اسلام و آیین سیک

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
پرش به ناوبری پرش به جستجو
فارسیEnglish

محمود غزنوی از سلطان‌های ترک مسلمان بود که در قرن دهم میلادی، به هندوستان حمله کرد. در قرن یازدهم، پادشاهان مسلمان نخست بر شمال غربی هندوستان و از آن پس بیشتر سرزمین‌های هند تسلط یافتند. پادشاهان مسلمان، از ابتدا به دین هندو با دید کفر و شرک و بددینی می‌نگریستند[نیازمند منبع]؛ نخستین بار محمود غزنوی دستور داد که بزرگ‌ترین بتخانه هند مشهور به سومنات را ویران کنند و بت‌های آن را بشکنند. دین اسلام، ریشه در یک فرهنگ بیگانه داشت، و بسیاری از هندوها به اجبار دین اسلام را اختیار کرده بودند. در چنین شرایطی، آیین سیک در حقیقت مانند پلی میان هند و اسلام بود[نیازمند منبع]؛ در حقیقت پیدایش آیین سیک نتیجه طبیعی برخورد دو دین مباین و متفاوت است.[نیازمند منبع]

نانک و اسلام[ویرایش]

نانک، با بسیاری از علمای مسلمان نشست و برخاست داشت؛ و از کتب مقدس هندوها و نیز از کتاب قرآن آگاهی و اطلاع داشت. نانک از قرآن با احترام یاد می‌کرد، و حتی آن را سخن خدا دانست؛ با این حال بخش‌هایی از قرآن را که به زندگی پیامبران بنی‌اسرائیل و عبرانی می‌پردازد؛ بی‌اهمیت خواند.[نیازمند منبع] بی‌شک نانک، عقیده یکتاپرستی را که با اعتقاد به پوچی بت‌ها همراه بود، از قرآن گرفته‌است. محتوای آیه‌ای از قرآن که نزد مسلمانان به آیه نور معروف است، با اندکی دگرگونی در کتاب کبیا صاحب آمده‌است. نام محمد در کتاب گورو گرنث نیامده است؛ با این حال به قرآن اشاره‌هایی رفته‌است و نانک همواره از محمد با احترام یاد می‌کرد. نانک از رعایت امتیازات صنفی نظام کاستی و رسم ساتی سرباز زد؛ همچنین خوردن گوشت گاو را برای پیروانش حلال دانست؛ و گوشت خوک و سگ را ممنوع کرد.

گروها و مسلمانان[ویرایش]

مبلغین گرو نانک به مسلمانان و هندوها به شیوه برابر آموزش می‌دادند[نیازمند منبع]؛ و هر دو دین را با دیده احترام می‌نگریستند. با این حال، سیک‌ها نه مسلمان‌ها و نه هندوها را رستگار می‌دانستند، و می‌خواستند که هر دو به آیین سیک درآیند. هندوها، سیک‌ها را نیز یکی از فرقه‌های خود انگاشتند، در حالی که مسلمانان نیز آن‌ها را یک فرقه اسلامی دانستند که از عرفان و تصوف الهام گرفته‌است. چهار جانشین گرونانک که یکی پس از دیگری به جانشینی نصب شدند، با پادشاهان مغول هند ارتباط نزدیکی داشتند. رمدا، چهارمین جانشین نانک، به حمایت اکبرشاه، گردوارهٔ معبد طلایی بنا کرد، و امریستار را شهر جاودانی سیک‌ها نامید. با این حال در دوره پادشاهی اورنگ‌زیب، شرایط سختی برای سیک‌ها به وجود آمد؛ اورنگ‌زیب بر نابودی هر دو فرقه هندوگرایی و سیک‌گرایی اصرار داشت.

منابع و کتب[ویرایش]

  • ویلیام اوئن کول (۱۳۶۲سیکهاو معتقدات مذهبی و رویه آنان، ترجمهٔ محمود فیروزنیا، تهران: توسعه، ص. ۲۶۵
  • نورالدین چهاردهی (۱۳۶۲سیکهاو گرونانک، تهران: میر، ص. ۲۶۵

Islam is an Abrahamic religion founded in the Arabian peninsula, while Sikhism is a Dharmic religion founded in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent. Islam means submission.[1][2] The word Sikh is derived from a Sanskrit word meaning 'disciple', or one who learns.[3]

Both religions are monotheistic. Sufi Muslims and Sikhs believe that the 'One' creator permeates the creation.[4][5][6] Salafi Muslims on the other hand disagree. Sufi Muslims differ from Sikhs in that they believe that God manifests his attributes, namely the 99 names or attributes through his creation.[4] According to Salafi Muslims, God's attributes are separate from his creation as he is only above his Throne.[7] Islam believes that Muhammad was the last prophet, to whom the Quran was revealed by God in the 7th century CE. Sikhism was founded in the 15th century CE by Guru Nanak and the Guru Granth Sahib is the scripture followed by Sikhs as "The Living Guru".[5][8]

In Islam, the legal system based on the Quran and the Sunnah is known as Sharia; there is no such legal system mentioned in Guru Granth Sahib. Daily prayers are one of the pillars of Islam and is mandatory for all Muslims.[9] Baptized Sikhs read the five banis (prayers) as part of their daily routine, Nitnem. Islam requires annual zakah (alms giving) by Muslims.[10] Kirat Karna (doing an honest livelihood - earning honestly without any sort of corruption), Naam Japna (to chant and meditate on Naam, read and follow "The One") and Vand Chhako (Selfless service (Sewa) and sharing with others) are fundamental to Sikhism given by Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Pilgrimage (to Mecca) is a crucial part of Islam, while Sikhism denounces pilgrimages, circumcision and rituals.[11]

There has been a history of constructive influence and conflict between Islam and Sikhism. The Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib includes teachings from Muslims, namely saints (Baba Farid), a Muslim of the Chishti Sufi order and Kabir.[12][13][14]

Comparison

Belief

Concept of God

Sikhism believes that God is formless (nirankar).[5][15] It has been called a form of pantheism,[6] as well as monotheism.[5] God in the nirgun aspect is without attributes, unmanifest, not seen, but all pervading and permeating, omnipresent. God in the sargun aspect is manifest has attributes, qualities, and seen in the whole creation. [Ik Onkar There is only one God, he is the eternal truth, he is without fear, he is without hate, immortal, without form, Beyond birth and death...]

