانشگاه هاوایی، اعتقاد دارند که خوارزم به احتمال زیاد موطن مردم اوستایی است.[۳۷] دهخدا هم خوارزم را مهد قوم آریا معرفی می‌کند. امروزه خوارزم میان جمهوری‌های متعدد آسیای مرکزی تقسیم شده‌است.

خراسان[ویرایش]

افزون بر خوارزم، خراسان هم در محدوده جغرافیایی مشابهی قرار دارد. (محدوده خراسان از سمنان در غرب، تا شمال افغانستان تا دامنه‌های رشته کوه‌های پامیر است) استان‌های کنونی همچون سنجان در ترکمنستان، خراسان رضوی، خراسان شمالی و خراسان جنوبی در ایران همگی بخش‌هایی از خراسان کهن هستند. تا پیش از قرن سیزده میلادی و حمله ویرانگر مغول، خراسان پایتخت فرهنگی ایران بزرگ به‌شمار می‌آمد.[۳۸]

سینکیانگ[ویرایش]

بخش خودگردان تاشکورگان دارای فرهنگ و مردمان ایرانی است.[۳۹] تاشکورگان همواره با کاشغر، یارکند، ختن و تورفان بخشی از تاریخ و فرهنگ ایران بزرگ به‌شمار می‌آید.[۴۰]

تجزیه ایران؛ عهدنامه‌ها[ویرایش]

نقشه‌ها[ویرایش]

کنفدراسیون ایران[ویرایش]

ایده کنفدراسیون «ایران» اولین بار توسط محمدظاهر شاه پادشاه افغانستان مطرح گردید سال‌ها صحبت از ایجاد کنفدراسیون ایران و افغانستان در میان بود؛ و برای بار دوم توسط ژنرال ایوب خان رئیس‌جمهور پاکستان در سال ۱۳۴۱ خورشیدی تحت عنوان کنفدراسیون ایران- افغانستان- پاکستان مطرح شد.[۴۳]

ماجرای مطرح کردن ایده کنفدراسیون ایران- افغانستان[ویرایش]

در نوروز سال ۱۳۳۹، سردار محمدداوود صدراعظم وقت افغانستان به ایران آمد تا دربارهٔ این موضوع بررسی‌های تازه‌ای صورت گیرد و به این سبب، وی هم در مراسم نوروز آن سال شرکت کرد؛ زیرا نوروز آیین مشترک مردم دو کشور است که پیش از قتل نادرشاه افشار، قلمرو حکومتی واحدی را تشکیل می‌دادند. اتباع دو کشور دارای نیاکان (تاریخ) زبان و فرهنگ مشترک هستند و به همین دلیل طبق نظر جامعه شناسان از جمله «ماکس وبر» یک ملت محسوب می‌شوند و به همین صورت تاجیک‌های فرارود (پارسیان) که اینک در چند کشور زندگی می‌کنند. ترس از همین خویشاوندی و وحدت فرهنگی است که در سال‌های اخیر فشارهای تازه‌ای وارد می‌آید که افغان‌ها و به ویژه پشتون‌ها به ایران و پارسیان فرارود (تاجیک‌ها) نزدیک نشوند.[۴۳]

نقش دیگران در جلوگیری از پیشرفت طرح[ویرایش]

محمدظاهر شاه که در طول سلطنت خود بر بی‌طرفی و عدم تعهد افغانستان پای می‌فشرد یک بار تلاش کرد تا سرزمین‌هایی را که انگلستان در دوران سلطه خود بر هندوستان از افغانستان جدا ساخته و اینک ضمیمه پاکستان و پاتان‌نشین (پشتون) هستند بازگرداند از جمله منطقه خودمختار «وزیرستان». این تلاش، در دهه ۱۹۶۰ افغانستان و پاکستان را در آستانه یک جنگ قرارداده بود که اگر آغاز شده بود؛ گسترش می‌یافت زیرا که مسکو از افغانستان و واشینگتن از پاکستان حمایت می‌کرد و دولت وقت ایران دچار سردرگمی عجیبی شده بود زیرا که از یک طرف با پاکستان قرارداد دفاعی داشت و از سوی دیگر، افغان‌ها را ایرانی می‌دانست، لذا دست به میانجی‌گری زد و موفق شد. در جریان همین میانجی‌گری باردیگر از ایجاد کنفدراسیون ایران و افغانستان مرکب از دو کشور مستقل سخن به میان آمد که ایران به خواست غرب، قضیه تقسیم درآمد نفت را پیش کشید و موضوع به تدریج منتفی شد. در آن زمان، غرب از آن بیم داشت که پس از ایجاد کنفدراسیون، ایران مدعی بلوچستان شرقی و افغانستان مدعی مناطق پاتان‌نشین پاکستان شود و این کشور که تنها به دلیل مسلمان بودن مردم آن از شبه قاره هند جدا شده و استقلال یافته فرو بپاشد. مسکو هم از آن هراس داشت که پس از تأسیس کنفدراسیون، تاجیک‌های «فرارود» باردیگر طغیان کنند و برای پیوستن به کنفدراسیون از شوروی جدا شوند. احمدشاه مسعود در دهه ۱۹۹۰ (همانند پدرش در نیمه اول قرن بیستم) تلاش‌هایی در این زمینه به عمل آورد که با قتل او در سپتامبر سال ۲۰۰۱ قضیه مسکوت ماند. در سال‌های اخیر باز تلاش‌هایی در این زمینه و به ویژه از ناحیه تاجیک‌ها (پارسیان) به عمل آمده و تشکیل جبهه ملی افغانستان که برادر احمدشاه و پسر محمدظاهر شاه و بسیاری از تاجیکیان در آن شرکت دارند در همین راستا است.

