امکلثوم بنت علی
امکلثوم، دختر علی ابن ابیطالب و فاطمه زهرا؛ با ناماصلی زینب صغری یا رقیه کبری خواهر زینب، حسن بن علی و حسین بن علی است. او در واقعه کربلا از آغاز تا پایان حضور داشت. زادروزش در سال ششم هجری و مرگش چهار ماه و ده روز پس از بازگشت از شام و در مدینه اتفاق افتاد.
ازدواج با عمر بن خطاب
عمر بدنبال این بود که علی، پسر عموی پیامبر را به خود نزدیکتر کند. او بهطور منظم با علی به همراه سایر صحابه اولیه پیامبر مشورت میکرد و بر ازدواج با ام کلثوم دختر علی و نوه پیامبر اصرار میکرد. ام کلثوم، که در آن زمان طفلی بود با این ازدواج مخالفت کرده بود که دلیل آن محتملاً، شهرت عمر در برخورد خشن و بیادبانه با زنان خود بود. علی خودش نسبت به این ازدواج بی علاقه بود اما سرانجام بعد از حمایت علنی مهاجرین و انصار از این ازدواج، علی تسلیم شد. در ازای این ازدواج علی از عمر خواست تا اراضی ینبع در نزدیک کوه رضواء را به او ببخشد. عمر اراضی ینبع را به علی بخشید و این زمینها بعدها به فرزندان حسن بن علی رسید. ویلفرد مادلونگ از دلایل دیگر علاقه عمر به ازدواج با ام کلثوم، نوه محمد را، رسیدن به سطح اجتماعی کسانی مانند عثمان میدانست. زیرا برخلاف عثمان که با دو دختر محمد ازدواج کرد. محمد هیچکدام از دخترانش را به ازدواج عمر و ابوبکر درنیاورده بود. هرچند دختران آنها را به همسری گرفته بود.آلفرد گیوم میگوید که فرزندان حاصل ازدواج عمر و ام کلثوم، زید و دختری (که نامش برای ما ناشناخته است) میباشد.
پیرامون تاریخ وفات وی اختلاف است. برخی وفات وی رادر حدود سال ۵۰ هجری دانستهاند و برخی مانند سید محسن امین درگذشت وی را قبل از سال ۵۴ هجری در مدینه دانسته و مؤلف اعلام النسا درگذشت وی را چهار ماه پس از بازگشت کاروان اسرای کربلا از شام دانستهاست.
پیوند به بیرون
Zaynab al-Sughra (Zaynab the Younger), also known by her kunya Umm Kulthum bint Ali, was the granddaughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the daughter of Ali. Whether or not she married Umar is a controversial topic between Sunnis and Shia. She is given the epithet 'the Younger' to distinguish her from her older sister, Zaynab the Elder (Zaynab al-Kubra).
She was born around 6 AH as the fourth child of Ali and of Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah. Her siblings were Hasan, Husayn and Zaynab al-Kubra.:18 Muhammad gave her the kunya 'Umm Kulthum' because she closely resembled his daughter, Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad, Zaynab's maternal aunt.
Ali wanted his daughters to marry his brother Ja'far's sons, but Umm Kulthum's hand in marriage was requested by the Caliph, who promised, "No man on the face of the earth will treat her better than I will.":299
Ali protested that she had not yet reached puberty,:299,300 but Umar commanded that she be presented to him. Ali gave his daughter a striped garment and instructed her: "Take this to the Commander of the Faithful and tell him: 'My father says, "If you like this garment, keep it; if you don't like it, return it."'" When Umm Kulthum brought this message to Umar, she reported, "He did not undo the garment nor look at anything except at me." He told her that he was pleased, and so Ali consented to the marriage.:299-300 Umar gave his bride a dower of 40,000 dirhams, and the marriage was consummated in November or December 639 (Dhu'l-Qaada 17 AH).
One story from their married life tells how Umm Kulthum sent a gift of perfume to the Empress of Byzantium. The Empress sent back a "superb" necklace for Umm Kulthum. Umar believed that his wife should not have conducted a private correspondence at the expense of the state postal service, so he reimbursed her for the cost of the perfume and placed the Empress’s necklace in the state treasury. Nevertheless, it was said that Umar treated Umm Kulthum "with extreme honour and respect" because she was Muhammad's granddaughter.
However, Shiites are of the view this marriage with Umar did not happen at all.
After Umar's death in 644, Umm Kulthum married her young cousin, Ja'far's son Awn for a dower of 4,000 dirhams. Her brother Hasan remarked that he had never seen such passionate love as Umm Kulthum's for Awn. However, Awn died after only a short time.
After the death of her husband Muhammad, Umm Kulthum became one of the wives of Awn and Muhammad's eldest brother Abdullah, who had divorced her sister Zaynab al-Kubra.[better source needed]. With respect to divorce the book of Muhammad Al-Munajjid discloses that Zainab died while married to him (Abdullah bin Jafar). Umm Kulthum remarked: "I was not shy with [my mother-in-law] Asma bint Umays. Two of her sons died while married to me, but I did not fear this for the third.":299
Umm Kulthum had no children by any of her three latter marriages.:299
Battle of Karbala
She is reported to have been present at the Battle of Karbala, during which her earings were taken from her by an attacking soldier. Afterwards, Umm Kulthum is said to have given a eulogy condemning the people of Kufa for abandoning her brother Husayn, who was killed in the battle.
Umm Kulthum and her son Zayd died at the same time, in Abdullah's lifetime. Eighty people attended their funeral,:299 where Sa'id ibn al-'As conducted the prayers, and the congregation included Abdullah ibn Umar and Abu Hurairah.
Fatimids believe that she is also known as "Zaynab the Younger" and that she is buried at Sayyidah Zaynab Mosque, Damascus; whereas Zaynab the Elder lived at the end of her life in Cairo and was buried at Zaynab Mosque, Cairo.