اسلام و آیین سیک
محمود غزنوی از سلطانهای ترک مسلمان بود که در قرن دهم میلادی، به هندوستان حمله کرد. در قرن یازدهم، پادشاهان مسلمان نخست بر شمال غربی هندوستان و از آن پس بیشتر سرزمینهای هند تسلط یافتند. پادشاهان مسلمان، از ابتدا به دین هندو با دید کفر و شرک و بددینی مینگریستند[نیازمند منبع]؛ نخستین بار محمود غزنوی دستور داد که بزرگترین بتخانه هند مشهور به سومنات را ویران کنند و بتهای آن را بشکنند. دین اسلام، ریشه در یک فرهنگ بیگانه داشت، و بسیاری از هندوها به اجبار دین اسلام را اختیار کرده بودند. در چنین شرایطی، آیین سیک در حقیقت مانند پلی میان هند و اسلام بود[نیازمند منبع]؛ در حقیقت پیدایش آیین سیک نتیجه طبیعی برخورد دو دین مباین و متفاوت است.[نیازمند منبع]
نانک و اسلام[ویرایش]
نانک، با بسیاری از علمای مسلمان نشست و برخاست داشت؛ و از کتب مقدس هندوها و نیز از کتاب قرآن آگاهی و اطلاع داشت. نانک از قرآن با احترام یاد میکرد، و حتی آن را سخن خدا دانست؛ با این حال بخشهایی از قرآن را که به زندگی پیامبران بنیاسرائیل و عبرانی میپردازد؛ بیاهمیت خواند.[نیازمند منبع] بیشک نانک، عقیده یکتاپرستی را که با اعتقاد به پوچی بتها همراه بود، از قرآن گرفتهاست. محتوای آیهای از قرآن که نزد مسلمانان به آیه نور معروف است، با اندکی دگرگونی در کتاب کبیا صاحب آمدهاست. نام محمد در کتاب گورو گرنث نیامده است؛ با این حال به قرآن اشارههایی رفتهاست و نانک همواره از محمد با احترام یاد میکرد. نانک از رعایت امتیازات صنفی نظام کاستی و رسم ساتی سرباز زد؛ همچنین خوردن گوشت گاو را برای پیروانش حلال دانست؛ و گوشت خوک و سگ را ممنوع کرد.
گروها و مسلمانان[ویرایش]
مبلغین گرو نانک به مسلمانان و هندوها به شیوه برابر آموزش میدادند[نیازمند منبع]؛ و هر دو دین را با دیده احترام مینگریستند. با این حال، سیکها نه مسلمانها و نه هندوها را رستگار میدانستند، و میخواستند که هر دو به آیین سیک درآیند. هندوها، سیکها را نیز یکی از فرقههای خود انگاشتند، در حالی که مسلمانان نیز آنها را یک فرقه اسلامی دانستند که از عرفان و تصوف الهام گرفتهاست. چهار جانشین گرونانک که یکی پس از دیگری به جانشینی نصب شدند، با پادشاهان مغول هند ارتباط نزدیکی داشتند. رمدا، چهارمین جانشین نانک، به حمایت اکبرشاه، گردوارهٔ معبد طلایی بنا کرد، و امریستار را شهر جاودانی سیکها نامید. با این حال در دوره پادشاهی اورنگزیب، شرایط سختی برای سیکها به وجود آمد؛ اورنگزیب بر نابودی هر دو فرقه هندوگرایی و سیکگرایی اصرار داشت. سینک، هفتمین گرو، نیز به دست یک مسلمان کشته شد.
منابع و کتب[ویرایش]
Islam is an Abrahamic religion founded in the Arabian peninsula, while Sikhism is a Dharmic religion founded in the Indian subcontinent. Islam means "submission" (to the will of God). The word Sikh is derived from a Sanskrit word meaning 'disciple', or one who learns.
Both religions are monotheistic. Sufi Muslims and Sikhs believe that the 'One' creator permeates the creation. Salafi Muslims on the other hand disagree. Sufi Muslims differ from Sikhs in that they believe that God manifests his attributes, namely the 99 names or attributes through his creation. According to Salafi Muslims, God's attributes are separate from his creation as he is only above his Throne. Islam believes that Muhammad was the last prophet, to whom the Quran was revealed by God in the 7th century CE. Sikhism was founded in the 15th century CE by Guru Nanak and the Guru Granth Sahib is the scripture followed by Sikhs as "The Living Guru".