Similarly, Islam believes in one God which means it's monotheistic (tawḥīd).[16][17] This Islamic doctrine is a part of its Shahada.[17]

[Say: He is Allah, the One and Only; (1) Allah, the Eternal, Absolute; (2) He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; (3) And there is none like unto Him. (4)] (Quran Al-Ikhlas)[18]

Guru and Messengers

Sikhism reveres Guru Nanak as the teacher that taught of the One Divine Creator, Lord on Earth, which is manifest in the ten forms of the ten Gurus of Sikhs. Sikhism accepts that there were divine messengers, including Moses, Jesus and Mohammed in other religions.[5]

Islam believes that before Muhammad there were many messengers of God, Muhammad was the last messenger, and Quran was the last revelation to the last prophet.[19][20]

Duties/Articles of Faith

The Five Pillars of Islam are duties incumbent on every Muslim. These duties are Shahada (testimony that "There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the messenger of God"),[21] Salat (prayers), Zakat (Giving of Alms), Sawm (Fasting during Ramadan) and Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca). These five practices are essential to Sunni Islam; Shi'a Muslims subscribe to eight ritual practices which substantially overlap with the five Pillars.[22][23]

The three duties of Sikhs are Naam Japna (meditating on Waheguru's name), Kirat Karni (earn honest living) and Vand Chakna (sharing one's earning with others).[24]

Social beliefs

Sikhism has an ambivalent attitude towards miracles and rejects any form of discrimination within and against other religions.[25][25] Sikhism does not believe in rituals, but is permissive of traditions.[8]

Sikhism rejects asceticism and celibacy.[26] The Sikhism founder Guru Nanak adopted the Indic ideas on rebirth, and taught the ideas of reincarnation.[26] Adi Granth of Sikhism recognizes and includes spiritual wisdom from other religions.[8][27][page needed] Islam warns against wrongful innovation (bid‘ah) to what is revealed in the Quran and the Hadiths.[8]

Islam considers itself to be a perfect and final religion.[27] It warns against innovation (bid‘ah) to what is revealed in the Quran and the Hadiths.[8]

Islam believes in miracles and a final judgment day (Qiyaamat).[28]

Apostasy

Apostasy, that is abandonment of Islam by a Muslim and conversion to another religion or atheism, is a religious crime in Islam punishable with death.[21][29] According to the Hadiths, states John Esposito, leaving Islam is punishable by "beheading, crucifixion or banishment", and Sharia (Islamic legal code) traditionally has required death by the sword for an adult sane male who voluntarily leaves Islam.[21] However, adds Esposito, modern thinkers have argued against execution as penalty for apostasy from Islam by invoking Quranic verse 2:257.[21]

Sikhism allows freedom of conscience and choosing one's own path.[30]

Menstruation

The traditional Islamic interpretation of the Qur'an forbids intercourse, but not physical intimacy, during a woman's menstrual period. The Qur'an explicitly prohibits a menstruating woman from sexual intercourse. If a man is engaged in sexual intercourse with his wife and discovers that her period has started, he must immediately withdraw.[31]

Menstruating women are also prohibited from engaging in tawaf during Hajj. When A'isha wept to Muhammad when she was not able to perform tawaf on her menses, Muhammad responded, "This is a thing which Allah has ordained for the daughters of Adam. So do what all the pilgrims do with the exception of the Tawaf (Circumambulation) round the Ka'ba."[32] Islam shows a lot respect to women and menstruation is a blessing in Islam as it gives birth to humans and a basic phenomenon for reproduction of humans. Menstruating women are provided with every kinds of privilege and are suggested to rest. [1]

Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism, condemned the practice of treating women as impure while menstruating.[33] In The Feminine Principle in the Sikh vision of the transcendent, Nikky Guninder Kaur-Singh writes:

'The denigration of the female body "expressed in many cultural and religious taboos surrounding menstruation and child-Birth" is absent in the Sikh worldview. Guru Nanak openly chides those who attribute pollution to women because of menstruation'.[34]

View on other religions

Sikhism teaches that all religious traditions are valid, leading to the same Waheguru, and it rejects that any particular religion has a monopoly regarding absolute truth for all of humanity.[35]

Islam teaches that non-Islamic religious traditions have been distorted by man to suit their desires.[36][37]

Predestination

Islam believes in predestination, or divine preordainment (al-qadā wa l-qadar), God has full knowledge and control over all that occurs.[38][39] According to Islamic tradition, all that has been decreed by God is written in al-Lawh al-Mahfūz, the "Preserved Tablet".[40][full citation needed]

Sikhism somewhat believes in predestination. What one does, speaks and hears is not truly pre ordained, but rather determined through one's actions via free will. Each action accounts for an individual's Karma (good or bad) and the person faces the due consequences of their deeds as a result of God's Hukam. [41]

Heaven and Hell

Jannah (Arabic: جنّة‎) is the Muslim equivalent of Heaven. It is the final abode of the righteous and the Islamic believers.[42] Firdaws (Arabic: فردوس) is the literal term meaning paradise, but the Quran generally uses the term Jannah symbolically referring to paradise. However "Firdaus" also designates the highest layer of heaven.[43] Jahannam (Arabic: جهنم‎) is the Muslim equivalent of Hell. It refers to an afterlife place of punishment for evildoers. The punishments are carried in accordance with the degree of evil one has done during his life.[44][45]

In Sikh thought, heaven and hell are not places for living hereafter, they are part of spiritual topography of man and do not exist otherwise. They refer to good and evil stages of life respectively and can be lived now and here during our earthly existence.[46]

Fasting

Fasting in Islam is the practice of abstaining, usually from food, drink, smoking, and sexual activity. During the Islamic holy month of Ramadan, fasting is observed between dawn and nightfall when the evening Adhan is sounded.[47] Ramadan is the ninth month of the Muslim lunar calendar and fasting is the fourth of the five pillars of Islam.[48] Fasting, in Islam, is considered an exercise of devotion to willingly renounce oneself, for a definite period of time, from all bodily appetites in order to form spiritual discipline and self-control.[49]

