افرا

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به: ناوبری، جستجو
فارسی English
افرا
Acer pseudoplatanus (Sycamore Maple) foliage
طبقه‌بندی علمی
فرمانرو: گیاهان
(طبقه‌بندی‌نشده): گیاهان گلدار
(طبقه‌بندی‌نشده): دولپه‌ای‌های نو
(طبقه‌بندی‌نشده): رزیدها
راسته: ناترک‌سانان
تیره: ناترکیان
سرده: Acer
Distribution

Maple

درخت افرا در نواحی جنگلی و در خاکهای اسیدی می‌روید و به خصوص در جنگل‌های شمال ایران فراوان و گونه‌هایی از آن‌ها در باغ‌ها و پارک‌ها برای زینت کاشته می‌شوند (خاک جنگل اسیدی میباشد). در بعضی از گونه‌ها مواد قندی بسیاری وجود دارد از درختان پهن‌برگ با چوب صنعتی و بعضی زینتی هستند و در زمستان خزان می‌کنند. برگ‌ها اکثراً پنجه‌ای متقابل شانه‌ای شامل ۵-۳ برگچه نوکدار با دانه‌های نامنظم است. میوه‌ها فندقی دارای دو بال به شکل ۸ با زاویه بین دو بال که از ۴۵درجه تا ۱۸۰درجه متغیر می‌باشد و در تابستان می‌رسند افراها به بیشتر خاک‌ها و شرایط مقاوم هستند.

مکان کاشت افرا[ویرایش]

درخت افرا در هر نوع خاکی به عمل می‌آید ولی گونه‌های مختلف آن در خاکهای اسیدی سازگارتر هستند و به آفتاب کامل نیاز دارند.

  • در مورد درخت افرا هرس لازم نیست فقط کافی است در بهار شاخه‌های خشک و بیمار حذف شوند.

روشهای تکثیر افرا[ویرایش]

بذرکاری[ویرایش]

بذر اکثر افراها در پائیز می‌رسند قبل از کاشت اگر بذر به مدت یک هفته در آب غوطه ور باشد و هر روز آب آن عوض شود در جوانه زنی مؤثر خواهد بود بطور کلی بذر افراها را نباید گذاشت که خشک شوند و موقع کاشت در عمق یک سانتیمتری با پوشش نازک از ماسه و در محلی سایه‌دار کاشته می‌شود.

قلمه[ویرایش]

قلمه علفی افراها که در خارج از فصل خود تهیه می‌شوند در تحت شرایط گلخانه‌ای و با استفاده از ایجاد زخم و پودر دو درصد اسید ایندول بوتریک (IBA) و ۵ در صد بنومیل ریشه‌دار می‌شوند. قلمه نیمه خشبی افرای سیاه در تحت شرایط گلخانه و زخم زنی و پودر تالک به میزان ۸۰۰۰ppm ریشه‌دار می‌شود. قلمه افرای چینی هم در باز و هم در شرایط گلخانه می‌تواند ریشه‌دار شود به شرطی که مدتی را در زیر ماسه(حداقل یک ماه) مانده باشد و سپس اقدام به کشت شود.

پیوندزنی[ویرایش]

اگر پیوند در فضای باز و در خزانه روی نهالهای بذری زده شود، با موفقیت از پیوند T (تی) یا شکمی از نیمه تابستان تا آخر آن استفاده کرد و در بهار سال بعد به محض رویش پیوندک نهال را از بالای آن سربرداری نمود. در صورتی که امکانات گلخانه‌ای در دسترس باشد گیاهان پایه بذری یکساله در خزانه که در پائیز سال اول به داخل گلدانهای کوچک منتقل شده‌اند و در طی سال دوم در درون گلدان بوده‌اند، در آخر زمستان (اواخر بهمن یا اوایل اسفند) برای آماده شدن پیوند زنی به گلخانه آورده می‌شوند به محض اینکه ریشه‌ها علامت رشد را نشان دادند پایه برای پیوند زدن آماده‌است. برای این منظور قبلاً پیوندک را به صورت شاخه در طول فصل رویشی جمع آوری و در یخچال نگهداری می‌نمایند.