ماجرای مطرح کردن ایده کنفدراسیون ایران- افغانستان- پاکستان[ویرایش]

مارشال ایوب خان - رئیس‌جمهور پاکستان در سال ۱۳۴۱ خورشیدی برابر با ۱۹۶۲ میلادی خطاب به یک اجتماع بزرگ در کویته گفته بود که افغانستان، ایران و پاکستان در بین دو قوه بزرگ یعنی اتحاد شوروی و هند قرار گرفته‌اند و نظر به این وضع برای بقای این سه کشور برادر، اتحاد با هم یک امر ضروری می‌باشد. زیرا در صورت اختلافات داخلی، مقابله آن‌ها با فشارهای خارجی مشکل خواهد بود و شاید در این صورت کشورهای سه‌گانه از هم جدا شده و خاتمه بیابند ولی هرگاه این سه کشور با هم متحد شوند، از خود به خوبی دفاع خواهند کرد.[۴۴] رئیس‌جمهور پاکستان در میان کف زدن‌های ممتد حضار گفت که اگر چنین پیشنهادی به عمل آید، پاکستان از همه پیشتر این پیشنهاد را قبول خواهد کرد. وی گفت مردمان پاکستان، ایران و افغانستان به یک نژاد تعلق دارند و بین آن‌ها رشته‌های عمیق تاریخی و کلتوری وجود دارد و به عقیده وی مردمان این سه کشور برای دفاع در مقابل فشارهای خارجی و سعادت خود این اتحاد را می‌پسندند.[۴۵]

چند روز بعد، ذوالفقاری سفیر ایران در کابل، هنگام دیدار با سردار نعیم خان - وزیر خارجه دربارهٔ این اظهارات ایوب خان گفتگو کرد. سفیر ایران به نعیم خان گفت که "اتحادی که ایوب خان از آن صحبت کرده، آرزوی همه ماست". نعیم خان گفت: «بله همین‌طور است؛ ولی اکنون موقع چنین کاری نیست. اگر ما در حال حاضر دست به چنین اقدامی بزنیم، نابود خواهیم شد. انجام این عقیده کار امروز و فردا نیست و وقت می‌خواهد. به هر حال، در چنین موقع حساس، به هیچ وجه جای طرح این موضوع نیست".[۴۶][۴۷][۴۸]

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

پانویس[ویرایش]

  1. Christensen, Peter ,The decline of Iranshahr: irrigation and environments in the history http://books.google.com/books?id=ebB_ac13v3UC&pg=PA15&dq=%27Greater+Iran%27+-+were+always+known+in+the+Persian+language+as+Iranshahr+or+Iranzamin&hl=en&sa=X&ei=yMMuT8vBI-eeiQKywonKCg&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=%27Greater%20Iran%27%20-%20were%20always%20known%20in%20the%20Persian%20language%20as%20Iranshahr%20or%20Iranzamin&f=false
  2. Marcinkowski, Christoph ,Shi'ite identities: community and culture in changing social contexts. http://books.google.com/books?id=F9khRsDDuX8C&pg=PA83&dq=%27Greater+Iran%27+-+were+always+known+in+the+Persian+language+as+Iranshahr+or+Iranzamin&hl=en&sa=X&ei=E78uT9GfA-zMiQKCooGsCg&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=%27Greater%20Iran%27%20-%20were%20always%20known%20in%20the%20Persian%20language%20as%20Iranshahr%20or%20Iranzamin&f=false
  3. "IRAN i. LANDS OF IRAN". Encyclopædia Iranica.
  4. International Journal of Middle East Studies (2007), 39: pp 307-309 Copyright © 2007 Cambridge University Press http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=1009412
  5. Lange, Christian. Justice, Punishment and the Medieval Muslim Imagination. Cambridge Studies in Islamic Civilization. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521887823. Lange: "I further restrict the scope of this study by focusing on the lands of Iraq and greater Persia (including Khwārazm, Transoxania, and Afghanistan)."
  6. Gobineau, Joseph Arthur; O'Donoghue, Daniel. Gobineau and Persia: A Love Story. ISBN 1-56859-262-0. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 23 December 2011. O'Donoghue: "...all set in the greater Persia/Iran which includes Afghanistan".
  7. Shiels, Stan (2004). Stan Shiels on centrifugal pumps: collected articles from "World Pumps" magazine. Elsevier. pp. ۱۱–۱۲, ۱۸. ISBN 1-85617-445-X. Shiels: "During the Sassanid period the term Eranshahr was employed to denote the region also known as Greater Iran..." Also: "...the Abbasids, who with Persian assistance assumed the Prophet's mantle and transferred their capital to Baghdad three years later; thus, on a site close to historic Ctesiphon and even older Babylon, the caliphate was established within the bounds of Greater Persia."
  8. Richard N. Frye, interview by Asieh Namdar, CNN, 20 October 2007. "I spent all my life working in Iran. and as you know I don't mean Iran of today, I mean Greater Iran, the Iran which in the past, extended all the way from China to borders of Hungary and from other Mongolia to Mesopotamia". [۱] بایگانی‌شده در ۲۳ آوریل ۲۰۱۶ توسط Wayback Machine [۲] بایگانی‌شده در ۲ ژوئن ۲۰۱۱ توسط Wayback Machine
  9. Richard Nelson Frye, The Harvard Theological Review, Vol. 55, No. 4 (Oct. , 1962), pp. 261-268 http://www.jstor.org/pss/1508723 I use the term Iran in an historical context[...]Persia would be used for the modern state, more or less equivalent to "western Iran". I use the term "Greater Iran" to mean what I suspect most Classicists and ancient historians really mean by their use of Persia - that which was whitin the political boundries of State ruled by Iranians.
  10. In the case of Afghanistan, much of which was part of Iran until the late nineteenth century,
  11. Erik Goldstein (1992). Wars and peace treaties, 1816-1991. Psychology Press. pp. ۷۲–۷۳.
  12. Sir Percy Molesworth Sykes (Macmillan and co.). A history of Persia, Volume 2. pp. ۴۶۹. Check date values in: |date=, |year= / |date= mismatch (help)
  13. Roxane Farmanfarmaian (2008). War and peace in Qajar Persia: implications past and present. Psychology Press. pp. ۴.
  14. Abbas Amanat (1997). Pivot of the universe: Nasir al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831-1896. I.B.Tauris. pp. ۱۶.
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  18. Nicholas Sims-Williams. "EASTERN IRANIAN LANGUAGES". Retrieved ۲۰۱۱-۰۱-۱۴.
  19. "IRAN". Retrieved ۲۰۱۱-۰۱-۱۴.
  20. K. Hoffmann. "AVESTAN LANGUAGE I-III". Retrieved ۲۰۱۱-۰۱-۱۴.
  21. Richard Foltz, "Religions of the Silk Road: Premodern Patterns of globalization", Palgrave Macmillan, rev. 2nd edition, 2010. pg 27
  22. Frye, Richard Nelson, Greater Iran, ISBN 1-56859-177-2 p. xi
  23. Mallory, J. P. ; Adams, D. Q. (1997), Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture, London and Chicago: Fitzroy-Dearborn, ISBN 1-884964-98-2. pg 307: "Dialetically, Old Persian is regarded as a southwestern Iranian language in contrast to the east Iranian Avestan which covered most of the rest of Greater Iran
  24. George Lane, "Daily life in the Mongol empire", Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006. pg 10" The year following 1260 saw the empire irrevocably split but also signaled the emergence of the two greatest achievements of the house of Chinggis, namely the Yuan dynasty of greater China and the Il-Khanid dynasty of greater Iran.
  25. Judith G. Kolbas, "The Mongols in Iran", Excerpt from 399: "Uljaytu, Ruler of Greater Iran from 1304-1317 A.D."
  26. Mīr Khvānd, Muḥammad ibn Khāvandshāh, Tārīkh-i rawz̤at al-ṣafā. Taṣnīf Mīr Muḥammad ibn Sayyid Burhān al-Dīn Khāvand Shāh al-shahīr bi-Mīr Khvānd. Az rū-yi nusakh-i mutaʻaddadah-i muqābilah gardīdah va fihrist-i asāmī va aʻlām va qabāyil va kutub bā chāphā-yi digar mutamāyiz mībāshad.[Tehrān Markazī-i Khayyām Pīrūz [1959-60. ایرانشهر از کنار فرات تا جیحون است و وسط آبادانی عالم است. Iranshahr streches from the Euphrates to the Oxus, and it is the center of the prosperity of the World.
  27. Patrick Clawson. Eternal Iran. Palgrave Macmillan. 2005 ISBN 1-4039-6276-6 p.23
  28. The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. III: The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian Periods, Ehsan Yarshater, Review author[s]: Richard N. Frye, International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 21, No. 3. (Aug. , 1989), pp.415. Link: <415:TCHOIV>2.0.CO;2-I
  29. Nasser Takmil Homayoun, Kharazm: What do I know about Iran?. 2004. ISBN 964-379-023-1, p.78
  30. Patrick Clawson. Eternal Iran. Palgrave. 2005. Coauthored with Michael Rubin. ISBN 1-4039-6276-6 p.9,10
  31. Patrick Clawson. Eternal Iran. Palgrave. 2005. Coauthored with Michael Rubin. ISBN 1-4039-6276-6 p.30
  32. Patrick Clawson. Eternal Iran. Palgrave. 2005. Coauthored with Michael Rubin. ISBN 1-4039-6276-6 p.31-32
  33. See: محمدی ملایری، محمد: فرهنگ ایران در دوران انتقال از عصر ساسانی به عصر اسلامی، جلد دوم: دل ایرانشهر، تهران، انتشارات توس 1375. : Mohammadi Malayeri, M. : Del-e Iranshahr, vol. II, Tehran 1375 Hs.
  34. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/kurdish-language-i according to which Kurdish, following a select number of isoglosses, was relatively close to Persian In effect, this questioned the “traditional” view holding that Kurdish, because of its differences from Persian, should be regarded a “NW-Iranian” language (
  35. Patrick Clawson. Eternal Iran. Palgrave. 2005. Coauthored with Michael Rubin. ISBN 1-4039-6276-6 p.168
  36. Encyclopædia Iranica: "Caucasus Iran" article, p.84-96.
  37. Elton L. Daniel|Daniel, E. , The History of Iran. 2001. ISBN 0-313-30731-8, p.28
  38. Lorentz, J. Historical Dictionary of Iran. 1995. ISBN 0-8108-2994-0
  39. See:
  40. "Persian language in Xinjiang" (زبان فارسی در سین کیانگ). Zamir Sa'dollah Zadeh (دکتر ضمیر سعدالله زاده). Nameh-i Iran (نامه ایران) V.1. Editor: Hamid Yazdan Parast (حمید یزدان‌پرست). شابک ‎۹۶۴-۴۲۳-۵۷۲-X Perry-Castañeda Library collection under DS 266 N336 2005.
  41. Bahrain could justifiably be claimed as an integral part of Iran because: Iran/Persia had never recognised the independent status of Bahrain; the bulk of historical evidence pointed to continued Persian sovereignty over Bahrain
  42. محسنی، محمدرضا. «پان ترکیسم، ایران و آذربایجان». انتشارات سمرقند، ۱۳۸۹، صص 5-6
  43. ۴۳٫۰ ۴۳٫۱ تاریخ ایران انتشارات دهخدا
  44. کتاب «اختلافات ارضی افغانستان و پاکستان» ص ٣٢٣
  45. کتاب «اختلافات ارضی افغانستان و پاکستان» ص ۳۲۴
  46. کتاب "اختلافات ارضی افغانستان و پاکستان" ص ٣٢۵
  47. فصلنامه تاریخ روابط خارجه / سال چهارم، بهار1382 شماره 14
  48. فصلنامه تاریخ روابط خارجی 1382 شماره 14

پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]

Map showing the geographic, political (partial), and cultural reach of Iran (also known as Persia) and the Iranian peoples corresponding to the modern-day Greater Iran[1]
Faravahar background
History of Greater Iran
Median Empire (c. 600 BC)
Achaemenid Empire (550 BC–330 BC)
Parthian Empire (247 BC–224 AD)
Sasanian Empire (224–651)
Safavid Empire (1501–1722)

Greater Iran (Persian: ایران بزرگ‎, Irān-e Bozorg) refers to the regions of the Caucasus, West Asia, Central Asia, and South Asia where Iranian culture has had significant influence. Historically, these were regions long ruled by dynasties of the Iranian Empire,[note 1][2][3][4] that incorporated considerable aspects of Persian culture through extensive contact with them,[note 2] or where sufficient Iranian peoples settled to still maintain communities who patronize their respective cultures.[note 3] It roughly corresponds to the territory on the Iranian plateau and its bordering plains.[1][5] The Encyclopædia Iranica uses the term Iranian Cultural Continent for this region.[6]

The term Greater Iran, in addition to the modern state of Iran, includes all the territory ruled by the Iranians throughout history, including in Mesopotamia, Eastern Anatolia, the Caucasus and Central Asia.[7][8] The concept of Greater Iran has its source in the history of the Achaemenid Empire in Persis (modern day Pars region), and overlaps to a certain extent with the history of Iran.

