انرژی در ایران
جمهوری اسلامی ایران از جمله کشورهایی است که از منابع فراوان انرژی برخوردار است و پس از ۱۹۱۳ همواره به عنوان یکی از صادر کنندههای اصلی نفت محسوب میشدهاست. با توجه به اینکه در میان دو منبع بزرگ انرژی جهان (دریای خزر در شمال و خلیج فارس در جنوب) قرار دارد، از جایگاه ویژهای در سطح بینالمللی برخوردار است. از جمله موارد اهمیت این میباشد که یکی از دو کشوری است که قادر است بهطور مستقل و مستقیم، نفت و گاز استحصال شده از منبع عظیم دریای خزر را صادر کند، که البته از این منظر نیز به دلیل کوتاهی مسافت از رقیب صادراتی خود که روسیه میباشد، میتواند پیشی گیرد.
میانگین تولید نفت روزانه ایران در سال ۲۰۰۵ رقمی در حدود ۴ میلیون بشکه بودهاست. البته حداکثر میزان تولید روزانه ایران به سال ۱۹۷۴ و با رقمی بالغ بر ۶ میلیون بشکه بازمیگردد که پس از وقوع انقلاب سال ۱۳۵۷ بر طبق سیاست کاهش تولید این مقدار کاهش پیدا کرد و از طرفی با شروع جنگ ایران و عراق و آسیب دیدن تأسیسات استخراج این میزان بیش از پیش کاهش یافت. در آستانه دهه ۲۰۰۰ روند تولید نفت در ایران بهطور فزاینده غیر مؤثر عمل کرد که از دلایل اصلی آن میتوان به کمبود تکنولوژی لازم در این زمینه اشاره کرد. به همین جهت تعداد اندکی چاه در سال ۲۰۰۵ برای اکتشاف منابع جدید حفر شدند.
ایران دارای ۱۰٪ از منابع کشف شده نفت جهان است. ایران به جز منابع متمرکز نفت در سواحل خلیج فارس دارای منابعی نیز در شمال کشور است. ایران همچنین با دارا بودن ۱۵٪ از کل منابع گاز جهان دومین کشور دارنده منابع گاز طبیعی است که بیشتر این گاز در مصارف خانگی به مصرف میرسد. با این وجود ایران در سال ۲۰۰۵ حدود ۴ میلیارد دلار برای وارد کردن سوخت هزینه کردهاست که دلایل اصلی آن کمبود پالایشگاه، قاچاق سوخت و پایین بودن راندمان مصارف خانگی است که عموماً به علت پرداخت یارانههای سوختی به وجود آمدهاند.
تولید انرژی برق ایران در سال ۱۳۹۶ 
مجموع انرژی تولیدی نیروگاهها در سال ۱۳۹۱ برابر ۲۴۸٫۵۹۵ تراواتساعت بودهاست که برای این میزان تولید ۳۷٫۵ میلیارد متر مکعب گاز، ۷٫۶۶ میلیارد لیتر گازوئیل و ۱۴٫۴۴ میلیارد لیتر نفت کوره مصرف شده. واردات برق از کشورهای همسایه در همین سال ۳٫۹ تراواتساعت بودهاست که نسبت به سال گذشتهٔ خود ۷ درصد رشد داشته. صادرات برق ۱۰٫۹ تراواتساعت و دارای رشد ۲۸ درصدی بودهاست. در پایان سال ۹۱ خورشیدی سرانهٔ توان برق مصرفی ۹۰۶ وات، سرانهٔ تولید انرژی الکتریکی ۳٫۳۴۵ مگاواتساعت، سرانه مصرف انرژی الکتریکی ۲٫۵۵۳ مگاواتساعت و میانگین مصرف مشترکان خانگی ۲٫۶۲۲ مگاوات ساعت اعلام شد.