انواع درخت افرا[ویرایش]

افرای سیاه (افرای سه برگی)[ویرایش]

افرای قندی (Sugar Maple)

این درخت به ارتفاع ۱۰ تا۲۰متر بوده و یک درخت سریع الرشد و مردم پسند است. برگهایش شانه‌ای، گلهایش کوچک و به شکل خوشه‌هایی از شاخه‌ها آویخته می‌گردد. رویشگاه اصلی آن آمریکای شمالی است. شاخه‌ها باریک بوده و در مقابل بادهای شدید مقاومت چندانی ندارد. گلهای نر و ماده روی پایه‌های جداگانه قرار دارند و تنها پایه‌های نر جنبه تزئینی دارند گونه دیگر افرای سیاه به شکل پایه ماده دیده می‌شود که برگهای آن حالت ابلق دارند. کلهایش چندان جلب توجه نمی‌کند ولی میوه‌های بالدار سفید رنگ آن بسیار جذاب است.

افرای پر چینی یا افرای دشتی[ویرایش]

یک درخت مرتعی به ارتفاع ۸-۶ متر است برگهایش دارای ۵ - ۳ لوب و پهنای آن بین ۱۰- ۵ سانتیمتر بوده که لوب میانی خود به ۳ لوب کوچکتر تقسیم می‌گردد. کلها سبز رنگ با گل آذین ایستاده‌است درختانی کم مقاوم اما غیر تماشایی هستند. این درخت برای خاکهای قلیایی، گیاهی بسیار ارزشمند به شمار می‌آید ولی می‌تواند با هر نوع خاک دیگر نیز خود را سازش دهد همچنین به نور آفتاب نیز نیازمند است.

افرای کوهستانی یا افرای نروژی[ویرایش]

افرای نروژی (Norway Maple) samaras

این درخت بیشترین جذابیت را در بین انواع افراها دارد. برگها پنجه‌ای بزرگ و چاکدار با تقسیمات دندانه‌دار نوک تیز ولی رنگ آنها سبز مایل به زرد است که در پائیز به زرد تیره تبدیل می‌شود گل آذین آن رو به بالا قرار دارد. برگها دارای ۷ - ۵ لوب و دمبرکها بلند و حاوی شیرابه سفید رنگی هستند. ساقه نهال جوان کبود رنگ کرکدار و سپس قهوه‌ای مایل به سبز می‌شود.

افرای برگ چناری[ویرایش]

این نوع افرا به ارتفاع ۶متر و دارای برگهایی چنار مانند با لبه‌های کرم رنگ است.

افرای سرخ[ویرایش]

Acer palmatum atropuropureum هیبرید.از دو گونه پالماتوم و کومیکا

افرای قرمز (Red Maple) flowers

این نوع افرا دارای برگهای قرمز ارغوانی به ارتفاع حداکثر ۵ متر می‌باشد و در شرایط آب و هوایی مرطوب رشد می‌کند. افرای سرخ سایه پسند بوده و در پارکها جهت پر کردن فضای خالی درختان بلند مناسب است.

افرای بزرگ صنعتی شبه چناری[ویرایش]

این نوع افرا، افرای زیبایی نیست اما فوق العاده سریع الرشد بوده و به سرعت به ارتفاع حدود ۹متر و بیشتر می‌رسد. این درخت مخصوص مناطقی است که نیاز به پر کردن فضاهای خالی با درختان زود رشد است. برگها پنجه‌ای شکل است روی برگ سبز رنگ و پشت آن سفید رنگ است گلها آویخته‌است.

افراهای با پوست ساقه جذاب[ویرایش]

  • افرای با پوست قهوه‌ای نازک و قابل جدا شدن
  • افرای با پوست ساقه به شکل پوست مار
  • افرای با پوست خاکستری مایل به زرد
A red Maple tree between many کاج trees.
افرای ژاپنی (Japanese Maple) has over ۱٬۰۰۰ رقم (کشاورزی)s. This cultivar is A. palmatum 'Sango kaku', sometimes called "coralbark maple".