In recent centuries, Iran lost many of the territories conquered under the Safavid and Qajar dynasties, including Iraq to the Ottomans (via the Treaty of Amasya in 1555 and the Treaty of Zuhab in 1639), western Afghanistan to the British (via the Treaty of Paris in 1857[9] and the MacMahon Arbitration in 1905),[10] and Caucasus territories to Russia during the Russo-Persian Wars of the 19th century.[11] The Treaty of Gulistan in 1813 resulted in Iran ceding Dagestan, Georgia, and most of Azerbaijan to Russia.[12][13][14] The Turkmanchey Treaty of 1828 decisively ended centuries of Iranian control of its Caucasian provinces,[15] made Iran cede what is present-day Armenia, the remainder of Azerbaijan and Igdir (eastern Turkey), and set the modern boundary along the Aras River.[16]

On the Nowruz of 1935, the endonym Iran was adopted as the official international name of Persia by its ruler Reza Shah Pahlavi.[17] However, in 1959, the government of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, Reza Shah Pahlavi's son, announced that both "Persia" and "Iran" could officially be used.[18]

Etymology

The name "Irān", meaning "land of the Aryans", is the New Persian continuation of the old genitive plural aryānām (proto-Iranian, meaning "of the Aryans"), first attested in the Avesta as airyānąm (the text of which is composed in Avestan, an old Iranian language spoken in northeastern Greater Iran, or in what are now Turkmenistan and Tajikistan).[19][20][21][22] The proto-Iranian term aryānām is present in the term Airyana Vaēǰah, the homeland of Zoroaster and Zoroastrianism, near the provinces of Sogdiana, Margiana, Bactria, etc., listed in the first chapter of the Vidēvdād.[23][24] The Avestan evidence is confirmed by Greek sources: Arianē is spoken of as being between Persia and the Indian subcontinent.[25] However, this is a Greek pronunciation of the name Haroyum/Haraiva (Herat), which the Greeks called 'Aria'[26] (a land listed separately from the homeland of the Aryans).[27][28]

While up until the end of the Parthian period in the 3rd century CE, the idea of "Irān" had an ethnic, linguistic, and religious value, it did not yet have a political import. The idea of an "Iranian" empire or kingdom in a political sense is a purely Sasanian one. It was the result of a convergence of interests between the new dynasty and the Zoroastrian clergy, as we can deduce from the available evidence. This convergence gave rise to the idea of an Ērān-šahr "Kingdom of the Iranians", which was "ēr" (Middle Persian equivalent of Old Persian "ariya" and Avestan "airya").[25]

Definition

Richard Nelson Frye defines Greater Iran as including "much of the Caucasus, Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Central Asia, with cultural influences extending to China and western India." According to Frye, "Iran means all lands and peoples where Iranian languages were and are spoken, and where in the past, multi-faceted Iranian cultures existed."[29]

Richard Foltz notes that while "A general assumption is often made that the various Iranian peoples of 'greater Iran'—a cultural area that stretched from Mesopotamia and the Caucasus into Khwarizm, Transoxiana, Bactria, and the Pamirs and included Persians, Medes, Parthians and Sogdians among others—were all 'Zoroastrians' in pre-Islamic times... This view, even though common among serious scholars, is almost certainly overstated." Foltz argues that "While the various Iranian peoples did indeed share a common pantheon and pool of religious myths and symbols, in actuality a variety of deities were worshipped—particularly Mitra, the god of covenants, and Anahita, the goddess of the waters, but also many others—depending on the time, place, and particular group concerned".[30] To the Ancient Greeks, Greater Iran ended at the Indus River located in Pakistan.[31]

According to J. P. Mallory and Douglas Q. Adams most of Western greater Iran spoke Southwestern Iranian languages in the Achaemenid era while the Eastern territory spoke Eastern Iranian languages related to Avestan.[32]

George Lane also states that after the dissolution of the Mongol Empire, the Ilkhanids became rulers of greater Iran[33] and Uljaytu, according to Judith G. Kolbas, was the ruler of this expanse between 1304–1317 A.D.[34]

Primary sources, including Timurid historian Mir Khwand, define Iranshahr (Greater Iran) as extending from the Euphrates to the Oxus[35]

Traditionally, and until recent times, ethnicity has never been a defining separating criterion in these regions. In the words of Richard Nelson Frye:[citation needed]

Many times I have emphasized that the present peoples of Central Asia, whether Iranian or Turkic speaking, have one culture, one religion, one set of social values and traditions with only language separating them.

— Richard Nelson Frye

Only in modern times did western colonial intervention and ethnicity tend to become a dividing force between the provinces of Greater Iran. As Patrick Clawson states, "ethnic nationalism is largely a nineteenth century phenomenon, even if it is fashionable to retroactively extend it."[36] "Greater Iran" however has been more of a cultural super-state, rather than a political one to begin with.

In the work Nuzhat al-Qolub (نزهه القلوب), the medieval geographer Hamdallah Mustawfi wrote:

چند شهر است اندر ایران مرتفع تر از همه
Some cities in Iran are above the rest,
بهتر و سازنده تر از خوشی آب و هوا
better and more productive due to good weather,
گنجه پر گنج در اران صفاهان در عراق
Ganja full of treasure in Arran, and Esfahān in Iraq,
در خراسان مرو و طوس در روم باشد اقسرا
Merv and Tus in Khorasan, and Konya (Aqsara) in Rome (Anatolia).

The Cambridge History of Iran takes a geographical approach in referring to the "historical and cultural" entity of "Greater Iran" as "areas of Iran, parts of Afghanistan, and Chinese and Soviet Central Asia".[37] A detailed list of these territories follows in this article.

In Persian literature

Background

Greater Iran is called Iranzamin (ایرانزمین) which means "The Land of Iran". Iranzamin was in the mythical times opposed to the Turanzamin the Land of Turan, which was located in the upper part of Central Asia.[38]

In the pre-Islamic period, Iranians distinguished two main regions in the territory they ruled, one Iran and the other Aniran. By Iran they meant all the regions inhabited by ancient Iranian peoples, this region was more extensive in the past. This notion of Iran as a territory (opposed to Aniran) can be seen as the core of early Greater Iran. Later many changes occurred in the boundaries and areas where Iranians lived but the languages and culture remained the dominant medium in many parts of the Greater Iran.

As an example, the Persian language (referred to, in Persian, as Farsi) was the main literary language and the language of correspondence in Central Asia and Caucasus prior to the Russian occupation, Central Asia being the birthplace of modern Persian language. Furthermore, according to the British government, Persian language was also used in Iraqi Kurdistan, prior to the British Occupation and Mandate in 1918-1932.[39]

With Imperial Russia continuously advancing south in the course of two wars against Persia, and the treaties of Turkmenchay and Gulistan in the western frontiers, plus the unexpected death of Abbas Mirza in 1823, and the murdering of Persia's Grand Vizier (Mirza AbolQasem Qa'im Maqām), many Central Asian khanates began losing hope for any support from Persia against the Tsarist armies.[40] The Russian armies occupied the Aral coast in 1849, Tashkent in 1864, Bukhara in 1867, Samarkand in 1868, and Khiva and Amudarya in 1873.