In Islam, the legal system based on the Quran and the Sunnah is known as Sharia; there is no such legal system mentioned in Guru Granth Sahib. Daily prayers are one of the pillars of Islam and is mandatory for all Muslims. Baptized Sikhs read the five banis (prayers) as part of their daily routine, Nitnem. Islam requires annual zakah (alms giving) by Muslims. Kirat Karna (doing an honest livelihood - earning honestly without any sort of corruption), Naam Japna (to chant and meditate on Naam, read and follow "The One") and Vand Chhako (Selfless service (Sewa) and sharing with others) are fundamental to Sikhism given by Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Pilgrimage (to Mecca) is a crucial part of Islam, while Sikhism denounces pilgrimages, circumcision and rituals. According to Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Sikh Guru stated in his 52 Hukamnamas that a Sikh should undertake Pilgrimages to Sikh Gurdwaras.
There has been a history of constructive influence and conflict between Islam and Sikhism. The Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib includes teachings from Muslims, namely saints (Baba Farid), a Muslim of the Chishti Sufi order and Kabir.
Sikhism believes that God is formless (nirankar). It has been called a form of pantheism, as well as monotheism. God in the nirgun aspect is without attributes, unmanifest, not seen, but all pervading and permeating, omnipresent. God in the sargun aspect is manifest has attributes, qualities, and seen in the whole creation. [Ik Onkar There is only one God, he is the eternal truth, he is without fear, he is without hate, immortal, without form, Beyond birth and death...]
[Say: He is Allah, the One and Only; (1) Allah, the Eternal, Absolute; (2) He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; (3) And there is none like unto Him. (4)] (Quran Al-Ikhlas)
Guru and Messengers
Sikhism reveres Guru Nanak as the teacher that taught of the One Divine Creator, Lord on Earth, which is manifest in the ten forms of the ten Gurus of Sikhs. Sikhism accepts that there were divine messengers, including Moses, Jesus and Mohammed in other religions.
Duties/Articles of Faith
The Five Pillars of Islam are duties incumbent on every Muslim. These duties are Shahada (testimony that "There is no god but God and Muhammad is the messenger of God"), Salat (prayers), Zakat (Giving of Alms), Sawm (Fasting during Ramadan) and Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca). These five practices are essential to Sunni Islam; Shi'a Muslims subscribe to eight ritual practices which substantially overlap with the five Pillars.
The three duties of Sikhs are Naam Japna (meditating on Waheguru's name), Kirat Karni (earn honest living) and Vand Chakna (sharing one's earning with others). Baptized Sikhs, the Amritdharis are belonging to the Khalsa Panth. They wear the five articles of faith, known as 5 K´s, (1. Kes, uncut hair and beard, 2. Kangha, a wooden comb, 3. Kara, a bracelet worn around the wrist, 4. Kirpan, a small dagger and 5. Kachera, a special underwear). The Khalsa Panth was created on Vaisakhi 1699 by the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh. The baptized Sikhs have a set of seven sikh prayers, called Nitnem, which they practise on a daily basis, this is mandatory.
Sikhism has an ambivalent attitude towards miracles and rejects any form of discrimination within and against other religions. Sikhism does not believe in rituals, but is permissive of traditions.
Sikhism rejects asceticism and celibacy. The Sikhism founder Guru Nanak adopted the Indic ideas on rebirth, and taught the ideas of reincarnation. Adi Granth of Sikhism recognizes and includes spiritual wisdom from other religions.[page needed] Islam warns against wrongful innovation (bid‘ah) to what is revealed in the Quran and the Hadiths.
Apostasy, that is abandonment of Islam by a Muslim and conversion to another religion or atheism, is a religious crime in Islam punishable with death. According to the Hadiths, states John Esposito, leaving Islam is punishable by "beheading, crucifixion or banishment", and Sharia (Islamic legal code) traditionally has required death by the sword for an adult sane male who voluntarily leaves Islam. However, adds Esposito, modern thinkers have argued against execution as penalty for apostasy from Islam by invoking Quranic verse 2:257.
Sikhism allows freedom of conscience and choosing one's own path.
View on other religions
Islam believes in predestination, or divine preordainment (al-qadā wa l-qadar), God has full knowledge and control over all that occurs. According to Islamic tradition, all that has been decreed by God is written in al-Lawh al-Mahfūz, the "Preserved Tablet".[full citation needed]
Sikhism also believes in predestination, and what one does, speaks and hears is already pre ordained, and one has to simply follow the laid down path per God's Hukum.
