وی از پسر بزرگش طالب، کنیهٔ ابوطالب را گرفت.
ابوطالب چهار پسر و سه دختر داشت. پسران او طالب، عقیل، جعفر و علی هر یک با هم ده سال اختلاف سن داشتند. برخی گفتهاند که عقیل چهار سال از جعفر و او نُه سال از علی بزرگتر بود. دخترانش ام هانی (فاخته)، جمّانه و ریطه (امطالب)، نام داشتند. همه فرزندان ابوطالب از فاطمه بنت اسد بن هاشم بودند. البته برخی گفتهاند که او از زنی دیگر بنام علّه نیز پسری به نام طلیق داشته است.
بسیاری روایات تاریخی اهل سنت بر این نکته تأکید دارد که ابوطالب با وجود پشتیبانی از محمد، هرگز به اسلام ایمان نیاوردهاست و برخی منابع اهل سنت بر ایمان و اسلام وی تأکید دارد اما شیعیان معتقدند که ابوطالب اسلام آورد.
شواهد اسلام آوردن ابوطالب شامل :«جلوگیری از آزار مسلمانان ،گفتن شهادتین به شهادت عباس (عموی پیامبر اسلام) توسط ابوطالب هنگام مرگ،غسل دادن او پس از مرگ به دستور پیامبر، باقی ماندن همسر مسلمانش در پیوند زناشویی او، وجود اشعاری منسوب به ابوطالب درمورد عدم دروغگویی برادرزاده اش و اثبات پيامبری او همچون موسی و...» است.
پس از مدتی ابوطالب در ۷ ام ماه رمضان سال ۱۰ ام بعثت (۳ قبل از هجرت)، وفات یافت. (در رابطه با وفات أبو طالب میان بزرگان اختلاف است. أهل سنت نظری دارند که بعضیها معتقدند که ایشان در نیمه شوال از دنیا رفته است الإصابه فی تمییز الصحابه لإبن حجر العسقلانی، ج۷، ص۲۰۳ إبن اثیر هم میگوید وی در اول ذی القعده از دنیا رفته و بعضی میگویند در نیمه شوال از دنیا رفته است. در میان علماء شیعه هم مثل شیخ طوسی و دیگران اتفاق نظر دارند که ۲۶ رجب وفات أبو طالب صورت گرفتهاست. مصباح المتهجد للشیخ الطوسی، ص۸۱۲ ـ مصباح الکفعمی، ص۵۶۶ ـ بحار الأنوار للعلامه المجلسی، ج۱۹، ص۲۴) وفات ابوطالب او در این سال، در شرایطی که با دیگر مسلمانان در شعب ابوطالب در محاصرهٔ مشرکان مکه بودند درگذشت. بدنش را در مکه معظمه در مقبره حجون معروف به «قبرستان ابوطالب» دفن کردند.
نقش ابوطالب در استقرار اسلام[ویرایش]
ابوطالب نقش سازندهای در استقرار اسلام داشت.
مکارم شیرازی معتقد است که بدون حمایتهای او، ممکن بود درخت نوپای اسلام به ثمر ننشیند. در مقابل، او در نزد پیامبر اسلام نیز از احترام خاص، و جایگاه باارزشی برخوردار بود. برای بزرگداشت شخصیت ابوطالب در اسلام، بنیاد سینمایی فارابی در قالب طرحهای فاخر فرهنگی و تاریخی، قصد دارد فیلم سینمایی زندگی «ابوطالب» عموی پیامبر اسلام و تاریخ صدر اسلام را بسازد.
علی بن ابیطالب[ویرایش]
تالیفات درباره ابوطالب[ویرایش]
دانشوران شیعه توجهی ویژه به موضوع ایمان ابوطالب داشتهاند. نخستین گردآورندگان جوامع حدیثی شیعه مانند کُلِینی در کافی، با نقل گزارشهایی از خدمات ابوطالب به اسلام سخن گفتهاند. نجاشی تا اواسط سده پنجم ق، حدود ده نگاشته را در میان دانشوران شیعه درباره ابوطالب ثبت کرده است. مهمترین مؤلفان در این زمینه از این قرارند: احمد بن محمد بن عمار کوفی (درگذشت ۳۴۶ق)، ابن طرخان جرجرائی، سهل بن احمد دیباجی (درگذشت ۳۸۰ق)، علی بن بلال مهلبی ازدی، حسین بن عبیدالله (ابوعبدالله غضائری) (درگذشت ۴۱۱ق) و شیخ مفید (درگذشت ۴۱۳ق). از نوشتههای این شش تن، کتاب ایمان ابیطالب شیخ مفید در دسترس است.