"Many Iranians consider their natural sphere of influence to extend beyond Iran's present borders. After all, Iran was once much larger. Portuguese forces seized islands and ports in the 16th and 17th centuries. In the 19th century, the Russian Empire wrested from Tehran's control what is today Armenia, Republic of Azerbaijan, and part of Georgia. Iranian elementary school texts teach about the Iranian roots not only of cities like Baku, but also cities further north like Derbent in southern Russia. The Shah lost much of his claim to western Afghanistan following the Anglo-Iranian war of 1856-1857. Only in 1970 did a UN sponsored consultation end Iranian claims to suzerainty over the Persian Gulf island nation of Bahrain. In centuries past, Iranian rule once stretched westward into modern Iraq and beyond. When the western world complains of Iranian interference beyond its borders, the Iranian government often convinced itself that it is merely exerting its influence in lands that were once its own. Simultaneously, Iran's losses at the hands of outside powers have contributed to a sense of grievance that continues to the present day." -Patrick Clawson of the Washington Institute for Near East Policy[41]
"Iran today is just a rump of what it once was. At its height, Iranian rulers controlled Iraq, Afghanistan, Western Pakistan, much of Central Asia, and the Caucasus. Many Iranians today consider these areas part of a greater Iranian sphere of influence." -Patrick Clawson[42]
"Since the days of the Achaemenids, the Iranians had the protection of geography. But high mountains and vast emptiness of the Iranian plateau were no longer enough to shield Iran from the Russian army or British navy. Both literally, and figuratively, Iran shrank. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, Azerbaijan, Armenia, and Afghanistan were Iranian, but by the end of the century, all this territory had been lost as a result of European military action."[43]

Provinces and regions

In the 8th century, Iran was conquered by the Abbassids who ruled from Baghdad, and the territory of Iran at that time was known to be composed of two portions: Persian Iraq (western portion) and Khorasan (eastern portion). The dividing region was mostly along with Gurgan and Damaghan cities. Especially the Ghaznavids, Seljuqs and Timurids divided their Empire to Iraqi and Khorasani regions. This point can be observed in many books such as "Tārīkhi Baïhaqī" of Abul Fazl Bayhqi, Faza'ilul al-anam min rasa'ili hujjat al-Islam (a collection of letters of Al-Ghazali) and other books. Transoxiana and Chorasmia were mostly included in the Khorasanian region.

Middle East

Bahrain

The "Ajam" and "Huwala" are ethnic communities of Bahrain of Persian origin. The Persians of Bahrain are a significant and influential ethnic community whose ancestors arrived in Bahrain within the last 1,000 years as laborers, merchants and artisans. They have traditionally been merchants living in specific quarters of Manama and Muharraq. Bahrain's Persians who adhere to the Shia sect of Islam are Ajam and the Persians who adhere to the Sunni sect are called Huwala, who migrated from Larestan in Iran to the Persian Gulf in the seventeenth and eighteenth century.

The immigration of Persians to Bahrain began when the Greek Seleucid kingdom which was ruling Bahrain at the time fell and the Persian Empire successfully invaded Bahrain, but it is often believed that mass immigration started during the 1600s when Abbas I of Persia invaded Bahrain. After settling in Bahrain, some of the Persians were effectively Arabized. They usually settled in areas inhabited by the indigenous Baharna, probably because they share the same Shia Muslim faith, however, some Sunni Persians settled in areas mostly inhabited by Sunni Arab immigrants such as Hidd and Galali. In Muharraq, they have their own neighborhood called Fareej Karimi named after a rich Persian man called Ali Abdulla Karimi.

From the 6th century BC to the 3rd century BC, Bahrain was a prominent part of the Persian Empire by the Achaemenids, an Iranian dynasty. Bahrain was referred to by the Greeks as "Tylos", the centre of pearl trading, when Nearchus discovered it while serving under Alexander the Great.[44] From the 3rd century BC to the arrival of Islam in the 7th century AD, Bahrain was controlled by two other Iranian dynasties, the Parthians and the Sassanids.

In the 3rd century AD, the Sassanids succeeded the Parthians and controlled the area for four centuries until the arrival of Islam.[45] Ardashir, the first ruler of the Iranian Sassanid dynasty marched to Oman and Bahrain and defeated Sanatruq[46] (or Satiran[47]), probably the Parthian governor of Bahrain.[48] He appointed his son Shapur I as governor of Bahrain. Shapur constructed a new city there and named it Batan Ardashir after his father.[47] At this time, Bahrain incorporated the southern Sassanid province covering the Persian Gulf's southern shore plus the archipelago of Bahrain.[48] The southern province of the Sassanids was subdivided into three districts; Haggar (now al-Hafuf province, Saudi Arabia), Batan Ardashir (now al-Qatif province, Saudi Arabia), and Mishmahig (now Bahrain Island)[47] (In Middle-Persian/Pahlavi it means "ewe-fish").[49]

By about 130 BC, the Parthian dynasty brought the Persian Gulf under their control and extended their influence as far as Oman. Because they needed to control the Persian Gulf trade route, the Parthians established garrisons along the southern coast of the Persian Gulf.[45] through warfare and economic distress, been reduced to only 60.[50] The influence of Iran was further undermined at the end of the 18th century when the ideological power struggle between the Akhbari-Usuli strands culminated in victory for the Usulis in Bahrain.[51]

An Afghan uprising led by Hotakis of Kandahar at the beginning of the 18th century resulted in the near collapse of the Safavid state.[52] In the resultant power vacuum, Oman invaded Bahrain in 1717, ending over one hundred years of Persian hegemony in Bahrain. The Omani invasion began a period of political instability and a quick succession of outside rulers took power with consequent destruction. According to a contemporary account by theologian, Sheikh Yusuf Al Bahrani, in an unsuccessful attempt by the Persians and their Bedouin allies to take back Bahrain from the Kharijite Omanis, much of the country was burnt to the ground.[53] Bahrain was eventually sold back to the Persians by the Omanis, but the weakness of the Safavid empire saw Huwala tribes seize control.[54]

In 1730, the new Shah of Persia, Nadir Shah, sought to re-assert Persian sovereignty in Bahrain. He ordered Latif Khan, the admiral of the Persian navy in the Persian Gulf, to prepare an invasion fleet in Bushehr.[52] The Persians invaded in March or early April 1736 when the ruler of Bahrain, Shaikh Jubayr, was away on hajj.[52] The invasion brought the island back under central rule and to challenge Oman in the Persian Gulf. He sought help from the British and Dutch, and he eventually recaptured Bahrain in 1736.[55] During the Qajar era, Persian control over Bahrain waned[52] and in 1753, Bahrain was occupied by the Sunni Persians of the Bushire-based Al Madhkur family,[56] who ruled Bahrain in the name of Persia and paid allegiance to Karim Khan Zand.

