ابوبکر محمد بن یحیی بن صائغ معروف به ابن باجه، ستارهشناس، ریاضیدان، منطقدان، فیلسوف، فیزیکدان، طبیب، روانشناس، گیاهشناس، شاعر و دانشمند بزرگ اندلسی جهان اسلام است. او در سال ۴۹۸ هجری به سرقسطهٔ اندلس (ساراگوسای اسپانیای امروزی) به دنیا آمد و به سال ۵۳۲ هجری در فاس مراکش چشم از جهان فروبست. او را در غرب بیشتر با نام لاتینی شدهٔ Avempace میشناسند. ابن باجه و ابن طفیل و ابن رشد و ابن خلدون، چهار فیلسوف نامدار سرزمینهای غربی جهان اسلام بهشمار آمدهاند.
نام و شهرت ابن باجه، وی را برای مدتی به عرصه فعالیتهای سیاسی میکشاند، و به وزارت ابن تفلویت، یکی از حاکمان مرابطان، میرسد؛ اما همان نام و شهرت، وی را آماج حسادت و رشک دیگران قرار میدهد و به بهانه داشتن برخی عقاید انحرافی به کفر و الحاد متهم میشود و احتمالاً مرگ ناشی از مسمومیت وی نیز به همان اتهامها مربوط است.
محور تفکر فلسفی ابن باجه، هستی انسان و سرگذشت او است. انسان همچون فرد و همچون موجودی اجتماعی، یا به تعبیر بهتر، انسان همچون موجودی منفرد، تنها مانده، اما در جامعه، از اینجاست نامگذاری «تدبیرالمتوحد» نوشته ناتمام ابن باجه، ابن باجه پژوهش دربارهٔ انسان را از اینجا آغاز میکند، که هر موجود زندهای در چیزهایی با جمادات مشترک است و هر حیوانی با موجود زنده تنها در برخی چیزها مشترک است؛ و هر انسانی با حیوان غیرناطق در اموری شریک است. موجود زنده و جماد در عناصری که از آنها ترکیب یافتهاند، مشترکند: همچون سقوط طبیعی به سوی پایین و صعود قهری به سوی بالا و مانند اینها. حیوان نیز با موجود زنده در این امر مشترک است، زیرا هر دو از یک عنصرند، و در داشتن نفس غاذیه، مولده و نامیه (بر روینده) نیز مشترکند. بدینسان انسان با حیوان غیرناطق در همه این امور و نیز در احساس و تخیل و حافظه، ذکر و افعالی که زاییده اینهاست و وابسته به روان ددگونه (نفس بهیمیه) است، مشارکت دارد. امتیاز انسان از همه آن گونههای دیگر موجود در داشتن «نیروی اندیشه» است و آنچه جز به وسیله آن ممکن نیست؛ بنابراین انسان دارای نیروی «به یادآوری» (تذکر) است که جانداران دیگر از آن محرومند… و از آن رو که آدمی ساخته شده از عناصر است، افعالی از وی سر میزند که وی را در آنها اختیار نیست، مانند فرو افتادن از بالا و سوختن در آتش و مانند اینها؛ و نیز دارای برخی افعال است که در آنها اصلاً اختیار ندارد، مانند احساس. در این افعال گونهای ضرورت (جبر) یافت میشود، مانند کارهایی که انسان در ترس شدید انجام میدهد، و نیز دشنام دادن به دوست خود یا کشتن برادر و پدر در موردی که مسئله تملک به میان میآید.
اتصال به عقل فعال[ویرایش]
اصل واژه و مفهوم عقل فعال ارسطویی است. وی در کتاب دربارهٔ نفس در دفتر سوم که از عقل بحث میکند، بین دو مفهوم از عقل فرق مینهد: یکی قوه اندیشیدن و درک مفاهیم؛ و دیگری نیرو و قوه ای که مفاهیم را میسازد. اولی به عقل منفعل و دیگری به عقل فعال معروف شد. شارحان مسلمان، برخلاف برخی شارحان بزرگ مسیحی مانند توماس آکویناس، عقل فعال را موجودی متمایز از انسان دانستهاند که محرک عقل بشری در فرایند ادراک است. ابن باجه با چنین برداشتی از عقل فعال، در رسالههای مختلف خود، سعادت واقعی انسان را اتصال به این عقل و گرفتن صور معقول از آن میداند. بنابراین سعادت و کمال واقعی انسان در تفکر ابن باجه مسئله ای مربوط به نظر و تعقل است و با عمل نسبت مستقیمی ندارد. عقل انسانی که از لحاظ مراتب تعقل در سطح نازلی قرار دارد و معقول را در صورت هیولانی درک میکند، از رهگذر کوشش عقلی رشد مییابد و در نهایت ممکن است بتواند معقول را به صورت مجرد درک کند و این همان سعادت است.