ارتباط با سایر علوم[ویرایش]

تاکسونومی: گیاه افرا بر حسب خویشاوندی با سایر گیاهان رده بندی می‌شود و جایگاه این گیاه از نظر رده بندی در سطح گونه مشخص می‌شود.

مورفولوژی: تنوع ریختی گیاه افرا مطالعه می‌شود به عبارتی تنوع ریختی گیاه افرا باعث می‌شود تا بدانیم که با شرایط متفاوت در زیستگاههای مختلف سازگاری این گیاه چگونه صورت می‌گیرد.

آناتومی: ساختمان داخلی گیاه افرا را مورد مطالعه قرار می‌دهد.

مورفوژنز: از ابتدای تشکیل تخم گیاه افرا تا بوجود آمدن شکل گیاه افرا با این علوم مطالعه می‌شود.

فیزیولوژی: نحوه کار و فعالیت گیاه افرا از سطح اندامکهای درون سلول تا بافتها، اندامها و خود گیاه مطالعه می‌شود.

سیتولوژی: به مطالعه درباره رشد، تولید مثل و رفتار سلول گیاه افرا می‌پردازد.

اکولوژی: به مطالعه چگونگی سازش گیاه افرا با محیط و ارتباط آنها با یکدیگر می‌پردازد.

ژنتیک: چگونگی انتقال صفات وراثتی و عوامل انتقال دهنده و ساختار شیمیایی این عوامل را در گیاه افرا بررسی می‌کند.

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

منابع[ویرایش]

جستجو در ویکی‌انبار در ویکی‌انبار پرونده‌هایی دربارهٔ افرا موجود است.
Acer
Acer pseudoplatanus (Sycamore maple) foliage
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Sapindales
Family: Sapindaceae,[1] or Aceraceae
Subfamily: Hippocastanoideae
Genus: Acer
L.
Species

See List of Acer species

Distribution

Acer /ˈsər/[2] is a genus of trees or shrubs commonly known as maple.

Maples are variously classified in a family of their own, the Aceraceae, or together with the Hippocastanaceae included in the family Sapindaceae. Modern classifications, including the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system, favour inclusion in Sapindaceae. The type species of the genus is Acer pseudoplatanus (Sycamore maple).[3]

There are approximately 128 species, most of which are native to Asia,[4] with a number also appearing in Europe, northern Africa, and North America. Only one species, the poorly studied Acer laurinum, is native to the Southern Hemisphere.[5] Fifty-four species of maples meet the International Union for Conservation of Nature criteria for being under threat of extinction in their native habitat.[5]

Morphology

Acer saccharum (Sugar maple)

Most maples are trees growing to 10 – 45 m (30 – 145 ft) in height. Others are shrubs less than 10 metres tall with a number of small trunks originating at ground level. Most species are deciduous, but a few in southern Asia and the Mediterranean region are evergreen. Most are shade-tolerant when young and are often riparian, understory, or pioneer species rather than climax overstory trees with a few exceptions such as Sugar Maple. Many of the root systems are typically dense and fibrous, inhibiting the growth of other vegetation underneath them. A few species, notably Acer cappadocicum, frequently produce root sprouts, which can develop into clonal colonies.[3]

Acer circinatum (Vine maple) leaves showing the palmate veining typical of most species

Maples are distinguished by opposite leaf arrangement. The leaves in most species are palmate veined and lobed, with 3 to 9 (rarely to 13) veins each leading to a lobe, one of which is central or apical. A small number of species differ in having palmate compound, pinnate compound, pinnate veined or unlobed leaves. Several species, including Acer griseum (Paperbark maple); Acer mandshuricum (Manchurian maple); Acer maximowiczianum (Nikko maple); and Acer triflorum (Three-flowered maple), have trifoliate leaves. One species, Acer negundo (Box-elder), has pinnately compound leaves that may be simply trifoliate or may have five, seven, or rarely nine leaflets. A few, such as Acer laevigatum (Nepal maple) and Acer carpinifolium (Hornbeam maple), have pinnately veined simple leaves.