Grooming and dress
The Khalsa panth among Sikhs are guided by the five Ks. They keep their head hair long (kesh) and men wear turbans (head hair cover) Women may also wear a turban by their choice. They carry a wooden comb, wear an iron bracelet, wear a cotton underwear, and carry a kirpan (steel sword). Non baptized Sikh women are free to dress as they wish in Sikhism. Sex segregation is not required in public places or Sikh temples by Sikhism.
Muslim males are encouraged to grow their beards and trim the moustache. Men in some Muslim communities wear turban (head cap). Muslim men, as well as women, must dress modestly. For Muslim women, it is highly recommended to cover their hair. Muslim women are required to cover body in public, with some Islamic scholars stating that the Islamic Hadiths require covering the face too. Islam encourages gender segregation in public, and Muslim men and women do not usually mix in public places such as mosques. These restrictions are part of 'Adab'.
Sikhism does not require circumcision of either males or females, and criticizes the practice.
In Islam, no verse in the Quran supports male or female circumcision (FGM/C). Male circumcision is a widespread practice and considered mandatory for Muslim males according to Sunnah. Muslim scholars disagree whether any authentic Sunnah in the hadiths supports the practice of female circumcision. The Ijma, or consensus of Muslim scholars, varies by the Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh) on whether circumcision is optional, honorable or obligatory for Muslim male and females.[note 1] Prominent Islamic scholars have both supported and opposed FGM/C for female Muslims.[note 1][note 2]
Islam has Quranic restrictions on food, such as how the meat is prepared. Halal meat is required in Islam, prepared by ritual slaughter that involves cutting the jugular veins of the animal with a sharp knife. This leads to death, through bleeding, of the animal. Meat from animals that die of natural causes or accident is not allowed, unless necessary. Beef is a religiously acceptable food to Muslims, but pork and alcohol is not. Muslims fast for the month of Ramadan.
Sikhs are prohibited from eating any type of meat like Islamic halal or Jewish kosher style meat because to them, this manner of obtaining meat involves a ritualistic component and a slow death of the animal. This is known as Kutha meat. The official Sikh Code of Conduct Sikh Rehat Maryada only forbids the consumption of Kutha meat. Charity meals distributed at a Sikh Gurudwara, called a langar, is only lacto-vegetarian. Some groups of Sikhism disagree with the consumption of meat altogether. In practice, some Sikhs eat meat, while some Sikhs avoid meat. Baptized Sikhs are strict lacto-vegetarians .
Muslim rulers in history, compelled the payment of a special tax called Jizya from dhimmi, those who refuse to convert to Islam but live in a Muslim state. Dhimmis were excluded from having to pay Islamic religious tax such as zakat and excluded from observing other Islamic religious obligations. Jizya was a tool of social stratification and treasury's revenue from non-Muslims. Jizya was a reminder of subordination of a non-Muslim under some Muslim rulers, and created a financial and political incentive to convert to Islam.
Sikhism has never required a special tax for non-Sikhs.
The Golden Temple (Harmandir Sahib) in Amritsar, India is not only a central religious place of the Sikhs, but also a symbol of human brotherhood and equality. The four entrances of this holy shrine from all four directions, signify that people belonging to every walk of life are equally welcome. The Golden Temple is a holy site for Sikhs and is welcome to people of any faith.
Mecca in Saudi Arabia is the central religious place in Islam. Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in Islam, and a pilgrimage to it, known as the Hajj, is one of the pillars of Islam. Non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
Sikhs do not believe in pilgrimages; Muslims, in contrast, consider Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca) a crucial part of the faith. However, the first Sikh Guru, Baba Guru Nanak, is known to have attended the Hajj on one occasion.
During the Mughal Empire, Sikh gurus were persecuted. The fifth Guru of Sikhs, Guru Arjan was executed by Jahangir. There were exceptions too. During Muslim Emperor Akbar's rule, for example, Sikhism and diverse religions were accepted and flourished. He established an ibadat khana which served as a platform for religious debates and dialogues among different communities, including Sikhs. He also visited the third Sikh Guru, Guru Amardas at Goindwal, ate at the Langar kitchen, and offered donations for Langar.
Guru Hargobind, (sixth Guru of the Sikhs), after the martyrdom of Guru Arjan saw that it would no longer be possible to protect the Sikh community without the aid of arms. He built Akal Takhat the Throne of the Immortal and it is the highest political institution of the Sikhs and he also wore two swords of Miri and Piri.
Guru Tegh Bahadur (ninth Guru) was tortured and beheaded by Aurangzeb at Chandni Chowk in Delhi, fellow devotees Bhai Mati Das, Bhai Sati Das and Bhai Dayala were also tortured and executed, while Guru Tegh Bahadur was forced to watch. Tenth Guru Guru Gobind Singh formed Khalsa known as Army of Akal Purakh (Immortal) and Gave 5 Ks to Khalsa. Two of the younger sons of Guru Gobind Singh aged 9 and 7 were bricked up alive by the governor Wazir Khan in Sirhind (Punjab). When Guru Gobind Singh was in South India, he sent Banda Singh Bahadur to chastise the repressive Mughal faiy`dar of Sirhind. Banda Singh captured Sirhind and laid the foundation of Sikh empire. According to a popular myth, the Nawab of Malerkotla Sher Mohammad Khan, protested against the execution of Sahibzadas, after which Guru Gobind Singh blessed the state. This is considered as a reason by many historians due to which Malerkotla was the only city not harmed by Banda Singh Bahadur during his military campaign.
The Muslims under Ranjit Singh of the Sikh Empire were mostly treated favorably and comprised the majority of the population of the empire. Ranjit Singh declared during his coronation that Muslims would be governed under Islamic law and appointed many of them in important official positions. The Muslim religious leadership and mosques continuously received state support under Sikh rule. This was in contrast with the Muslims of Kashmir valley where Sikh rule was generally oppressive, protected perhaps by the remoteness of Kashmir from the capital of the Sikh Empire in Lahore. The region had passed from the control of the Durrani Empire of Afghanistan, and four centuries of Muslim rule under the Mughals and the Afghans, to the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh in 1819. As the Kashmiris had suffered under the Afghans, they initially welcomed the new Sikh rulers, however this perception later changed. The Sikh rulers of Kashmir enacted a number of anti-Muslim laws, which included handing out death sentences for cow slaughter, closing down the Jamia Masjid in Srinagar, and banning the azaan, the public Muslim call to prayer. Several European visitors who visited Kashmir during Sikh rule wrote of the abject poverty of the vast Muslim peasantry and of the exorbitant taxes under the Sikh rulers. High taxes, according to some contemporary accounts, had depopulated large tracts of the countryside. However, after a famine in 1832, the Sikhs reduced the land tax.
During the partition of India in 1947, there was much bloodshed between Sikhs and Muslims, there was mass migration of people from all walks of life to leave their homes and belongings and travel by foot across the new border, on trains and on land people were killed in what was felt to be revenge attacks. Millions of Sikhs left Pakistan and moved into India, while millions of Muslims left India and moved into Pakistan. Malerkotla was however not affected and was viewed as a safe haven for Muslims during the partition. The popular myth associated with it is that the town was not impacted because of Guru Gobind Singh blessing it after its Nawab protested against the execution of the Guru's sons.
In 2010 the Taliban, a terrorist group, attacked many minorities including Sikhs resulting in two beheadings.
In April 2016, two Muslim teens bombed a gurdwara in the German city of Essen. The two teen converted fire extinguishers into an explosive device. The devices detonated after a wedding party had left for the reception. A gurdwara priest was injured seriously, while two others were treated for minor injuries. The gurdwara building was damaged severely. One of the teens was in deradicalization program. The two denied it was religiously motivated saying “just for the kick of building fireworks!” However, before setting off the blast, the two 16-year-olds tried to break into the Sikh place of worship, North Rhine Westphalia (NRW).
Sufi Muslims and Sikhs
In South Asia alone there are over 200 million Muslims who are followers of Sufi traditions, the most notable being the Barelvi movement. The Sikh Gurus had cordial relations with many Muslim Sufi Saints, and in the Sikh Holy book, the Guru Granth Sahib, many Sufi and other Muslim scholars’ quotes and wisdom are featured..
Ahmadiyya Muslims and Sikhs
Ahmadiyya, a minority reform sect that arose within Islam, believe that a certain form of prophethood within Islam continues after Muhammad and consider themselves to be Muslims. They are, however, not recognized as Muslims by mainstream Sunni and Shia Islam, and are treated as blasphemous and persecuted. Since the 18th century, Sufis and ancestors of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad – the founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement – had cordial relations with Sikhs, and they fought with Sikhs to resist the persecution by Sunni-based Mughal rule in northwest region of South Asia. However, as Ranjit Singh established the Sikh Empire, there were conflicts between the Sikhs and the Jagir of Ahmad's father.