در سدههای بعد نیز نگاشتههایی درباره ایمان ابوطالب سامان یافت؛ ازجمله:
از سده دهم به بعد، نگاشتهها درباره ایمان ابوطالب در میان شیعه و سنی افزایش یافته است. برخی از آنها عبارتاند از:
پیوند به بیرون[ویرایش]
Abū Ṭālib ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib (Arabic: أَبُو طَالِب ابْن عَبْد ٱلْمُطَّلِب; c. 535 – c. 619), né ʿImrān (عِمْرَان) or ʿAbd Manāf (عَبْد مَنَاف), was the leader of Banu Hashim, a clan of the Qurayshi tribe of Mecca in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula. He was an uncle of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, and father of the Rashid Caliph Ali. After the death of his father Abd al-Muttalib ibn Hashim ibn Abd Manaf, he inherited this position, and the offices of Siqaya and Rifada. He was well-respected in Mecca despite a declining fortune.
Abu Talib was born at the Arabian city of Mecca in 535 CE. He was the son of the Hashimite chief, Abdul Muttalib. He was a brother of Muhammad's father, 'Abdullāh, who had died before Muhammad's birth. After the death of Muhammad's mother Āminah bint Wahb, Muhammad as a child was taken into the care of his grandfather, 'Abdul-Muttalib. When Muhammad reached eight years of age, 'Abdul-Muttalib died. One of Muhammad's uncles was to take him in. The oldest, Al-Harith was not wealthy enough to take him in. Abu Talib, despite his poverty, took in Muhammad because of his generosity. Although Abu Talib was responsible for Siqaya and Rifada (Food and Beverages) of Hajj pilgrims, he was poor.
Muhammad loved his uncle very much, and Abu Talib loved him in return. Abu Talib is remembered as a gifted poet, and many poetic verses in support of Muhammad are attributed to him. Once, as Abu Talib was about to leave for a trading expedition, Muhammad wept and could not bear to be separated from him. To this Abu Talib responded, "By God I will take him with me, and we shall never part from each other."
Later in life, as an adult, Muhammad saw that Abu Talib was struggling financially after a severe drought. Muhammad decided to take charge of one of Abu Talib's children and he convinced Al-'Abbas to do the same. They discussed this matter with Abū Ṭālib, who asked that his favorite child 'Aqīl be left with him. Al-'Abbās chose Ja'far, and Muhammad chose 'Alī.[excessive citations]
In tribal society, a tribal affiliation is important, otherwise a man can be killed with impunity. As leader of the Banu Hashim, Abu Talib acted as a protector to Muhammad. After Muhammad began preaching the message of Islam, members of the other Qurayshite clans increasingly came to feel threatened by Muḥammad. In attempts to quiet him, they pressured Abū Ṭālib to silence his nephew or control him. Despite these pressures, Abu Talib maintained his support of Muḥammad, defending him from the other leaders of the Quraysh. Leaders of the Quraysh directly confronted Abu Talib several times. Abu Talib brushed them off and continued to support Muhammad even when it put a rift between him and the Quraysh. In one account, the Quraysh even threatened to fight the Banu Hashim over this conflict. In a particular narration of one such confrontation, Abu Talib summoned Muhammad to speak with the Quraysh. Muhammad asked the Quraysh leaders to say the shahada and they were astounded.
The Quraysh even tried to bribe Abu Talib. They told Abu Talib that if he let them get hold of Muhammad, then he could adopt 'Umarah ibn al Walid ibn al Mughirah, the most handsome youth in Quraysh. When this also failed, the Quraysh elicited the support of other tribes to boycott trading with or marrying members of the Banu Hashim lineage. This boycott started seven years after Muhammad first received revelation and lasted for three years. The goal was to put pressure on the Hashimites and even starve them into submission. For the sake of security, many members of the Banu Hashim moved near to Abu Talib (Encyclopedia of Islam), and the place became like a ghetto. This didn't cause undue hardship because many had family members in other tribes that would smuggle goods to them. Abu Talib's brother, Abu Lahab, sided with the Quraysh on this issue; he moved to a house in the district of Abd Shams to demonstrate support for the Quraysh. He thought Muhammad was either mad or an impostor.