کتاب تدبیر المتوحد[ویرایش]
ابن باجه «تدبیر المتوحد» را نخست با تعریف واژه «تدبیر» آغاز میکند و میگوید: واژه «تدبیر» در زبان عرب دارای معانی گوناگون است، که مشهورترین آنها عبارت است از: «ترتیب کارهایی یا افعالی برای رسیدن به هدفی قصد شده». بدین سان، این واژه در مورد کسی که تنها یک کار انجام میدهد تا به هدفی که قصد آن را کردهاست، برسد، به کار نمیرود. اما کسی که معتقد است کارش چندگانه است و آن را از این حیث که دارای ترتیب است، در نظر میگیرد، آنگاه آن «ترتیب»، «تدبیر» نامیده میشود. از این روست که خداوند را «مدبر» جهان مینامند. تدبیر میتواند بالقوه یا بالفعل باشد، اما دلالت این واژه بر آنچه بالقوه است بیشتر و مشهورتر است. از سوی دیگر آشکار است که «ترتیب»، اگر دربارهٔ امور ممکن یا بالقوه باشد، انگیزه آن «اندیشه» است؛ زیرا این مختص به اندیشیدن است و تنها زاییده آن است؛ بنابراین تدبیر تنها برای انسان ممکن است و اگر این واژه در مورد موجود دیگری هم به کار رود، از لحاظ تشبیه آن به انسان است. تدبیر همچنین به گونه عموم و خصوص گفته میشود. اگر به عموم گفته شود، به همه کارهای انسان، هرگونه که باشد، اطلاق میگردد. بدینسان در مورد پیشهها و هنرها و نیز در مورد کارهای جنگی به کار میرود و در هنرهایی مانند کفشدوزی و بافندگی تقریباً به کار نمیرود؛ و اگر به این نحو گفته شود، باز هم دارای عموم و خصوص دیگری است. اگر به عموم گفته شود، به همه افعالی که صنایع یا هنرهای موسوم به بالقوهاند، اطلاق میشود؛ و اگر به خصوص گفته شود بر «تدبیر مدن» اطلاق میگردد. از سوی دیگر، «تدبیر» از لحاظ ارجمندی و کمال نیز دارای مراتبی است؛ ارجمندترین اموری که تدبیر نامیده میشود، تدبیر مدن و تدبیر منزل است، اما تدبیر خداوند در مورد جهان، تدبیر به گونهای دیگر است که حتی از نزدیکترین معانی شبیه به آن نیز به دور است، بلکه «تدبیر مطلق» است و ارجمندترین معانی تدبیر است و فقط بنابر همانندی که تصور میشود میان تدبیر انسانی و ایجاد جهان از سوی خداوند وجود دارد، تدبیر نامیده میشود. پس اگر تدبیر به اطلاق گفته شود، به معنای تدبیر مدن است، اگر هم به تقیید گفته شود، به تدبیر درست و نادرست منقسم میگردد. تدبیر مدن را فلاطن (افلاطون) در کتاب سیاست مدنی (منظور کتاب سیاست یا پولیتیا یا بنابر غلظ مشهور، جمهوری افلاطون است) توضیح و شکل درست آن را نشان داده و گفتهاست که نادرستی و خطا چگونه بدان راه مییابد.
آراء دیگران دربارهٔ او[ویرایش]
ابن طفیل در مقایسه ابن باجه با دانشمندان مسلمان و غیرمسلمان مغرب میگوید: «در میان ایشان کسی که ذهنی دقیق تر، نگرشی درست و فکری صادق تر از ابن باجه داشته باشد، پدید نیامد».
اما وی در گلایه ای آشکار از ابن باجه میگوید:
Avempace (c. 1085 – 1138) is the Latinate form of Ibn Bājja (Arabic: ابن باجة), full name Abū Bakr Muḥammad Ibn Yaḥyà ibn aṣ-Ṣā’igh at-Tūjībī Ibn Bājja (أبو بكر محمد بن يحيى بن الصائغ التجيبي بن باجة), who was an Arab Andalusian polymath: his writings include works regarding astronomy, physics, and music, as well as philosophy, medicine, botany, and poetry.
He was the author of the Kitāb an-Nabāt ("The Book of Plants"), a popular work on botany, which defined the sex of plants. His philosophical theories influenced the work of Ibn Rushd (Averroes) and Albertus Magnus. Most of his writings and books were not completed (or well-organized) due to his early death. He had a vast knowledge of medicine, mathematics and astronomy. His main contribution to Islamic philosophy was his idea on soul phenomenology, which was never completed.