Sikhism does not promote fasting except for medical reasons. Fasting as an austerity, as a ritual, as the mortification of the body by wilful hunger is condemned as Sikh Gurus proclaimed that it "brings no spiritual benefit to the person".[50]

Direction of Prayer

The Qibla (Arabic: قِبْلَة‎) is the direction that should be faced when a Muslim prays during ṣalāh (Arabic: صَلَاة‎). It is fixed as the direction of the Kaaba in the Hejazi city of Mecca.[51] Most mosques contain a wall niche that indicates the Qibla, which is known as a miḥrâb (Arabic: مِحْرَاب‎). Most multifaith prayer rooms will also contain a Qibla, although usually less standardized in appearance than one would find within a mosque.[52]

In Sikhism, there is no particular direction which one should face while offering prayer.[53]

Auspicious Days

Ramadan (Arabic: رمضان‎) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting, prayer, reflection and community.[54][55] A commemoration of Muhammad's first revelation, the annual observance of Ramadan is regarded as one of the Five Pillars of Islam and lasts twenty-nine to thirty days, from one sighting of the crescent moon to the next.[56][57][58] The spiritual rewards of fasting are believed to be multiplied during Ramadan.[59]

Sikh Gurus rejected the theory that certain days are auspicious while some others are not.[60]

Slavery

According to Bernard Lewis, slavery has been a part of Islam's history from its beginning. The Quran like the Old and the New Testaments, states Lewis, "assumes the existence of slavery".[61] It attempts to regulate slavery and thereby implicitly accepts it.[62] Muhammad and his Companions owned slaves, and some of them acquired slaves through conquests.[61][63]. However, Muhammad himself freed his slaves before his prophethood, even going so far as to adopt one of them, and many converts to Islam such as Abu Bakr spent much of their lives freeing slaves. The Quran does not forbid slavery, nor does it consider it as a permanent institution.[64]. But, it does repeatedly say no man isn’t above another. The Quran assigns the same spiritual value to a slave as to a free man, and a believing slave is regarded as superior to a free pagan or idolator.[65][66][67] The manumission of slaves is regarded as a meritorious act in the Quran, and is recommended either as an act of charity or as expiation for sins.[65][68][69] While the spiritual value of a slave was same as the freeman, states Forough Jahanbakhsh, in regards to earthly matters, a slave was not an equal to the freeman and relegated to an inferior status.[70]

Sikh Gurus vehemently protested against the institution of slavery and preached that the multitudes of slaves were not supposed to toil and sweat in the tireless service of privileged one.[71] Many Sikh warriors of 18th century played an important role in fight against slavery and freeing of slaves. For example, Banda Singh Bahadur is known to have halted the Zamindari and Taluqdari system in the time he was active and gave the farmers proprietorship of their own land.[72] The Zamindars, or landlords, were usually from the higher castes. Lower caste individuals borrowed money against their holdings from the landlords for marriage expenses, housing, or farming costs. On defaulting, they would find themselves obliged to repay the debt through labour. Hereditary relationships continued between debtors and their masters, as generations found themselves in debt bondage, leading to slavery. [73] During Ahmad Shah Abdali's invasion of 1757, Sikhs, under the leadership of Baba Deep Singh, not only plundered his loot and but also rescued captive Hindu women. These women were captured by Ahmad Shah Abdali to sell them as maidens and slaves.[74]

Practice

Grooming and dress

The Khalsa panth among Sikhs are guided by the five Ks. They keep their head hair long (kesh) and men wear turbans (head hair cover) Women may also wear a turban by their choice. They carry a wooden comb, wear an iron bracelet, wear a cotton underwear, and carry a kirpan (steel sword).[75] Non baptized Sikh women are free to dress as they wish in Sikhism. Sex segregation is not required in public places or Sikh temples by Sikhism.[76]

Muslim males are encouraged to grow their beards and trim the moustache.[77] Men in some Muslim communities wear turban (head cap).[78] Muslim men, as well as women, must dress modestly. For Muslim women, it is highly recommended to cover their hair. Muslim women are required to cover body in public,[79] with some Islamic scholars stating that the Islamic Hadiths require covering the face too.[80][81] Islam encourages gender segregation in public, and Muslim men and women do not usually mix in public places such as mosques. These restrictions are part of 'Adab'.[77]

Circumcision

Sikhism does not require circumcision of either males or females, and criticizes the practice.[82]

In Islam, no verse in the Quran supports male or female circumcision (FGM/C).[83] Male circumcision is a widespread practice and considered mandatory for Muslim males according to Sunnah.[84] Muslim scholars disagree whether any authentic Sunnah in the hadiths supports the practice of female circumcision.[85][86][87] The Ijma, or consensus of Muslim scholars, varies by the Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh) on whether circumcision is optional, honorable or obligatory for Muslim male and females.[note 1] Prominent Islamic scholars have both supported and opposed FGM/C for female Muslims.[88][89][note 1][note 2]

Food

Islam has Quranic restrictions on food, such as how the meat is prepared.[93] Halal meat is required in Islam, prepared by ritual slaughter that involves cutting the jugular veins of the animal with a sharp knife. This leads to death, through bleeding, of the animal.[94] Meat from animals that die of natural causes or accident is not allowed, unless necessary.[93] Beef is a religiously acceptable food to Muslims, but pork and alcohol is not.[95] Muslims fast for the month of Ramadan.