Acer rubrum (Red maple) flowers

The flowers are regular, pentamerous, and borne in racemes, corymbs, or umbels. They have four or five sepals, four or five petals about 1 – 6 mm long (absent in some species), four to ten stamens about 6 – 10 mm long, and two pistils or a pistil with two styles. The ovary is superior and has two carpels, whose wings elongate the flowers, making it easy to tell which flowers are female. Maples flower in late winter or early spring, in most species with or just after the appearance of the leaves, but in some before the trees leaf out.[6]

Maple flowers are green, yellow, orange or red. Though individually small, the effect of an entire tree in flower can be striking in several species. Some maples are an early spring source of pollen and nectar for bees.

3D rendering of a µCT scan of a samara. Resolution is about 45 µm/voxel.

The distinctive fruit are called samaras, "maple keys", "whirlybirds" or "polynoses". These seeds occur in distinctive pairs each containing one seed enclosed in a "nutlet" attached to a flattened wing of fibrous, papery tissue. They are shaped to spin as they fall and to carry the seeds a considerable distance on the wind. Children often call them "helicopters" due to the way that they spin as they fall. During World War II, the US Army developed a special air drop supply carrier that could carry up to 65 pounds of supplies and was based on the Maple seed.[7] Seed maturation is usually in a few weeks to six months after flowering, with seed dispersal shortly after maturity. However, one tree can release hundreds of thousands of seeds at a time. Depending on the species, the seeds can be small and green to orange and big with thicker seed pods. The green seeds are released in pairs, sometimes with the stems still connected. The yellow seeds are released individually and almost always without the stems. Most species require stratification in order to germinate, and some seeds can remain dormant in the soil for several years before germinating.[3]

The genus is subdivided by its morphology into a multitude of sections and subsections.[8]

Pests and diseases

The leaves are used as a food plant for the larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species (see List of Lepidoptera that feed on maples). Aphids are also very common sap-feeders on maples. In horticultural applications a dimethoate spray will solve this.

In the United States and Canada, all maple species are threatened by the Asian Longhorned Beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis). Infestations have resulted in the destruction of thousands of maples and other tree species in Illinois, Massachusetts, New Jersey and New York.[9]

Maples are affected by a number of fungal diseases. Several are susceptible to Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium species, which can cause significant local mortality. Sooty bark disease, caused by Cryptostroma species, can kill trees which are under stress due to drought. Death of maples can rarely be caused by Phytophthora root rot and Ganoderma root decay. Maple leaves in late summer and autumn are commonly disfigured by "tar spot" caused by Rhytisma species and mildew caused by Uncinula species, though these diseases do not usually have an adverse effect on the trees' long-term health.[10]

Cultural significance

The Canadian flag incorporates a stylized maple leaf

A maple leaf is on the coat of arms of Canada, and is on the Canadian flag. The maple is a common symbol of strength and endurance and has been chosen as the national tree of many countries including Canada. Maple leaves are traditionally an important part of Canadian Forces military regalia, for example the military rank insignia for generals use maple leaf symbols. In the literary world, the word maple was first published in Geoffery Chaucer's "The Knights Tale" on line 2,065, spelled as "mapul".[11]

Uses

Horticulture

A red maple tree between pine trees.
Acer palmatum (Japanese maple) has over 1,000 cultivars. This cultivar is A. palmatum 'Sango kaku', sometimes called "coralbark maple".