درصد استفاده از منابع برای تولید انرژی الکتریکی
آژانس بینالمللی انرژی اعلام کردهاست: دولت ایران در سال ۲۰۱۲ بالغ بر ۸۲ میلیارد دلار یارانه پرداخت کردهاست. میزان یارانه پرداختی از سوی ایران معادل یک دهم کل یارانه پرداختی در جهان بودهاست. ایران بزرگترین کشور یارانهدهنده در جهان برای مصرف سوختهای فسیلی است. ۴۰درصد از ۸۲ میلیارد دلار یارانه پرداختی توسط دولت ایران در سال ۲۰۱۲ به مصرف فراوردههای نفتی، ۳۶درصد به مصرف گاز طبیعی و ۲۱درصد به مصرف برق اختصاص یافتهاست. با وجود اجرای فاز نخست طرح هدفمندی یارانهها در ایران، این کشور همچنان بزرگترین کشور یارانهدهنده برای مصرف سوخت شناخته میشود.
در طی سالهای ۱۹۹۸ تا ۲۰۰۸ مصرف گاز طبیعی در ایران از ۸٫۵۱ میلیارد متر مکعب به ۱۱٫۶ میلیارد متر مکعب رسیده که این رشد ناشی از سیاست جایگزینی گاز طبیعی بهجای سوختهای دیگر کشور به لحاظ ویژگیهای خاص اقتصادی و زیستمحیطی آن است؛ بنابراین ایران بعد از ایالات متحده آمریکا و روسیه در رتبه سوم بزرگترین مصرفکنندگان گاز در جهان محسوب میشود.
مطالعهای در سال ۱۳۹۳ برآورد مصرف برق خانگی را کمتر از کشورهای توسعهیافته نشان داد. بنابراین مطالعه مصرف سرانهٔ برق خانگی در ایران بر خلاف تصور رایج از متوسط مصرف جهانی بیشتر نیست. رتبهٔ مصرف سرانهٔ برق در ایران در سال ۲۰۰۶ در میان ۲۱۸ کشور جهان ۹۵ بودهاست و این در حالی است که وضعیت اقلیمی و آبوهوایی ایران از بسیاری از کشورهای دیگر متفاوت است؛ با اینکه سه استان بوشهر، هرمزگان و خوزستان از گرمترین نقاط جهان محسوب میشوند، نسبت به کشورهای جنوب خلیج فارسی سرانهٔ مصرفی کمتری دارند. با این حال در سال ۲۰۱۰ سرانهٔ مصرف برق خانگی در ایران از متوسط جهانی پیشی گرفتهاست. مطابق آمارهای آژانس بینالمللی انرژی در این سال مصرف سرانهٔ برق ایران با افزایشی حدود ۱۲٫۵۶ درصد در طی چهار سال به ۲۴۳۱ کیلوواتساعت رسیدهاست.
در مورد پایینتر بودن تعرفههای قیمت برق در ایران باید توجه داشت که هرچند این ارقام ممکن است نسبت به اعداد جهانی بسیار پایینتر به نظر برسند ولی برای مقایسهٔ صحیح نیاز است باید میزان خرید و درآمد سرانهٔ افراد را نیز در نظر گرفت.
پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]
Iran is in a constant battle to use its energy resources more effectively in the face of subsidization and the need for technological advances in energy exploration and production. Energy wastage in Iran amounts to six or seven billion dollars (2008). The energy consumption in the country is extraordinarily higher than international standards. Iran recycles 28 percent of its used oil and gas whereas the figure for certain countries stands at 60 percent. Iran paid $84 billion in subsidies for oil, gas and electricity in 2008. Iran is one of the most energy-intensive countries of the world, with per capita energy consumption 15 times that of Japan and 10 times that of European Union. Also due to huge energy subsidies, Iran is one of the most energy inefficient countries of the world, with the energy intensity three times higher than global average and 2.5 times the middle eastern average. Half of the country’s energy is wasted in domestic sector, 3.4 of which is wasted through single-occupancy vehicle use and 2/3 parts of power plants' energy are also wasted.
Iran is one of the leading members of OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) and the Organization of Gas Exporting Countries (GECF). Iran received $47 billion in oil export revenues, which accounts for about 50% of state revenues. Natural gas and oil consumption both account for about half of Iran’s domestic energy consumption. With its heavy dependence on oil and gas revenues Iran continues to explore for new sources of natural gas and oil. Recently Iran has focused its energy sector on the exploration of the South Pars offshore natural gas fields in the Persian Gulf.