The tenets of Sikhism do not advocate a particular stance on either vegetarianism or the consumption of meat, but rather leave the decision of diet to the individual.[96][97] The only restriction is that Sikhs are prohibited from eating any type of meat like Islamic halal or Jewish kosher style meat because to them, this manner of obtaining meat involves a ritualistic component and a slow death of the animal. This is known as Kutha meat.[98][99] The official Sikh Code of Conduct Sikh Rehat Maryada only forbids the consumption of Kutha meat.[99] Charity meals distributed at a Sikh Gurudwara, called a langar, is only lacto-vegetarian.[98][100] Some groups[101] of Sikhism disagree with the consumption of meat altogether.[102] In practice, some Sikhs eat meat, while some Sikhs avoid meat.[99]

Jizya

Muslim rulers in history, compelled the payment of a special tax called Jizya from dhimmi, those who refuse to convert to Islam but live in a Muslim state. Dhimmis were excluded from having to pay Islamic religious tax such as zakat and excluded from observing other Islamic religious obligations.[103][104] Jizya was a tool of social stratification and treasury's revenue from non-Muslims.[104] Jizya was a reminder of subordination of a non-Muslim under some Muslim rulers, and created a financial and political incentive to convert to Islam.[104][105]

Sikhism has never required a special tax for non-Sikhs.[citation needed]

Central Religious Place

The Harmandir Sahib (also known as the Golden Temple).

The Golden Temple (Harmandir Sahib) in Amritsar, India is central religious place of the Sikhs. The four entrances of this holy shrine from all four directions, signify that people belonging to every walk of life are equally welcome. The Golden Temple is a holy site for Sikhs and is welcome to people of any faith.[106]

Mecca in Saudi Arabia is the central religious place in Islam.[107][108] Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in Islam,[109] and a pilgrimage to it, known as the Hajj, is one of the pillars of Islam. Non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.

History

During the Mughal Empire, Sikh gurus were persecuted. The fifth Guru of Sikhs, Guru Arjan was executed by Jahangir.[110] There were exceptions too. During Muslim Emperor Akbar's rule, for example, Sikhism and diverse religions were accepted and flourished. He established an ibadat khana which served as a platform for religious debates and dialogues among different communities, including Sikhs. He also visited the third Sikh Guru, Guru Amardas at Goindwal, ate at the Langar kitchen, and offered donations for Langar.[111][112]

Guru Hargobind, (sixth Guru of the Sikhs), after the martyrdom of Guru Arjan saw that it would no longer be possible to protect the Sikh community without the aid of arms.[113] He built Akal Takhat the Throne of the Immortal and it is the highest political institution of the Sikhs and he also wore two swords of Miri and Piri.[114]

Sikhs of Nankana Sahib with Farhan Wilayat Butt (a Lahore-based Philanthropist and Social Activist)

Guru Tegh Bahadur (ninth Guru) was tortured and beheaded by Aurangzeb at Chandni Chowk in Delhi,[115] fellow devotees Bhai Mati Das, Bhai Sati Das and Bhai Dayala were also tortured and executed, while Guru Tegh Bahadur was forced to watch.[116][117] Tenth Guru Guru Gobind Singh formed Khalsa known as Army of Akal Purakh (Immortal) and Gave 5 Ks to Khalsa. Two of the younger sons of Guru Gobind Singh aged 9 and 7 were bricked up alive by the governor Wazir Khan in Sirhind (Punjab). When Guru Gobind Singh was in South India, he sent Banda Singh Bahadur to chastise the repressive Mughal faiy`dar of Sirhind. Banda Singh captured Sirhind and laid the foundation of Sikh empire.[118] According to a popular myth, the Nawab of Malerkotla Sher Mohammad Khan, protested against the execution of Sahibzadas, after which Guru Gobind Singh blessed the state. This is considered as a reason by many historians due to which Malerkotla was the only city not harmed by Banda Singh Bahadur during his military campaign.[119][120]

The Muslims under Ranjit Singh of the Sikh Empire were mostly treated favorably and comprised the majority of the population of the empire. Ranjit Singh declared during his coronation that Muslims would be governed under Islamic law and appointed many of them in important official positions. The Muslim religious leadership and mosques continuously received state support under Sikh rule.[121][122] This was in contrast with the Muslims of Kashmir valley where Sikh rule was generally oppressive,[123] protected perhaps by the remoteness of Kashmir from the capital of the Sikh Empire in Lahore.[124] The region had passed from the control of the Durrani Empire of Afghanistan, and four centuries of Muslim rule under the Mughals and the Afghans, to the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh in 1819.[125] As the Kashmiris had suffered under the Afghans, they initially welcomed the new Sikh rulers,[126] however this perception later changed.[123] The Sikh rulers of Kashmir enacted a number of anti-Muslim laws,[124] which included handing out death sentences for cow slaughter,[126] closing down the Jamia Masjid in Srinagar, and banning the azaan, the public Muslim call to prayer.[124] Several European visitors who visited Kashmir during Sikh rule wrote of the abject poverty of the vast Muslim peasantry and of the exorbitant taxes under the Sikh rulers. High taxes, according to some contemporary accounts, had depopulated large tracts of the countryside.[126] However, after a famine in 1832, the Sikhs reduced the land tax.[124]

Recent relations

During the partition of India in 1947, there was much bloodshed between Sikhs and Muslims, there was mass migration of people from all walks of life to leave their homes and belongings and travel by foot across the new border, on trains and on land people were killed in what was felt to be revenge attacks.[127] Millions of Sikhs left Pakistan and moved into India, while millions of Muslims left India and moved into Pakistan.[127] Malerkotla was however not affected and was viewed as a safe haven for Muslims during the partition. The popular myth associated with it is that the town was not impacted because of Guru Gobind Singh blessing it after its Nawab protested against the execution of the Guru's sons.[120]

Since 9/11 Muslims and Sikhs in America have endured hate crimes, denial of employment, bullying in schools and profiling in airports.[128]

In the UK, there have some instances of tension between Sikhs and Muslims on allegations that some Sikhs have been forced to convert to Islam.[129][130]

In 2009, the Taliban in Pakistan demanded that Sikhs in the region pay them the jizya (poll tax levied by Muslims on non-Muslim minorities).[131]

In 2010 the Taliban, a terrorist group, attacked many minorities including Sikhs resulting in two beheadings.[132]

In April 2016, two Muslim teens bombed a gurdwara in the German city of Essen. The two teen converted fire extinguishers into an explosive device. The devices detonated after a wedding party had left for the reception. A gurdwara priest was injured seriously, while two others were treated for minor injuries. The gurdwara building was damaged severely. One of the teens was in deradicalization program. The two denied it was religiously motivated saying “just for the kick of building fireworks!” However, before setting off the blast, the two 16-year-olds tried to break into the Sikh place of worship, North Rhine Westphalia (NRW).[133]