Some species of maple are extensively planted as ornamental trees by homeowners, businesses and municipalities due to their relatively fast growth, ease of transplanting, and lack of hard seeds that would pose a problem for mowing lawns. Particularly popular are Norway Maple (although it is considered invasive in North America), Silver Maple, Japanese Maple, and Red Maple. Other maples, especially smaller or more unusual species, are popular as specimen trees.[3]

Cultivars

Numerous maple cultivars which have been selected for particular characteristics can be propagated only by asexual reproduction such as cuttings, tissue culture, budding or grafting. Acer palmatum (Japanese maple) alone has over 1,000 cultivars, most selected in Japan, and many of them no longer propagated or not in cultivation in the Western world. Some delicate cultivars are usually grown in pots and rarely reach heights of more than 50–100 cm.

Bonsai

Bonsai "Roter Fächerahorn"

Maples are a popular choice for the art of bonsai. Japanese maple (Acer palmatum), Trident maple (A. buergerianum), Amur maple (A. ginnala), Field maple (A. campestre) and Montpellier maple (A. monspessulanum) are popular choices and respond well to techniques that encourage leaf reduction and ramification, but most species can be used.[3][12]

Collections

Acer griseum is widely grown for its decorative bark

Maple collections, sometimes called aceretums, occupy space in many gardens and arboreta around the world including the "five great W's" in England: Wakehurst Place Garden, Westonbirt Arboretum, Windsor Great Park, Winkworth Arboretum and Wisley Garden. In the United States, the aceretum at the Harvard-owned Arnold Arboretum in Boston is especially notable. In the number of species and cultivars, the Esveld Aceretum in Boskoop, Netherlands is the largest in the world.[3]

Tourism

Many maples have bright autumn foliage, and many countries have leaf-watching traditions. In Japan, the custom of viewing the changing colour of maples in the autumn is called "momijigari". Nikko and Kyoto are particularly favoured destinations for this activity. In addition, in Korea, the same viewing activity is called "Danpung-Nori" and the Seoraksan and Naejang-san mountains are very famous places for it.

The Acer saccharum (sugar maple) are a contributor to seasonal Fall tourism in North America, particularly in Central Ontario, Québec, Vermont, New Hampshire and Western Massachusetts.

Commercial uses

Maples are important as source of syrup and wood. Dried wood is often used for the smoking of food. Charcoal from maples is an integral part of the Lincoln County Process used to make Tennessee Whiskey. They are also cultivated as ornamental plants and have benefits for tourism and agriculture.

Maple syrup

The Sugar maple (A. saccharum) is tapped for sap, which is then boiled to produce maple syrup or made into maple sugar or maple taffy. It takes about 40 litres (42 US qt) of sugar maple sap to make 1 litre (1.1 US qt) of syrup. While any Acer species may be tapped for syrup, many do not have sufficient quantities of sugar to be commercially useful.

Timber

A bench made of highly figured maple wood

Some of the larger maple species have valuable timber, particularly Sugar maple in North America, and Sycamore maple in Europe. Sugar maple wood — often known as "hard maple" — is the wood of choice for bowling pins, bowling alley lanes, pool cue shafts, and butcher's blocks. Maple wood is also used for the manufacture of wooden baseball bats, though less often than ash or hickory due to the tendency of maple bats to shatter when broken. The maple bat was introduced to Major League Baseball (MLB) in 1998 by Sam Holman of Sam Bats. Today it is the standard maple bat most in use by professional baseball.[13] Maple is also commonly used in archery as the core material in the limbs of a Recurve Bow due to its stiffness and strength.

Maple wood is often graded based on physical and aesthetic characteristics. The most common terminology includes the grading scale from common #2 which is unselected, and often used for craft woods, common #1 used for commercial and residential buildings, Clear, and select grade which sought out for fine woodworking.[14]

Some maple wood has a highly decorative wood grain, known as flame maple, quilt maple, birdseye maple and burl wood. This condition occurs randomly in individual trees of several species, and often cannot be detected until the wood has been sawn, though it is sometimes visible in the standing tree as a rippled pattern in the bark.