Energy generation capacity of Iranian thermal power plants reached 173 terawatt hours in 2007. Accounting for 17.9 percent of energy production in the Middle East and African region. Natural gas has been the main energy in Iran in 2007, comprising over 55 percent of energy needs, while oil and hydroelectricity accounted for 42 and 2 percent respectively. The region’s energy need will increase by 26.8 percent until 2012. In 2017, the fuel consumption in Iran was equivalent to 5.5 million barrels of fuel per day (bpd), the rate of which is considered as the highest energy consumption rate in the world in terms of energy intensity.
Energy plays an important role in Iranian politics. Robert Baer in his book The Devil We Know: Dealing with the New Iranian Superpower argues that Iran has attained the status of an energy superpower and is on its way to become a military-political superpower.
Primary energy sources
Primal Energy Demand:
Iran has the second largest oil reserves in the world, and the third largest exporter of it. According to 2006 estimates Iran produced about five percent of total global crude oil production. They produced 4.2 million barrels per day (670,000 m3/d) of total liquids and 3.8 million of those barrels were crude oil. Iran plans to invest $100 billion during the next four years in different sections of its oil industry (2009). By the end of 2009, Iranian oil R/P ratio was 89.4 years which is the world's highest. By 2009, Iran had 52 active rigs and 1,853 producing oil wells.
Iran possesses abundant fuels from which to generate energy. Since 1913 Iran has been a major oil-exporting country. Oil industry output averaged 4 million barrels (640,000 m3) per day in 2005, compared with the peak output of 6 million barrels per day (950,000 m3/d) reached in 1974. Following the 1979 revolution, however, the government reduced daily oil production in accordance with an oil conservation policy. Further production declines occurred as result of damage to oil facilities during the war with Iraq. In the early 2000s, industry infrastructure was increasingly inefficient because of technological lags. Few exploratory wells were drilled in 2005. Iranian oil was nationalized in 1953 and thus is owned and operated by the National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC).
Iran held 10.3% of the world's total proven oil reserves and that figures out to be about 137.6 billion barrels (2.188×1010 m3) of oil reserves at the end of 2009. Oil also is found in northern Iran and in the offshore waters of the Persian Gulf. Nevertheless, in 2005 Iran spent US$4 billion on gasoline imports, mainly because of contraband and inefficient domestic use that result from subsidies. Iran is one of the largest gasoline consumers in the world ranking second behind United States in consumption per car.
There is a growing recognition that prices must rise faster to curb consumption and ease the burden on the public finances. Cheap energy has encouraged wasteful consumption in Iran, and a brisk business in smuggling petrol into Iraq, Turkey, Pakistan and Afghanistan. Demand has also been supported by rapid increases in car production in recent years. In the absence of imports, the car industry has developed strongly (albeit from a low base) with output reaching over 1m vehicles in fiscal year 2006/07 (March 21 – March 20).
The growth in consumption of domestically produced oil has been modest, owing to refining constraints. By contrast, fuel imports rose to 180,000 barrels per day (29,000 m3/d) in January 2005 from 30,000 barrels per day (4,800 m3/d) in 2000, and petrol consumption is estimated to have been around 1,800,000 barrels per day (290,000 m3/d) in 2007 (before rationing), of which about one-third is imported. These imports are proving expensive, costing the government about US$4bn in the first nine months of 2007/08, according to parliamentary sources. Nearly 40% of refined oil consumed by Iran is imported from India.
Iran contains 27 onshore and 13 offshore oil-producing fields, largely concentrated in the southwestern Khuzestan region near the Iraqi border. The Iranian government is heavily reliant on oil revenues and they have heavily subsidized the energy industries, which figures out to be about 12% of Iran’s GDP. However, domestic oil consumption has decreased due to the alternative use of natural gas. Economic growth from these resources is uncertain and stunted in Iran due to these subsidies and population growth. Iran has been unable to reach it full production levels due to a combination of sanctions and war plaguing the region. Iran’s oil fields have a natural decline rate at 8 percent for onshore wells and 10% for offshore fields. The Iranian recovery rate is currently approximately 27 percent, which is well below the world average. Iran needs structural improvements made to coincide with their enhanced oil recovery efforts.