Sufi Muslims and Sikhs

Gyani Janam Singh (Pakistani Sikh Leader) presenting Siropa (robe of honour) to Farhan Wilayat Butt (Muslim Philanthropist) during the ceremony of Peace Symposium between Sikhs & Muslims of Pakistan

In South Asia alone there are over 200 million Muslims who are followers of Sufi traditions, the most notable being the Barelvi movement.[134] The Sikh Gurus had cordial relations with many Muslim Sufi Saints, and in the Sikh Holy book, the Guru Granth Sahib, many Sufi and other Muslim scholars’ quotes and wisdom are featured.[13]

In December 1588, a Sufi saint of Lahore, Mian Mir, visited Guru Arjan Dev at the initiation ceremony before the construction of the Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple).[135]

Ahmadiyya Muslims and Sikhs

Ahmadiyya, a minority reform sect that arose within Islam, believe that a certain form of prophethood within Islam continues after Muhammad and consider themselves to be Muslims.[136] They are, however, not recognized as Muslims by mainstream Sunni and Shia Islam, and are treated as blasphemous and persecuted.[136][137] Since the 18th century, Sufis and ancestors of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad – the founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement – had cordial relations with Sikhs, and they fought with Sikhs to resist the persecution by Sunni-based Mughal rule in northwest region of South Asia.[138] However, as Ranjit Singh established the Sikh Empire, there were conflicts between the Sikhs and the Jagir of Ahmad's father.[138]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b According to Islamic scholars Ibrahim Lethome Asmani and Maryam Sheikh Abdi, "Examination of all the texts on Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh) shows that scholars have no consensus on FGM/C. For example the four schools of thought express the following views: The Hanafi view is that it is a sunnah (optional act) for both females and males; Maliki hold the view that it is wajib (obligatory) for males and sunnah (optional) for females; Shafi’i view it as wajib (obligatory) for both females and males; Hanbali have two opinions: it is wajib (obligatory) for both males and females, and it is wajib (obligatory) for males and makrumah (honourable) for females.[90]
  2. ^ According to 2016 estimates of UNICEF, at least 200 million girls and women alive today worldwide have undergone female genital mutilation/cutting.[91] The 2013 report by the UNICEF states, "in many countries, FGM/C prevalence is highest among Muslim girls and women. The practice, however, is also found among Catholic and other Christian communities."[92]