These select decorative wood pieces also have subcategories which further filter the aesthetic looks. Crotch Wood, Bees Wing, Cats Paw, Old Growth and Mottled are some terms used to describe the look of these decorative woods.[15]

Maples have a long history of use for furniture production in the United States.[16]

Tonewood

Maple is considered a tonewood, or a wood that carries sound waves well, and is used in numerous musical instruments. Maple is harder and has a brighter sound than Mahogany, which is another major tonewood used in instrument manufacture.[17]

The back, sides, and neck of most violins, violas, cellos, and double basses are made from maple.

Electric guitar necks are commonly made from maple, having a brighter sound than rosewood. The necks of the Fender Stratocaster and Telecaster were originally an entirely maple one piece neck, but later were also available with rosewood fingerboards. Les Paul desired an all maple guitar, but due to the weight of maple, only the tops of Gibson's Les Paul guitars are made from carved maple, often using quilted or flamed maple tops. Due to its weight, very few solid body guitars are made entirely from maple, but many guitars have maple necks, tops or veneers.

Maple is also often used to make bassoons and sometimes for other woodwind instruments like maple recorders.

Many drums are made from maple. From the 70s to the 90s, maple drum kits were a vast majority of all drum kits made, but in recent years, Birch has become popular for drums once again. Some of the best drum-building companies use maple extensively throughout their mid-pro range.[3] Maple drums are favored for their bright resonant sound.[18]

Drum Sticks

Recently, maple has been used in drum sticks by Vic Firth®. The product line is called "American Heritage"® and the sticks have the same dimensions of the traditional hickory sticks. Currently, only 7A, 5A, and 5B sizes are made. (April 2014)

Agriculture

As they are a major source of pollen in early spring before many other plants have flowered, maples are important to the survival of honeybees that play a commercially important role later in the spring and summer.

Pulpwood

Maple is used as pulpwood. The fibers have relatively thick walls that prevents collapsing upon drying. This gives good bulk and opacity in paper. Maple also gives paper with good printing properties.

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Stevens, P. F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 9, June 2008 [and more or less continuously updated since]. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/.
  2. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  3. ^ a b c d e f g van Gelderen, C. J. & van Gelderen, D. M. (1999). Maples for Gardens: A Color Encyclopedia
  4. ^ Tingzhi Xu, Yousheng Chen, Piet C. de Jong, Herman John Oterdoom & Chin-Sung Chang. "Acer Linnaeus". Flora of China. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  5. ^ a b Gibbs, D. & Chen, Y. (2009) The Red List of Maples Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) ISBN 978-1-905164-31-8
  6. ^ Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
  7. ^ "Sky Hook Spirals from Plane" Popular Mechanics, December 1944, p. 75.
  8. ^ Classification of maples
  9. ^ http://www.beetlebusters.info/; http://www.umassgreeninfo.org/fact_sheets/wood_attackers/asian_longhorned_beetle_MA.html#226
  10. ^ Phillips, D. H. & Burdekin, D. A. (1992). Diseases of Forest and Ornamental Trees. Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-49493-8.
  11. ^ Simpson, J. A., and E. S. C. Weiner. The Oxford English dictionary. 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press ;, 1989. Print.
  12. ^ D'Cruz, Mark. "Ma-Ke Bonsai Care Guide for Acer buergerianum". Ma-Ke Bonsai. Retrieved 2011-07-05. 
  13. ^ Sam Holman Maple Baseball Bats
  14. ^ The Illustrated Grading Guide to American Hardwoods
  15. ^ Wood Terms and Examples
  16. ^ Joseph Aronson (1965). The encyclopedia of furniture. Random House, Inc. pp. 300–. ISBN 978-0-517-03735-5. Retrieved 8 September 2010. 
  17. ^ http://www.fender.com/en-GB/news/index.php/?display_article=395
  18. ^ Geoff Nicholls; Tony Bacon (1 June 1997). The drum book. Hal Leonard Corporation. pp. 54–. ISBN 978-0-87930-476-8. Retrieved 19 October 2010. 

Bibliography

  • Philips, Roger (1979). Trees of North America and Europe. New York: Random House, Inc. ISBN 0-394-50259-0. 

External links

http://www.vicfirth.com/products/americanheritage.php