Protecting Muhammad put considerable pressure on Abu Talib and the Banu Hashim. In one instance Abu Talib exclaimed to Muhammad, "Save me and yourself, and do not put a greater burden on me than I cannot bear." Muhammad responded, "Oh uncle! By God Almighty I swear, even if they should put the sun in my right hand and the moon in my left that I abjure this cause, I shall not do so until God has vindicated it or caused me to perish in the process." Seeing his nephew's emotion, Abu Talib responded, "Go, nephew, and say what you like. By God, I will never hand you over for any reason."
Abū Ṭālib died around 619 AD, at more than 80 years of age, about 10 years after the start of Muhammad's mission. This year is known as the Year of Sorrow for Muhammad, because not only did his uncle Abu Talib die, but also his wife Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, within a month of Abu Talib.
Before Abu Talib died, Muhammad asked him to pronounce the Shahadah. In another tradition Abu Talib was dissuaded from saying the Shahadah by the Quraysh. According to the historiographer Fred McGraw Donner, both of these traditions have very old isnads but the first variation has two different isnads which might suggest that the second variation is a modification of the older, first variation.
In yet another variation of Abu Talib's death, Al-'Abbās, who was sitting next to Abu Talib as he died, saw Abu Talib moving his lips. Al-'Abbās claimed that Abu Talib had said the shahada but Muhammad replied that he had not heard it.
After Abu Talib's death, Muhammad was left unprotected. Abu Talib's brother and successor as the Chief of the family, that is Abu Lahab, did not protect him, as he was an enemy of Muhammad, so Muhammad and his followers faced incredible persecution. Muhammad is quoted as exclaiming, "By God, Quraysh never harmed me so much as after the death of Abu Talib." The early Muslims relocated to Abyssinia and then to Medina in order to escape persecution by the Quraysh.
The Abbasids, who originally claimed to be Shi'ites, worked with Ajamis to overthrow the Umayyad dynasty, and both tried to legitimize their claim to power through ancestral relationship to Muhammad. The Abbasids traced their ancestry to Al-Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib, while the Alids traced their ancestry to 'Ali, son of Abu Talib. Therefore, in order to assert their credibility, the Abbasids (who embraced Sunni Islam) tried to discredit Abu Talib by emphasizing that he died a pagan.
Shi'ites believe that the father of the first Imam, Ali, must be nearly as great as the Imam himself. Shia Muslims elevate Abu Talib and see him as a heroic defender of Muhammad. Many sources from this perspective claim that Abu Talib was indeed Muslim, he just kept his faith a secret so that he could better protect Muhammad.[unreliable source?]
In one account, when Abu Talib was ill, Muhammad fed grapes to him that God forbade unbelievers to eat. This implies that Abu Talib had accepted Islam despite his outward actions.
Shias also believe that the ancestors of Abu Talib were Muslims. Abu Talib was a descendant of Isma'il ibn Ibrahim, and Shi'ites believe that the "divine transmigration of the spirit" is applied to ancestors as well as descendants. However, according to the 6th, 9th, and 19th Surahs of the Quran, Ibrahim's ab (Arabic: أَب, usually 'father'), that is Azar, was a polytheist and disbeliever. Since term ab was also used among Arabs for uncles, certain Shi'ites[a] assert that Azar was not Abraham's biological father, but his uncle, thus implying that his biological father was the Biblical figure Terah, who himself was described as a polytheist.
In addition, when Muhammad married Khadija, Abu Talib recited the sermon of the marriage. This fact has also been used to prove Abu Talib's monotheism.
Shi'ites quote several Sunni sources[which?], such as Arjah-ul-Matalib by Maulana Ubaydullah Bismil[non-primary source needed] which reportedly contains 300 Sunni references on Abu Talib being a Muslim.
It is reported in Sunni Islam that the Quranic verse 28:56 ("O Prophet! Verily, you guide not whom you like, but Allah guides whom He will") was revealed concerning Abu Talib's rejection of Islam at the hands of his nephew.
In one account by the historian al-Mada'ini, and widely circulated by the Abbasids, one of two men states, "I wish that Abu Talib had embraced Islam, for the Apostle of God would have been delighted at that. But he was an unbeliever."
Along the same lines, there is a similar account where Ali informs Muhammad of Abu Talib's death by saying, "Your uncle, the erring old man, has died."
Abu Talib was married to Fatimah bint Asad. They had four sons:
and three daughters:
By another wife, Illa, he had a fifth son:
Education to his children