References

  1. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". www.etymonline.com. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  2. ^ Lewis, Barnard; Churchill, Buntzie Ellis (2009). Islam: The Religion and The People. Wharton. pp. 8. ISBN 9780132230858.
  3. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". www.etymonline.com. Retrieved 2015-05-25.
  4. ^ a b William Chittick, Sufism: A Short Introduction
  5. ^ a b c d e Johal, Jagbir (2011). Sikhism today. Continuum. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-1-4411-8140-4.
  6. ^ a b Sikhism in Its Relation to Muhammadanism, p. 12, at Google Books
  7. ^ Alexander Stewart (2016-07-01), Chinese Muslims and the Global Ummah: Islamic Revival and Ethnic Identity, p. 43, ISBN 9781317238478
  8. ^ a b c d e Singh, Gurapreet (2003). The soul of Sikhism. p. 18. ISBN 978-81-288-0085-6.
  9. ^ Fisher, Mary (1997). Living religions : an encyclopedia of the world's faiths. p. 353. ISBN 978-1-86064-148-0.
  10. ^ Rai, Priya (1989). Sikhism and the Sikhs. Greenwood Press. pp. 230–233. ISBN 978-0-313-26130-5.
  11. ^ D.S Chahal (Editors: John Peppin etc.) (2004). Religious perspectives in bioethics. London u.a: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-54413-9.
  12. ^ Shapiro, Michael (2002). Songs of the Saints from the Adi Granth. Journal of the American Oriental Society. pp. 924, 925.
  13. ^ a b Deol, Harnik (2000). Religion and Nationalism in India. London and New York: Routledge. p. 189. ISBN 978-0-415-20108-7.
  14. ^ Pashaura Singh (2000). The Guru Granth Sahib: Canon, Meaning and Authority. Oxford University Press. pp. 174–180. ISBN 978-0-19-564894-2.
  15. ^ Eleanor Nesbitt (2016). Sikhism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-19-106276-6.
  16. ^ "From the article on Tawhid in Oxford Islamic Studies Online". Oxfordislamicstudies.com. 2008-05-06. Retrieved 2014-08-24.
  17. ^ a b Malise Ruthven (2004). Historical Atlas of Islam. Harvard University Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-674-01385-8.
  18. ^ "112. The Unity, Sincerity, Oneness Of Allah". Islam101.com.
  19. ^ Gülen, Fethullah (2005). The Messenger of God Muhammad : an analysis of the Prophet's life. p. 204. ISBN 978-1-932099-83-6.
  20. ^ Scott Noegel; Brannon M. Wheeler (2002). Historical dictionary of prophets in Islam and Judaism. Scarecrow. pp. 227–229. ISBN 978-0-8108-4305-9.
  21. ^ a b c d Esposito, John (2003). The Oxford dictionary of Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-19-512559-7.
  22. ^ See: * Mumen (1987), p.178, "Pillars of Islam". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2016-12-21.
  23. ^ Knight, Ian; Scollins (23 March 1990). Richard (ed.). Queen Victoria's Enemies: India No.3. Men-at-arms (Paperback ed.). Osprey Publishing; illustrated edition. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-85045-943-2.
  24. ^ "Religion: Sikhism". BBC. 1970-01-01. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  25. ^ a b Baksh, Kaiyume (1 January 2007). Islam and Other Major World Religions. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 9781425113032 – via Google Books.
  26. ^ a b Carmody, Denise (2013). Ways to the center : an introduction to world religions. p. 339. ISBN 978-1-133-94225-2.
  27. ^ a b Juergensmeyer, Mark (2006). The Oxford handbook of global religions. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-976764-9.
  28. ^ Esposito, John (2004). The Islamic world : past and present. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 121–122. ISBN 978-0-19-516520-3.
  29. ^ Ali, Kecia (2008). Islam : the key concepts. Routledge. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-0-415-39638-7.
  30. ^ Pal Kaur, Apostasy: A sociological perspective, Sikh Review, 45(1), 1997, pp. 37-40
  31. ^ "2.222", Koran
  32. ^ "Sahih Bukhari, Chapter: 6, Menstrual Periods".
  33. ^ Shahi, Mukesh Kumar (2018). Period & Emotion: Educate Yourself and your Family. Evincepub Publishing. p. 13. ISBN 9789388277655.
  34. ^ Kaur-Singh, Nikky-Guninder (1993). The Feminine Principle in the Sikh Vision of the Transcendent. Cambridge University Press ISBN 0521432871. pp. 4.
  35. ^ Haar, Kristen (2005). Sikhism. San Val. pp. 43–44. ISBN 978-1417638536.
  36. ^ Rippin, Andrew (2010). The Islamic world. London: Routledge. pp. 252–258. ISBN 978-0-415-60191-7.
  37. ^ Sirry, Munim (2014). Scriptural polemics : the Qur'an and other religions. Oxford New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 43–64. ISBN 978-0-19-935936-3.
  38. ^ See:
    • Quran 9:51
    • D. Cohen-Mor (2001), p.4: "The idea of predestination is reinforced by the frequent mention of events 'being written' or 'being in a book' before they happen: 'Say: "Nothing will happen to us except what Allah has decreed for us…" ' "
    • Ahmet T. Karamustafa. "Fate". Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an Online.: The verb qadara literally means "to measure, to determine". Here it is used to mean that "God measures and orders his creation".
  39. ^ A Dictionary of Islam: By Thomas Patrick Hughes ISBN 81-206-0672-8 Page 591
  40. ^ Farah (2003), pp.119–122; Patton (1900), p.130; Momen (1987), pp.177,178
  41. ^ Singh, Gurapreet (2003). The soul of Sikhism. pp. 127–128. ISBN 978-81-288-0085-6.
  42. ^ Joseph Hell Die Religion des Islam Motilal Banarsidass Publishe 1915
  43. ^ Asad, Muhammad (1984). The Message of the Qu'rán (PDF). Gibraltar, Spain: Dar al-Andalus Limited. pp. 712–713. ISBN 1904510000.
  44. ^ Phyllis Ghim-Lian Chew A Sociolinguistic History of Early Identities in Singapore: From Colonialism to Nationalism Palgrave Macmillan, 29 Nov 2012 ISBN 9781137012333 p. 195
  45. ^ Tom Fulks Heresy? the Five Lost Commandments Strategic Book Publishing 2010 ISBN 978-1-609-11406-0 page74
  46. ^ Singh, Jagraj (2009). A Complete Guide to Sikhism. Unistar Books. p. 271. ISBN 978-8-1714-2754-3.
  47. ^ Chittick, William C.; Murata, Sachiko. The vision of Islam. Paragon House. ISBN 9781557785169.
  48. ^ "Islam - Prayer". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2020-01-24.
  49. ^ "Introduction to Translation of Sahih Muslim". www.iium.edu.my. Retrieved 2019-12-10.
  50. ^ Singha, H.S. (2005). Sikh Studies. Hemkunt Press. p. 83. ISBN 9788170102458.
  51. ^ Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary. 2001. p. 479. ISBN 0 87779 546 0. Retrieved 2013-03-17.
  52. ^ Hewson, Chris (March 1, 2012). "Multifaith Spaces: Objects". University of Manchester. Retrieved September 14, 2012.
  53. ^ McLeod, W.H. (1984). Textual Sources for the Study of Sikhism. Manchester University Press. p. 114. ISBN 9780719010637.
  54. ^ BBC – Religions Archived 28 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 25 July 2012