Iran is the world's third producer of natural gas (5.1% of the world's total and 184 BCM); which is primarily used for domestic electricity generation or heat production. It contains an estimated 1,187.3 trillion cubic feet (33,620 km3) (Tcf) in proven natural gas reserves. In 2005 a large share of Iran’s natural gas reserves were believed to remain untapped. About 62% of these reserves are located in non-associated fields. Iranian production of natural gas is expected to increase over the next few years due to continuing discoveries in the North Pars and South Pars regions.
Domestic consumption has matched production at 3.6×1012 cu ft (100 km3) in the year of 2005. Domestic consumption is expected to go up at about 7% per year for the following decade. The Iranian government has also subsidized natural gas prices along with gasoline prices, and this is expected to sustain this high level of domestic consumption. In lieu of this increasing domestic demand, natural gas exports are expected to decrease in the following years.
Iran plans to generate 23,000 MWh of electricity through nuclear technology by 2025 to meet its increasing demand for energy. The first of four 915 MW reactors of Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant, built with help from Russia, came online in August 2010 after numerous delays and Iran's indigenously designed Darkhovin Nuclear Power Plant is scheduled to come online in 2016. Overall, Iran remains a net exporter of electricity and exchanges electrical power with all its land neighbors. While nuclear power in the US costs a little over 10 cents per kilowatt hour, Iran, with domestic uranium enrichment capabilities, high interest rates, low energy output (a single 1,000-watt reactor), low efficiency, extremely slow reactor construction, and no reprocessing pays around 68 cents per kilowatt hour (this assumes a price of $140 per separative working unit and of $40 per kilogram of uranium).
In 2010, the Iranian government announced plans to build 2,000MW of renewable energy capacity between 2010-2015. As of 2010, Iran had 8,500MW of hydroelectric capacity and 130MW of wind energy capacity. As at 2010, private companies had signed contracts to build more than 600MW of biomass systems and 500MW of new wind energy projects.
Iran is also working to make renewable energy commercially viable and the Ministry of Energy is required to buy privately produced renewable energy at world market prices. A feed-in-tariff (FiT) for wind and biomass energy around 13 cents/kWh is helpful.
In 2012, Iran allocated €500 million from the National Development Fund for renewable energy projects. Also supporting the solar industry is the state-sponsored Renewable Energy Organization of Iran (SUNA), which is attached to the Energy Ministry and enjoys a budget of around $60 million.
In 2016, the Iranian Biofuel Society (IBS) in collaboration with the Vice Presidency for Science of Technology and Tehran and the Suburbs Bus Company executed the first urban pilot project for the consumption of waste cooking oil biodiesel in Tehran`s bus fleet in an attempt to generate public awareness regarding Global Climate Change, wherein they recommend “reducing net anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere” and “minimizing anthropogenic disturbances of” atmospheric gasses by partial replacement of fossil fuels with waste-oriented biofuels. The program was also supported by Small Grant Programme, Global Environmental Facility, United Nation Development Program (SGP/GEF/UNDP) Office in Iran.
Iran's unique geographical position means 90% of the country has enough sun to generate solar power 300 days a year. According to PressTV Iran has 520 watts per hour per square meter of solar radiation every day. Other sources give an average of 2,200 kilowatt-hour solar radiation per square meter. Energy generated by solar power reached 53 MW in 2005 and 67 MW in 2011.
Iran has the potential to generate 20 to 30 GW of wind energy. That is half of the total energy consumption needs of the country. As at 2012 Iran had 163 wind turbines with an installed capacity of 92470 kWh. Sadid Industrial Group is a well known domestic manufacturer in this field. India's Sulzon Energy and Germany's Siemens are also potential providers of wind turbines to Iran.