During most of the second half of the eighteenth century, Bahrain was ruled by Nasr Al-Madhkur, the ruler of Bushehr. The Bani Utibah tribe from Zubarah exceeded in taking over Bahrain after a war broke out in 1782. Persian attempts to reconquer the island in 1783 and in 1785 failed; the 1783 expedition was a joint Persian-Qawasim invasion force that never left Bushehr. The 1785 invasion fleet, composed of forces from Bushehr, Rig and Shiraz was called off after the death of the ruler of Shiraz, Ali Murad Khan. Due to internal difficulties, the Persians could not attempt another invasion.[57] In 1799, Bahrain came under threat from the expansionist policies of Sayyid Sultan, the Sultan of Oman, when he invaded the island under the pretext that Bahrain did not pay taxes owed.[58] The Bani Utbah solicited the aid of Bushire to expel the Omanis on the condition that Bahrain would become a tributary state of Persia. In 1800, Sayyid Sultan invaded Bahrain again in retaliation and deployed a garrison at Arad Fort, in Muharraq island and had appointed his twelve-year-old son Salim, as Governor of the island.[58] [59]

Many names of villages in Bahrain are derived from the Persian language.[60] These names were thought to have been as a result influences during the Safavid rule of Bahrain (1501–1722) and previous Persian rule. Village names such as Karbabad, Salmabad, Karzakan, Duraz, Barbar were originally derived from the Persian language, suggesting that Persians had a substantial effect on the island's history.[60] The local Bahrani Arabic dialect has also borrowed many words from the Persian language.[60] Bahrain's capital city, Manama is derived from two Persian words meaning 'I' and 'speech'.[60][contradictory]

In 1910, the Persian community funded and opened a private school, Al-Ittihad school, that taught Farsi amongst other subjects.[61] According to the 1905 census, there were 1650 Bahraini citizens of Persian origin.[62]

Historian Nasser Hussain says that many Iranians fled their native country in the early 20th century due to a law king Reza Shah issued which banned women from wearing the hijab, or because they feared for their lives after fighting the English, or to find jobs. They were coming to Bahrain from Bushehr and the Fars province between 1920 and 1940. In the 1920s, local Persian merchants were prominently involved in the consolidation of Bahrain's first powerful lobby with connections to the municipality in effort to contest the municipal legislation of British control.[62]

Bahrain's local Persian community have heavily influenced the country's local food dishes. One of the most notable local delicacies of the people in Bahrain is mahyawa, consumed in Southern Iran as well, is a watery earth brick coloured sauce made from sardines and consumed with bread or other food. Bahrain's Persians are also famous in Bahrain for bread-making. Another local delicacy is "pishoo" made from rose water (golab) and agar agar. Other food items consumed are similar to Persian cuisine.

Iraq

Throughout history, Iran always had strong cultural ties with the region of present–day Iraq. Mesopotamia is considered as the cradle of civilization and the place where the first empires in history were established. These empires, namely the Sumerian, Akkadian, Babylonian, and Assyrian, dominated the ancient middle east for millennia, which explains the great influence of the Mesopotamia on the Iranian culture and history, and it is also the reason why the later Iranian and Greek dynasties chose Mesopotamia to be the political centre of their rule. For a period of around 500 years, what is now Iraq formed the core of Iran, with the Iranian Parthian and Sasanian empire having their capital in what is modern-day Iraq for the same centuries long time span. (Ctesiphon)

The Cyrus Cylinder, written in Babylonian cuneiform in the name of the Achaemenid king, Cyrus the Great, describes the Persian takeover of Babylon (An ancient city in modern-day Iraq).

Because the Achaemenid Empire or "First Persian Empire" was the successor state to the empires of Assyria and Babylonia based in Iraq, and because Elam is part of Iran, the ancient people of Iran were ruled by ancient Mesopotamians, which explains the close proximity between the people of south western Iran and the Iraqis even in modern days, in fact, the people of that part of Iran speak Mesopotamian Arabic and were put under the rule of modern Iran by the British. The ancient Persians adopted the Babylonian cuneiform script and modified it to write their language, along with adopting many other facets of ancient Iraqi culture, including the Aramaic language which became the official language of the Persian Empire.

The Cyrus Cylinder, written in Babylonian cuneiform in the name of the Achaemenid king Cyrus the Great, describes the Persian takeover of Babylon (the ancient name of Iraq). An excerpt reads:[citation needed]

When I entered Babylon in a peaceful manner, I took up my lordly abode in the royal palace amidst rejoicing and happiness. Marduk, the great lord, established as his fate for me a magnanimous heart of one who loves Babylon, and I daily attended to his worship. My vast army marched into Babylon in peace; I did not permit anyone to frighten the people of Sumer and Akkad. I sought the welfare of the city of Babylon and all its sacred centers. As for the citizens of Babylon,[...] upon whom Nabonidus imposed a corvée which was not the gods' wish and not befitting them, I relieved their wariness and freed them from their service. Marduk, the great lord, rejoiced over my good deeds. He sent gracious blessing upon me, Cyrus, the king who worships him, and upon Cambyses, the son who is my offspring, and upon all my army, and in peace, before him, we moved around in friendship [with the people of Babylon].

— Cyrus Cylinder
An 1814 map of Persia at time of Qajar dynasty

According to Iranologist Richard N. Frye:[64][65]

Throughout Iran's history the western part of the land has been frequently more closely connected with the lowlands of Mesopotamia (Iraq) than with the rest of the plateau to the east of the central deserts [the Dasht-e Kavir and Dasht-e Lut].

— Richard N. Frye, The Golden Age of Persia: The Arabs in the East

Testimony to the close relationship shared by Iraq and western Iran during the Abbasid era and later centuries, is the fact that the two regions came to share the same name. The western region of Iran (ancient Media) was called 'Irāq-e 'Ajamī ("Persian Iraq"), while central-southern Iraq (Babylonia) was called 'Irāq al-'Arabī ("Arabic Iraq") or Bābil ("Babylon"). And the name Iraq comes from the ancient Mesopotamian city Uruk, which suggests an even older relationship.

For centuries the two neighbouring regions were known as "The Two Iraqs" ("al-'Iraqain"). The 12th century Persian poet Khāqāni wrote a famous poem Tohfat-ul Iraqein ("The Gift of the Two Iraqs"). The city of Arāk in western Iran still bears the region's old name, and Iranians still traditionally call the region between Tehran, Isfahan and Īlām "ʿErāq".

During medieval ages, Mesopotamian and Iranian peoples knew each other's languages because of trade, and because Arabic was the language of religion and science at that time. The Timurid historian Ḥāfeẓ-e Abru (d. 1430) wrote of Iraq:[66]

The majority of inhabitants of Iraq know Persian and Arabic, and from the time of domination of Turkic people the Turkish language has also found currency.

— Ḥāfeẓ-e Abru

Iraqis share religious and certain cultural ties with Iranians. The majority of Iranians are Twelver Shia (an Islamic sect established in Iraq), although the majority of Iranians were Sunni Muslims and did not convert to Shia until the Safavids forced Shi'ism in Iran.

Iraqi culture has commonalities with the culture of Iran. The spring festival of Nowruz that is celebrated in Iran and some parts of Iraq roots back to the Akitu spring festival (Babylonian new year). The Mesopotamian cuisine also has similarities to the Persian cuisine, including common dishes and cooking techniques. The Iraqi dialect has absorbed many words from the Persian language.[67]

There are still cities and provinces in Iraq where the Persian names of the city are still retained – e.g., ’Anbār and Baghdad. Other cities of Iraq with originally Persian names include Nokard (نوكرد) --> Haditha, Suristan (سورستان) --> Kufa, Shahrban (شهربان) --> Muqdadiyah, Arvandrud (اروندرود) --> Shatt al-Arab, and Asheb (آشب) --> Amadiya,[68] Peroz-Shapur --> Anbar (town)

In the modern era, the Safavid dynasty of Iran briefly reasserted hegemony over Iraq in the periods of 1501–1533 and 1622–1638, losing Iraq to the Ottoman Empire on both occasions (via the Treaty of Amasya in 1555 and the Treaty of Zuhab in 1639). Ottoman hegemony over Iraq was reconfirmed in the Treaty of Kerden in 1746.

Following the fall of the Ba'athist regime in 2003 and the empowerment of Iraq's majority Shī'i community, relations with Iran have flourished in all fields. Iraq is today Iran's largest trading partner in regard to non-oil goods.[69]

Many Iranians were born in Iraq or have ancestors from Iraq,[70] such as the Chairman of Iran's Parliament Ali Larijani, the former Chief Justice of Iran Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi, and the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Iran Ali Akbar Salehi, who were born in Najaf and Karbala respectively. In the same way, many Iraqis were born in Iran or have ancestors from Iran,[70] such as Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani, who was born in Mashhad.

Kurdistan

Culturally and historically Kurdistan has been a part of what is known as Greater Iran. Kurds speak a Northwestern Iranian language known as Kurdish. Many aspects of Kurdish culture are related to the other peoples of Greater Iran, examples include Newroz[71] and Simurgh.[72] Some historians and linguists, such as Vladimir Minorsky,[73] have suggested that the Medes, an Iranian people[74] who inhabited much of western Iran, including Azerbaijan and Kurdistan, might have been forefathers of modern Kurds.

Caucasus

North Caucasus

Sassanian fortress in Derbent, Dagestan. Now inscribed on Russia's UNESCO world heritage list since 2003.

Dagestan remains the bastion of Persian culture in the North Caucasus with fine examples of Iranian architecture like the Sassanid citadel in Derbent, strong influence of Persian cuisine, and common Persian names amongst the ethnic peoples of Dagestan. The ethnic Persian population of the North Caucasus, the Tats, remain, despite strong assimilation over the years, still visible in several North Caucasian cities. Even today, after decades of partition, some of these regions retain Iranian influences, as seen in their old beliefs, traditions and customs (e.g. Norouz).[75]

South Caucasus

According to Tadeusz Swietochowski, the territories of Iran and the republic of Azerbaijan usually shared the same history from the time of ancient Media (ninth to seventh centuries b.c.) and the Persian Empire (sixth to fourth centuries b.c.).[76]

Intimately and inseparably intertwined histories for millennia, Iran irrevocably lost the territory that is nowadays Azerbaijan in the course of the 19th century. With the Treaty of Gulistan of 1813 following the Russo-Persian War (1804-1813) Iran had to cede eastern Georgia, its possessions in the North Caucasus and many of those in what is today the Azerbaijan Republic, which included Baku Khanate, Shirvan Khanate, Karabakh Khanate, Ganja Khanate, Shaki Khanate, Quba Khanate, and parts of the Talysh Khanate. Derbent (Darband) Khanate of Dagestan was also lost to Russia. These Khanates comprise most of what is today the Republic of Azerbaijan and Dagestan in Southern Russia. By the Treaty of Turkmenchay of 1828 following the Russo-Persian War (1826-1828), the result was even more disastrous, and resulted in Iran being forced to cede the Nakhichevan Khanate and the Mughan regions to Russia, as well as Erivan Khanate, and the remainder of the Talysh Khanate. All these territories together, lost in 1813 and 1828 combined, constitute all of the modern-day Republic of Azerbaijan, Armenia, and southern Dagestan. The area to the North of the river Aras, among which the territory of the contemporary republic of Azerbaijan were Iranian territory until they were occupied by Russia in the course of the 19th century.[77][78][79][80][81][82]

Many localities in this region bear Persian names or names derived from Iranian languages and Azerbaijan remains by far Iran's closest cultural, religious, ethnic and historical neighbor. Azerbaijanis are by far the second largest ethnicity in Iran, and comprise the largest community of ethnic Azerbaijanis in the world, vastly outnumbering the number in the Republic of Azerbaijan. Both nations are the only officially Shia majority in the world, with adherents of the religion comprising an absolute majority in both nations. The people of nowadays Iran and Azerbaijan were converted to Shiism during exactly the same time in history. Furthermore, the name of "Azerbaijan" is derived through the name of the Persian satrap which ruled the contemporary region of Iranian Azerbaijan and minor parts of the Republic of Azerbaijan in ancient times.[83][84] In 1918, the Azerbaijani Musavat party adopted the name for the nation upon the independence of the former territories under the Russian Empire.

Early in antiquity, Narseh of Persia is known to have had fortifications built here. In later times, some of Persia's literary and intellectual figures from the Qajar period have hailed from this region. Under intermittent Iranian suzerainty since antiquity, it was also separated from Iran in the mid-19th century, by virtue of the Gulistan Treaty and Turkmenchay Treaty.

که تا جایگه یافتی نخچوان
Oh Nakhchivan, respect you've attained,
بدین شاه شد بخت پیرت جوان
With this King in luck you'll remain.
---Nizami

Central Asia

Painted clay and alabaster head of a Zoroastrian priest wearing a distinctive Bactrian-style headdress, Takhti-Sangin, Tajikistan, Greco-Bactrian kingdom, 3rd-2nd century BC

Khwarazm is one of the regions of Iran-zameen, and is the home of the ancient Iranians, Airyanem Vaejah, according to the ancient book of the Avesta. Modern scholars believe Khwarazm to be what ancient Avestic texts refer to as "Ariyaneh Waeje" or Iran vij. Iranovich These sources claim that Urgandj, which was the capital of ancient Khwarazm for many years, was actually "Ourva": the eighth land of Ahura Mazda mentioned in the Pahlavi text of Vendidad. Others such as University of Hawaii historian Elton L. Daniel believe Khwarazm to be the "most likely locale" corresponding to the original home of the Avestan people,[85] while Dehkhoda calls Khwarazm "the cradle of the Aryan tribe" (مهد قوم آریا). Today Khwarazm is split between several central Asian republics.

Superimposed on and overlapping with Chorasmia was Khorasan which roughly covered nearly the same geographical areas in Central Asia (starting from Semnan eastward through northern Afghanistan roughly until the foothills of Pamir, ancient Mount Imeon). Current day provinces such as Sanjan in Turkmenia, Razavi Khorasan Province, North Khorasan Province, and Southern Khorasan Province in Iran are all remnants of the old Khorasan. Until the 13th century and the devastating Mongol invasion of the region, Khorasan was considered the cultural capital of Greater Iran.[86]

Tajikistan

The national anthem in Tajikistan, "Surudi Milli", attests to the Perso-Tajik identity, which has seen a large revival, after the breakup of the USSR. Their language is almost identical to that spoken in Afghanistan and Iran, and their cities have Persian names, e.g. Dushanbe, Isfara, Rasht Valley, Garm, Murghab, Vahdat, Zar-afshan river, Shurab, and Kulob ([2][permanent dead link]). It is also important[to whom?] to note that Rudaki, considered by many as the father of modern Persian poetry, was from the modern day region of Tajikistan.

Turkmenistan

Home of the Parthian Empire (Nysa). Merv is also where the half-Persian caliph al-Mamun moved his capital to. The city of Eshgh Abad (some claim that the word is actually the transformed form of "Ashk Abad" literally meaning "built by Ashk", the head of Arsacid dynasty) is yet another Persian word meaning "city of love", and like Iran, Afghanistan, and Uzbekistan, it was once part of Airyanem Vaejah.

Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan has a local Tajik population. The famous Persian cities of Afrasiab, Bukhara, Samarkand, Shahrisabz, Andijan, Khiveh, Navā'i, Shirin, Termez, and Zar-afshan are located here. These cities are the birthplace of the Islamic era Persian literature. The Samanids, who claimed inheritance to the Sassanids, had their capital built here.

ای بخارا شاد باش و دیر زی
Oh Bukhara! Joy to you and live long!
شاه زی تو میهمان آید همی
Your King comes to you in ceremony.
---Rudaki

Xinjiang

The Tashkurgan Tajik Autonomous County regions of China harbored a Tajik population and culture.[87] Chinese Tashkurgan Tajik Autonomous County was always counted as a part of the Iranian cultural & linguistic continent with Kashgar, Yarkand, Hotan, and Turpan bound to the Iranian history.[88]

South Asia

Afghanistan

Modern state of Afghanistan was part of Sistan and Greater Khorasan regions, and hence was recognized with the name Khorasan (along with regions centered on Merv and Nishapur), which in Pahlavi means "The Eastern Land" (خاور زمین in Persian).[89]

Nowadays region of Afghanistan is where Balkh is located, home of Rumi, Rabi'a Balkhi, Sanāī Ghaznawi, Jami, Khwaja Abdullah Ansari and where many other notables in Persian literature came from.

ز زابل به کابل رسید آن زمان
From Zabul he arrived to Kabul
گرازان و خندان و دل شادمان
Strutting, happy, and mirthful
---Ferdowsi in Shahnama

Pakistan

There is considerable influence of Iranian-speaking peoples in Pakistan. The region of Baluchistan is split between Pakistan and Iran and Baluchi, the majority languages of the Baluchistan province of Pakistan are also spoken in Southeastern Iran. In fact, the Chagai Hills and the western part of Makran district were part of Iran till the Durand Line was drawn in the late 1800s.

Pashto which is spoken in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and FATA of Pakistan and Afghanistan is an Iranian language.

Historical and modern maps of Iran

Treaties

See also

Notes and references

Explanatory footnotes

  1. ^ These include the Medes, Achaemenids, Parthians, Sasanians, Samanids, Safavids, Afsharids and Qajars).
  2. ^ For example, those regions and peoples in the North Caucasus that were not under direct Iranian rule.
  3. ^ Such as in the western parts of South Asia, Bahrain and Tajikistan.

Citation footnotes

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  2. ^ Marcinkowski, Christoph (2010). Shi'ite Identities: Community and Culture in Changing Social Contexts. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 83. ISBN 978-3-643-80049-7.
  3. ^ "Interview with Richard N. Frye (CNN)". Archived from the original on 2016-04-23. Retrieved 2007. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  4. ^ Richard Nelson Frye, The Harvard Theological Review, Vol. 55, No. 4 (Oct. 1962), pp. 261–268 https://www.jstor.org/pss/1508723 I use the term Iran in an historical context[...]Persia would be used for the modern state, more or less equivalent to "western Iran". I use the term "Greater Iran" to mean what I suspect most Classicists and ancient historians really mean by their use of Persia—that which was within the political boundaries of States ruled by Iranians.
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  8. ^ International Journal of Middle East Studies (2007), 39: pp 307-309 Copyright © 2007 Cambridge University Press http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=1009412
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  30. ^ Richard Foltz, "Religions of the Silk Road: Premodern Patterns of globalization", Palgrave Macmillan, rev. 2nd edition, 2010. pg 27
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  33. ^ George Lane, "Daily life in the Mongol empire", Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006. pg 10" The year following 1260 saw the empire irrevocably split but also signaled the emergence of the two greatest achievements of the house of Chinggis, namely the Yuan dynasty of greater China and the Il-Khanid dynasty of greater Iran.
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General references

External links