  55. ^ "Ramadan: Fasting and Traditions". Archived from the original on 22 March 2019. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  56. ^ "Schools – Religions". BBC. Archived from the original on 27 August 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  57. ^ Bukhari-Ibn-Ismail, AbdAllah-Muhammad. "Sahih Bukhari – Book 031 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 124". hadithcollection.com. Archived from the original on 13 June 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  58. ^ Muslim-Ibn-Habaj, Abul-Hussain. "Sahih Muslim – Book 006 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 2378". hadithcollection.com. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  59. ^ Bukhari-Ibn-Ismail, AbdAllah-Muhammad. "Sahih Bukhari – Book 031 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 125". hadithcollection.com. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  60. ^ Dogra, R.C. (1995). Encyclopaedia of Sikh Religion and Culture. Vikas Publishing House. pp. 412. ISBN 9780706994995.
  61. ^ a b Bernard Lewis (1992). Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. Oxford University Press. pp. 5–6. ISBN 978-0-19-505326-5.
  62. ^ Bernard Lewis (1992). Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. Oxford University Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-19-505326-5. The Qur'an, like the Old and the New Testaments, assumes the existence of slavery. It regulates the practice of the institution and thus implicitly accepts it. The Prophet Muhammad and those of his Companions who could afford it themselves owned slaves; some of them acquired more by conquest.
  63. ^ John Ralph Willis (1985). Slaves and Slavery in Muslim Africa: The servile estate. Routledge. pp. viii–ix. ISBN 978-0-7146-3201-8.
  64. ^ Cite error: The named reference Smith2006p22 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  65. ^ a b Brunschvig, R. (1986). "ʿAbd". In P. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C.E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W.P. Heinrichs (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam. 1 (2nd ed.). Brill. p. 25. doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_0003. THE KOR'AN. [...] Spiritually, the slave has the same value as the free man [...] over and over again, from beginning to end of the Preaching, it makes the emancipation of slaves a meritorious act: a work of charity (ii, 177; xc,13), to which the legal alms may be devoted (ix,60), or a deed of expiation for certain felonies (unintentional homicide: iv, 92, where "a believing slave" is specified; perjury: v, 89; Iviii, 3);
  66. ^ Gordon, Murray. Slavery in the Arab World (p. 35). New Amsterdam Books. Kindle Edition. Quote: "At a spiritual level, the slave was possessed of the same value as a freeman."
  67. ^ Bernard Lewis (1992). Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. Oxford University Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-19-505326-5. the believing slave is now the brother of the freeman in Islam and before God, and the superior of the free pagan or idolator (11:221).
  68. ^ Bernard Lewis (1992). Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. Oxford University Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-19-505326-5. The freeing of slaves is recommended both for the expiation of sins (IV:92; V:92; LVIII:3) and as an act of simple benevolence (11:177; XXIV:33; XC:13).
  69. ^ Bernard K. Freamon (2012). "Definitions and Conceptions of Slave Ownership in Islamic Law". In Jean Allain (ed.). The Legal Understanding of Slavery: From the Historical to the Contemporary. Oxford University Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-19-164535-8. Several of these verses mandate the freeing of slaves as expiation for sin or crimes and they also establish the emancipation of a slave as a meritorious and pious act, entitling the emancipator to favorable treatment in the next life.
  70. ^ Forough Jahanbakhsh (2001). Islam, Democracy and Religious Modernism in Iran, 1953-2000: From Bāzargān to Soroush. BRILL. pp. 36–37. ISBN 90-04-11982-5.
  71. ^ Studies in Sikhism and Comparative Religion, Volumes 25-26. Guru Nanak Foundation. 2006. p. 65.
  72. ^ Jawandha, Nahar (2010). Glimpses of Sikhism. New Delhi: Sanbun Publishers. p. 81. ISBN 9789380213255.
  73. ^ British and Foreign Anti-slavery Society 1841, p. 5
  74. ^ Grewal, Manraj (2004). Dreams After Darkness: A Search for the Life Ordinary Under the Shadow of 1984. Rupa & Company. p. 68.
  75. ^ "Religion: Sikhism". BBC. 1970-01-01. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  76. ^ Basran, G. S. (2003). The Sikhs in Canada : migration, race, class, and gender. Oxford University Press. pp. 24–25. ISBN 978-0-19-564886-7.
  77. ^ a b Martin, Richard (2004). Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim world. New York: Macmillan Reference USA Thomson/Gale. ISBN 978-0-02-865603-8.
  78. ^ Rubin, Alissa (2011-10-15). "Afghans Are Rattled by Rule on Searching Turbans". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  79. ^ Fulkerson, Mary (2012). The Oxford handbook of feminist theology. Oxford New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 405–414. ISBN 978-0-19-927388-1.
  80. ^ Hussain, Jamila (2011). Islam : its law and society. Australia: Federation Press. pp. 79–80. ISBN 978-1-86287-819-8.
  81. ^ Islam and the veil : theoretical and regional contexts. London: Bloomsbury Academic. 2012. pp. 81–85. ISBN 978-1-4411-3519-3.
  82. ^ Devinder Chahal (2013). John Peppin; et al. (eds.). Religious Perspectives on Bioethics. Taylor & Francis. p. 213. ISBN 978-9026519673.
  83. ^ To Mutilate in the Name of Jehovah or Allah: Legitimization of Male and Female Circumcision Sami A. ALDEEB ABU-SAHLIEH, Medicine and Law, Volume 13, Number 7-8: July 1994, pp. 575-622, Chapter 2, Quote: "The Koran mentions neither male nor female circumcision."
  84. ^ Erich Kolig (2012). Conservative Islam: A Cultural Anthropology. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-7391-7424-1., Quote: "Islam makes male circumcision mandatory, which is usually done at a relatively early age. It is not commanded by the Quran, but contained in the Sunna."
  85. ^ Ibrahim Lethome Asmani and Maryam Sheikh Abdi (2008), De-linking Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting from Islam, Population Council, Washington DC, pages 6, 12
  86. ^ E.J. Donzel (1994). Islamic desk reference. Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. Brill. pp. 69–71. ISBN 978-90-04-09738-4.;
    Bouhdiba, Abdelwahab (1998). The individual and society in Islam. Paris: Unesco Pub. ISBN 978-92-3-102742-0.
  87. ^ Chaim, Vardit (1993). Islamic medical ethics in the twentieth century. Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. Brill. p. Chapter 9. ISBN 978-90-04-09608-0.
  88. ^ CM Obermeyer, "Female Genital Surgeries: The Known, the Unknown, and the Unknowable", Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 13(1), March 1999, pp. 79–106
  89. ^ To Mutilate in the Name of Jehovah or Allah: Legitimization of Male and Female Circumcision Sami A. ALDEEB ABU-SAHLIEH, Medicine and Law, Volume 13, Number 7-8: July 1994, pp. 575-622
  90. ^ Ibrahim Lethome Asmani and Maryam Sheikh Abdi (2008), De-linking Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting from Islam, Population Council, Washington DC, page 13
  91. ^ At least 200 million girls and women alive today living in 30 countries have undergone FGM/C, UNICEF (2016)
  92. ^ Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A statistical overview and exploration of the dynamics of change, UNICEF (2013), ISBN 978-92-806-4703-7, page 72
  93. ^ a b Quran 2:173
  94. ^ Riaz, Mian (2004). Halal food production. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-58716-029-5.
  95. ^ Esposito, John (2011). What everyone needs to know about Islam. Oxford University Press. pp. 119. ISBN 978-0-19-979413-3.
  96. ^ A History of the Sikh People by Dr. Gopal Singh, World Sikh University Press, Delhi ISBN 9788170231394 However, it is strange that nowadays in the Community-Kitchen attached to the Sikh temples, and called the Guru's Kitchen (or, Guru-ka-langar) meat-dishes are not served at all. May be, it is on account of its being, perhaps, expensive, or not easy to keep for long. Or, perhaps the Vaishnava tradition is too strong to be shaken off.
  97. ^ Guru Granth Sahib, An Analytical Study by Surindar Singh Kohli, Singh Bros. Amritsar ISBN 8172050607 The ideas of devotion and service in Vaishnavism have been accepted by Adi Granth, but the insistence of Vaishnavas on vegetarian diet has been rejected.
  98. ^ a b "In pictures: Sikhs in Britain". 27 July 2005 – via bbc.co.uk.
  99. ^ a b c Nesbitt, Eleanor (2005). Sikhism, a very short introduction. Oxford University Press. p. Chapter 4. ISBN 978-0-19-280601-7.
  100. ^ Michael Angelo (2013). The Sikh Diaspora: Tradition and Change in an Immigrant Community. Routledge. p. 155. ISBN 978-1-136-52763-0.
  101. ^ Takhar, Opinderjit Kaur (2005). "2 Guru Nanak Nishkam Sewak Jatha". Sikh identity: an exploration of groups among Sikhs. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-7546-5202-1. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  102. ^ Ann Goldman; Richard Hain; Stephen Liben (2006). Oxford Textbook of Palliative Care for Children. Oxford University Press. p. 220. ISBN 978-0-19-852653-7.
  103. ^ John Louis Esposito, Islam the Straight Path, Oxford University Press, 1998, pp. 33-34
  104. ^ a b c Anver M. Emon, Religious Pluralism and Islamic Law: Dhimmis and Others in the Empire of Law, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199661633, pp. 99-109
  105. ^ Majid Khadduri (2010), War and Peace in the Law of Islam, Johns Hopkins University Press; pp. 162–224; ISBN 978-1-58477-695-6
  106. ^ "Sikhism Religion of the Sikh People".
  107. ^ Historical value of the Qur'ân and the Ḥadith A.M. Khan
  108. ^ What Everyone Should Know About the Qur'an Ahmed Al-Laithy
  109. ^ Nasr, Seyyed. Mecca, The Blessed, Medina, The Radiant: The Holiest Cities of Islam. Aperture. 2005
  110. ^ Singh, Prof. Kartar (2003-01-01). Life Story Of Guru Nanak. Hemkunt Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-81-7010-162-8. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  111. ^ Singh, Inderpal; Kaur, Madanjit; University, Guru Nanak Dev (1997). Guru Nanak, a global vision. Guru Nanak Dev University. ASIN B0000CP9NT. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  112. ^ Shah, Giriraj (1999). Saints, gurus and mystics of India. Cosmo Publications. p. 378. ISBN 978-81-7020-856-3. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  113. ^ V. D. Mahajan (1970). Muslim Rule In India. S. Chand, New Delhi, p.223.
  114. ^ Lal, Muni (1 December 1988). "Aurangzeb". Vikas Pub. House – via Google Books.
  115. ^ Siṅgha, Kirapāla (2006). Select documents on Partition of Punjab-1947. National Book. p. 234. ISBN 978-81-7116-445-5.
  116. ^ Singh, Prithi (2006). The history of Sikh gurus. Lotus Press. p. 124. ISBN 978-81-8382-075-2.
  117. ^ Kohli, Mohindar (1992). Guru Tegh Bahadur : testimony of conscience. pp. 33–61. ISBN 978-81-7201-234-2.
  118. ^ Singh, Prithi Pal (2006). The history of Sikh Gurus. Lotus Press. p. 158. ISBN 978-81-8382-075-2.
  119. ^ Randhawa, Karenjot Bhangoo (2012). Civil Society in Malerkotla, Punjab: Fostering Resilience Through Religion. Lexington Books. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-739-16737-3.
  120. ^ a b Forsythe, David P. (2009-08-27). Encyclopedia of Human Rights, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-195-33402-9.
  121. ^ Duggal, Kartar Singh (2001). Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the Last to Lay Arms. Abhinav Publications. p. 55. ISBN 978-81-7017-410-3.
  122. ^ Singh, Rishi (2015-04-23). State Formation and the Establishment of Non-Muslim Hegemony: Post-Mughal 19th-century Punjab. SAGE Publications. p. 11. ISBN 978-9-351-50504-4.
  123. ^ a b Madan, T. N. (2008). "Kashmir, Kashmiris, Kashmiriyat: An Introductory Essay". In Rao, Aparna (ed.). The Valley of Kashmir: The Making and Unmaking of a Composite Culture?. Delhi: Manohar. Pp. xviii, 758. p. 15. ISBN 978-81-7304-751-0.
  124. ^ a b c d Zutshi, Chitralekha (2003). Language of belonging: Islam, regional identity, and the making of Kashmir. Oxford University Press/Permanent Black. pp. 39–41. ISBN 978-0-19-521939-5.
  125. ^ The Imperial Gazetteer of India (Volume 15); Karachi to Kotayam. Great Britain Commonwealth Office. 1908. pp. 94–95. ISBN 978-1-154-40971-0.
  126. ^ a b c Schofield, Victoria (2010). Kashmir in conflict: India, Pakistan and the unending war. I. B. Tauris. pp. 5–6. ISBN 978-1-84885-105-4.
  127. ^ a b Pandey, Gyanendra (2001). Remembering partition violence, nationalism, and history in India. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–19, 83–88, 153–158. ISBN 978-0-521-00250-9.
  128. ^ http://www.gmanetwork.com/news/story/268650/pinoyabroad/worldfeatures/sikhs-often-mistaken-for-muslims-call-for-better-understanding-of-their-religion
  129. ^ "Asian Network Reports Special - BBC Asian Network".
  130. ^ "Protest march over 'conversions'". 10 June 2007 – via bbc.co.uk.
  131. ^ "The Tribune, Chandigarh, India – World". Tribuneindia.com. Retrieved 2010-03-09.
  132. ^ "Pak Sikhs seeks security, Indian citizenship". PunjabNewsline.com. 2010-02-23. Retrieved 2010-03-09.
  133. ^ "Sikh Temple bombing in Germany". The Independent.
  134. ^ Reference, Marshall Cavendish (2011), Illustrated Dictionary of the Muslim World, ISBN 9780761479291
  135. ^ Jawandha, Nahar (2010). Glimpses of Sikhism. Sanbun Publishers. pp. 42–43. ISBN 978-93-80213-25-5.
  136. ^ a b Valentine, Simon (2008). Islam and the Ahmadiyya jamaʻat : history, belief, practice. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 130–134. ISBN 978-0-231-70094-8.
  137. ^ Gualtieri, Antonio (2004). The Ahmadis community, gender, and politics in a Muslim society. Montreal, Que: McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-7735-2738-6.
  138. ^ a b Khan, Adil (2015). From Sufism to Ahmadiyya a Muslim minority movement in South Asia. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. pp. 22–27. ISBN 978-0-253-01523-5.

Further reading

External links