Iran has the potential to become the 9th largest geothermal energy producer. According to global tectonics Iran is impacted by subduction of the Arabian Plate under the Central Iranian Plate and four thrust faults: two that make the Southern Caspian Sea Depression and two in the north of Iran, part of the Caucasian Range. Mt. Sabalan and Mt. Sahand are two Quaternary Volcanos in the area. Sabalan is a large stratovolcano consisting of 3 summits named Soltan (4811), Heram (4612m) and Kasra (4573m). The stratovolcano is situated on a possible horst trending northeast-southwest and erupted at latest in the Holocene. Caldera collapsing has caused a depression about 400 m in height and 12 km in diameter. The lava flows consists of trachyandesite, andesite and dacite and pyroclastic deposits. There are 9 hot springs with a temperature in the range of 25-85 °C. https://www.geothermal-energy.org/pdf/IGAstandard/WGC/2005/0607.pdf
Iran’s domestic consumption and production have steadily grown together since 1984 and it is still heavily reliant on traditional thermal energy sources of electricity, with a small fraction being produced by hydroelectric plants. Consumption has steadily risen and it is expected to rise at about 6 percent per year for the following decade. Accordingly, the Iranian energy sector must focus its efforts on meeting this continuing demand. Today Iran ranks 19th largest producer and 20th largest consumer of electricity in the world. A research by the Ministry of Energy indicated that between 15,000-20,000 megawatts of capacity should be added in Iran in the next 20 years. In recent years Iran has put greater emphasis on participation of domestic and foreign investors in electricity generation sector, with projects underway to add 40,000 MWh more capacity to the national grid.
It is estimated that some 18.5 percent of electricity generated in Iran are wasted before it reaches consumers due to technical problems. Iran is among the top ten manufacturers of gas turbines with a capacity of 160 megawatts. Iranian experts of JEMCO (a subsidiary of IDRO) have succeeded in developing the capacity to produce one-megawatt generators. Iran has acquired self-sufficiency of over 80 percent in constructing hydraulic turbines and over 90 percent in producing gas turbines. Within the next few years, Iran can join the list of countries that produce power plant technology (2009). Iran has achieved the technical expertise to set up hydroelectric, gas and combined cycle power plants. Iran is not only self-sufficient in power plant construction but has also concluded a number of contracts on implementing projects in neighboring states.
The exploration efforts for sources of power generation are wide and diverse in Iran. Plans are being made to make oil efficient power plants as well as an emphasis on natural gas production in order to meet their growing electricity demand. Nuclear power and hydroelectric power are not focused on for the time being, but they are part of an overall strategy to meet electricity demands. The electricity sector is also heavily subsidized and mostly state owned companies control power distribution, transmission and generation. In order to meet the demands of the electricity sector, however, Iran is beginning to look into private investment. A by-law has been passed allowing the energy ministry to conclude rial or combined rial/foreign-currency contracts for the purchase of electricity from private companies. Private companies in Iran generated 14,440 megawatts of electricity in 2009.
Although some criticize Iran's hydroelectric power plans as potentially dangerous to the environment, most agree that the country's current state of hydroelectric production is much better off than in the past. Iran has displayed a new approach to this sector. After the 1979 Islamic Revolution, the construction of hydroelectric power plants became both a popular private and public venture. Often, construction projects did not meet basic environmental standards, engineering standards, and technical requirements. As a result, many of these dams were destroyed or left in dilapidated conditions.
By 2004, the addition of new hydroelectric stations and the streamlining of conventional coal- and oil-fired stations increased installed capacity to 33,000 megawatts (MW). Of that amount, about 75 percent was based on natural gas, 18 percent on oil, and 7 percent on hydroelectric power. However, in 2004 Iran opened its first wind-powered and geothermal plants, and the first solar thermal plant was to come online in 2009. Iran has recoverable coal reserves of nearly 1.9bn short tonnes. The country produces about 1.3m short tonnes of coal annually and consumes about 1.5m short tonnes, making it a small net importer of coal.
Demographic trends and intensified industrialization have caused electric power demand to grow by 8 percent per year. The government’s goal of 53,000 megawatts of installed capacity by 2010 is to be reached by bringing on line new gas-fired plants financed by independent power producers, including those with foreign investment backing, and by adding hydroelectric and nuclear power generating capacity. It has also been estimated that Iran has the potential to produce at least 6,150 MWh of electricity by Wave power from its coastline on Persian Gulf alone. Iran is also experimenting with electricity generation from organic wastes and plans to build power plants using sewage and organic waste of domestic and industrial origin as fuel. Another area in which there is ongoing research is assessment of Iran's tidal power potential. With about 300 clear sunny days a year and an average of 2,200 kilowatt-hour solar radiation per square meter, Iran has a great potential to tap solar energy.
Electricity production by source: