اروس (به یونانی: Ἔρως) به معنی عشق جنسی، در اسطورههای یونان خدای عشق بود. رومیها او را آمور (عشق) یا کوپیدو (شوق) میخواندند. واژهٔ اروس (Eros) نخستین بار از افلاطون شنیده شد؛ به معنی شوق و دلتنگی عاشقانهٔ روح برای برگشتن به اصل خود.
به روایت هزیود، اروس در آغاز زمان، پس از خائوس (خلاء) و همراه تارتاروس و گایا زاییده شد. اروس بود که سبب ازدواج پدر و مادر اولیه، یعنی اورانوس و گایا شد و بر ازدواج اعقاب آنها، یعنی خدایان و نهایتاً انسانها، نظارت کرد. در این روایت، اروس صرفاً مظهر قدرت زایندگی که در موجودات زنده حلول میکند و سبب تولید مثل میشود نیست، بلکه مقدم بر آفرودیته (الههٔ عشق) نیز هست.
طبق روایتی دیگر، اروس خدای بسیار جوانتری است و پسر آفرودیته و معشوقش آرس به شمار میآید. مطابق این روایت اروس در هنر و ادبیات کلاسیک به هیئت مردی نیرومند، زیبا و پهلوان تصویر شدهاست. در دورهٔ کلاسیک او را حامی عشق همجنسگرایانه بین مردان و جوانان نیز تلقی کردهاند.در تسپیای (در بویوتا) و در پاریوم (در موسیا) او را خدای باروری میدانستند و میپرستیدند.
در افسانهها از پسوخه به عنوان همسر وی یاد شدهاست.
در وصف اروس[ویرایش]
اروس خدای عشق در کمین است تا هر کس خیال گذشتن از دنیا را داشت او را با تیر بزند و عاشقش کند.
در دورههای هلنی، که عشق در هنر و ادبیات جنبههای رمانتیکتری یافت، رفتهرفته اروس را کودک یا نوزاد بالداری، که تیردانی پر از تیر دارد، در نظر گرفتهاند؛ حتی بعضی او را جمع تصور کردهاند و اروتس خواندهاند. زیرا شور و سوداهایی که او مظهر آنها بود، چندگانه به نظر میرسید. رفته رفته این تصور قوت گرفت که تیرهای او سر طلاییاند و اگر به قربانیان اصابت کنند، سبب ایجاد میل آتشین در آنها میشوند؛ بعضی دیگر از جنس سرب هستند و اگر به کسی اصابت کنند، سبب میشوند که عاشق از دلباختهٔ خود روی بگرداند. به این ترتیب اروس هم عشق برمیانگیخت و هم جفا.
In Greek mythology, Eros (UK: / /,, US: / /,; Ancient Greek: Ἔρως, "Desire") is the Greek god of love and sex. His Roman counterpart was Cupid ("desire"). Normally, he is described as one of the children of Aphrodite and Ares and, with some of his siblings, was one of the Erotes, a group of winged love gods. In some traditions, he is described as one of the primordial gods.
Cult and depiction
Eros appears in ancient Greek sources under several different guises. In the earliest sources (the cosmogonies, the earliest philosophers, and texts referring to the mystery religions), he is one of the primordial gods involved in the coming into being of the cosmos. In later sources, however, Eros is represented as the son of Aphrodite, whose mischievous interventions in the affairs of gods and mortals cause bonds of love to form, often illicitly. Ultimately, in the later satirical poets, he is represented as a blindfolded child, the precursor to the chubby Renaissance Cupid, whereas in early Greek poetry and art, Eros was depicted as a young adult male who embodies sexual power, and a profound artist.
A cult of Eros existed in pre-classical Greece, but it was much less important than that of Aphrodite. However, in late antiquity, Eros was worshiped by a fertility cult in Thespiae. In Athens, he shared a very popular cult with Aphrodite, and the fourth day of every month was sacred to him (also shared by Herakles, Hermes and Aphrodite).
Eros was one of the Erotes, along with other figures such as Himeros and Pothos, who are sometimes considered patrons of homosexual love between males. Eros is also part of a triad of gods that played roles in homoerotic relationships, along with Heracles and Hermes, who bestowed qualities of beauty (and loyalty), strength, and eloquence, respectively, onto male lovers.
According to Hesiod's Theogony (c. 700 BC), one of the most ancient of all Greek sources, Eros (the god of love) was the fourth god to come into existence, coming after Chaos, Gaia (the Earth), and Tartarus (the abyss).
The Orphic and Eleusinian Mysteries featured Eros as a very original god, but not quite primordial, since he was the child of Night (Nyx). Aristophanes (c. 400 BC), influenced by Orphism, relates the birth of Eros:
Son of Aphrodite and Ares
In later myths, he was the son of the deities Aphrodite and Ares: it is the Eros of these later myths who is one of the erotes. Eros was associated with athleticism, with statues erected in gymnasia,[verification needed] and "was often regarded as the protector of homosexual love between men."[verification needed] Eros was depicted as often carrying a lyre or bow and arrow. He was also depicted accompanied by dolphins, flutes, roosters, roses, and torches.[verification needed]
[Hera addresses Athena:] “We must have a word with Aphrodite. Let us go together and ask her to persuade her boy [Eros], if that is possible, to loose an arrow at Aeetes’ daughter, Medea of the many spells, and make her fall in love with Jason . . .” (Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica 3. 25 ff – a Greek epic of the 3rd century BC)
"Once, when Venus’ son [Eros] was kissing her, his quiver dangling down, a jutting arrow, unbeknown, had grazed her breast. She pushed the boy away. In fact the wound was deeper than it seemed, though unperceived at first. [And she became] enraptured by the beauty of a man [Adonis]." (Ovid, Metamorphoses 10. 525 ff.)
"Eros drove Dionysos mad for the girl [Aura] with the delicious wound of his arrow, then curving his wings flew lightly to Olympus. And the god roamed over the hills scourged with a greater fire.” (Nonnus, Dionysiaca 48. 470 ff – a Greek epic of the 5th century AD)
Eros and Psyche
The story of Eros and Psyche has a longstanding tradition as a folktale of the ancient Greco-Roman world long before it was committed to literature in Apuleius' Latin novel, The Golden Ass. The novel itself is written in a picaresque Roman style, yet Psyche retains her Greek name. Eros and Aphrodite are called by their Latin names (Cupid and Venus), and Cupid is depicted as a young adult, rather than a child.
The story tells of the struggle for love and trust between Eros and Psyche. Aphrodite was jealous of the beauty of mortal princess Psyche, as men were leaving her altars barren to worship a mere human woman instead, and so she commanded her son Eros, the god of love, to cause Psyche to fall in love with the ugliest creature on earth. But instead, Eros falls in love with Psyche himself and spirits her away to his home. Their fragile peace is ruined by a visit from Psyche's jealous sisters, who cause Psyche to betray the trust of her husband. Wounded, Eros leaves his wife, and Psyche wanders the Earth, looking for her lost love. Eventually, she approaches Aphrodite and asks for her help. Aphrodite imposes a series of difficult tasks on Psyche, which she is able to achieve by means of supernatural assistance.
After successfully completing these tasks, Aphrodite relents and Psyche becomes immortal to live alongside her husband Eros. Together they had a daughter, Voluptas or Hedone (meaning physical pleasure, bliss).
In Greek mythology, Psyche was the deification of the human soul. She was portrayed in ancient mosaics as a goddess with butterfly wings (because psyche was also the Ancient Greek word for 'butterfly'). The Greek word psyche literally means "soul, spirit, breath, life or animating force".
Eros in art