Though many of his works have not survived, his theories in astronomy and physics were preserved by Maimonides and Averroes respectively, and influenced later astronomers and physicists in the Islamic civilization and Renaissance Europe, including Galileo Galilei.
Avempace wrote one of the first (argued by some to be the first) commentaries on Aristotle in the western world. While his work on projectile motion was never translated from Arabic to Latin, his views became well known around the western world and to western philosophers, astronomers, and scientists of many disciplines. His works impacted contemporary medieval thought, and later influenced Galileo and his work. Avempace's theories on projectile motion are found in the text known as "Text 71".
Avempace was born in Zaragoza, in what is today Aragon, Spain, around 1085 and died in Fes, Morocco, in 1138. Rulers of Zaragoza shifted constantly throughout Avempace's young life, but in 1114, a new Almoravid governor of Zaragoza was appointed: Abu Bakr 'Ali ibn Ibrahim as-Sahrawi, also known as Ibn Tifilwit. The close relationship between Avempace and Ibn Tifilwit is verified in writings by both Ibn al-Khatib and Ibn Khaqan. Avempace enjoyed music and wine with the governor and also composed panegyrics and muwashshahat to publicly praise Ibn Tifilwit, who rewarded him by nominating him as his vizier. In a diplomatic mission to meet the overthrown Imad ad-Dawla Ibn Hud King in his castle, Avempace was placed in jail for some months for reasons unknown. Ibn Tifilwit was also killed during a quest against the Christians in 1116, ending his short reign and inspiring Avempace to compose mournful elegies in his honor. Avempace also had a talent for singing and composition in music. In the beginning of his career, he wrote the manuscript Risālah fī l-alḥān (Tract on melodies) and incorporated his commentary on al-Fārābī’s treatise based on music. He determined the correlations between different melodies and temperament. According to biographer al-Maqqarī, Avempace's passion for music was due to poetry and had “the virtue of dispelling the sadness and pain of the hearts [sic].” He included his scientific knowledge and wit in many poems. Avempace joined in poetic competitions with the poet al-Tutili.
After the fall of Zaragoza in 1118 by the hands of King Alfonso The Battler, Avempace looked for shelter under Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Yûsuf Ibn Tashfin, another brother of the Almoravid Sultan (Ali Ibn Yusuf Ibn Tashfin) in Xàtiba. He worked, for some twenty years, as the vizir of Yusuf Ibn Tashfin. Throughout these decades, it is clear that Avempace was not as agreeable with those close to the ruler, Ibn Tashfin, as he was during the previous reign of Ibn Tifilwit. Writings by Ahmad al-Maqqari gives us insight into the hostility and disagreements between Avempace and the father of a famous physician respected by Ibn Tashfin, Abd al-Malik. A poetry anthology, Qala’id al-iqya (Necklace of Rubies), was also created by a courtier of Ibn Tashufin's, Abu Nasr al-Fath Ibn Muhammad Ibn Khaqan, which condescendingly placed Avempace in last place. Under Ibn Tashfin, the Sultan of the Berber Moroccan Almoravid empire, Avempace was imprisoned twice. The details of the imprisonment are not well understood, but can be assumed. Despite being unwelcomed, Avempace remained with the Almoravid empire for the rest of his life until his death in 1138. There has been evidence presented that brings up the argument that the cause of Avempace's death was by poison from his peers. Al-Maqqari details in his writing that a physician, Abu l-'Ala' Ibn Zuhr, was an enemy of Avempace's whose servant, Ibn Ma‛yub, was suspected of poisoning him at the time but was never convicted. Among his many teachers was Abu Jafar ibn Harun of Trujillo, a physician in Seville, Al-Andalus.
Ibn Bajjah, also known as Avempace, was an important Islamic philosopher, among his many other trades. In his time, he was seen as a controversial figure, receiving criticism from his peers like Ibn Tufayl. However, he was also respected by his peers and even his critics. While Ibn Tufayl was noted for criticizing Ibn Bajjah's work, he also described him as having one of the sharpest minds with one of the soundest reasoning as compared to the others following the first generation of speakers.
Around his time, Islamic philosophy, post-hellenic world, was mainly divided into two opposing branches of thoughts. The Eastern branch, which was led by Ibn Sina, known as Avicenna in Latin, and the Western branch, which was led by Ibn Bajjah. Avempace's work in philosophy is seen as uneven and mostly incomplete, but what parts of his work that survive to this day demonstrates originality in his thought process. His main philosophical work is the unfinished ethics-politico treatise Governance of the Solitary.
Upon his unplanned trip to Egypt, Avempace wrote Risālat al-wadāʿ (Letter of bidding farewell) and Risālat al-ittiṣāl al-ʿaql bi al-insān (Letter on the union of the intellect with human beings) that were dedicated to Ibn al-Imām. His famous works included Tadbīr al-mutawaḥḥid (Management of the solitary), the Kitāb al-nafs (Book on the soul), and the Risāla fī l-Ghāya al-insāniyya (Treatise on the objective of human beings). The reflections of his famous accomplishments show how these were written near the end of his life. He was inspired based on Aristotelian line. In Avempace's philosophy, it contains two key pillars, solitude and conjunction. Solitude represents the isolation philosopher commonly seeks in order to protect himself from the corruption of society and conjunction refers to the philosopher's quest for the lowest celestial intelligence. It is required for the human soul development.
These works are tough to understand. Nevertheless, Risālat al-ittiṣāl has interpreted the introduction. The treatise stated the overall point of Avempace's thinking:
However, the most important idea from Avempace's system was not mentioned in the treatise, "how the union of the active intellect with man occurs, which is the ultimate goal being pursued by the solitary."
From his writings, Ibn Bajjah has been shown to taken a liking to Plato's contribution to philosophy. Ibn Bajjah, in particular, takes from Plato's idea of the necessary connection between man and city with a bit of a twist. Plato's idea was to model the perfect city after the human soul. On the other hand, Avempace wanted to use the perfect city as a model for the human soul. Avempace imagines the perfect city as a place that is free of any beliefs or opinions that are in opposition of the truth and where true science reigns supreme. Any man or idea that contradicts these true beliefs are defined as "weeds." Weeds are only to be found in imperfect cities.
Avempace also wrote on the health of a perfect man. He alluded to the idea that the perfect man does not just require physical health, but spiritual health too. Avempace goes into more detail about the soul, which he describes of having both an acquired intellect, as well as an active intellect. The active intellect has no basis coming from the physical world. Acquired intellect, however, is a result of experiences from the material world. The perfect man can exist in either a perfect city or a non-perfect city. However, if a perfect man lives in a non-perfect city, he believes that they are to remain apart from the rest of the society. This is because a non-perfect city is full of weeds. In order for a perfect person to preserve themselves from the weeds, they need to live in solitude despite living in solitude being against human nature.
In addition, Avempace had changed forgotten non-syllogistic arts into “practical arts”, and wrote:
He wrote nine medical treatises. Galen inscribed commentary on Hippocrates’ Aphorisms in “Commentary on Aphorisms” that includes Avempace’s view about medicine. Medical syllogisms are revolved by means of experience. Experience is obtained in a person’s life time through perception. Avempace defines experience:
Avempace considers experience as the second essential part of medicine. Avempace’s theoretic system sketched out all reality. Reality comes in many forms that includes motion and action. Avempace categorizes them between natural and artificial. Natural reality forms move bodies with power while bodies within artificial reality forms are unintentionally moved. It also show how the body is viewed.
This example also represents the use of motion:
This shows as human involvement is design. Absolute necessity reigns over the heavens. Avempace views necessity into three kinds: absolute, design, and material. Avempace demonstrates the moon eclipses using absolute necessity over time. Based on the relations of the moon eclipses, Avempace indicates “possibility shares necessity”. He defines the body as an artificial collection of matter, which acts as an instrument for the soul to work through. In doing so, he establishes the soul as an autonomous subject. Avempace believes that the human soul has three stages. It starts in the plant stage, then to the animal stage, and finally to human stage. Each stage has an important attribute that the soul grows from. The plant life is where the soul is provided with nourishment and growth. In the animal stage, the soul is introduced to sensations. When the soul moves to the human state, the soul gains common sense, imagination, and memory. Additionally, Avempace writes that the soul is geometrically formless. Because its form is beyond our understanding of geometric shapes, he states, it exists on a plane higher than that which we perceive with our bodies. Avempace is said to have been influenced by Platonic and Aristotelian views on the subject. He credits Plato with the theory of the soul as a substance:
Avempace also describes four types of Intelligible forms. They are described as bodies that have an eternal circular motion, an acquired intellect, those with external senses, and those with internal senses. These ideas are consistent with Aristotle's descriptions of the soul and its properties in his treatise De Anima, though there is speculation that there were no Arabic transcriptions available to Avempace.
Avempace, known as "Ibn al-Sa’igh" by Jewish tradition, is rarely recognized for his philosophical and astronomical works that influenced and were employed by many Medieval Jewish philosophers during and after his short life. The first record of Avempace's influence on Jewish philosophy comes from a well-known Jewish contemporary author and philosopher: Judah Halevi. In Chapter 1 of his greatest philosophical work, The Kuzari, Halevi summarizes three ideas directly influenced by works of Ibn Bajja: one's unification with the Active Intellect is attainable during their lifetime, this unification implies cognitive identity with others who are aware of the truth, and a philosopher's life is a solitary regimen.
The renowned polymath and Jewish philosopher, Maimonides, was possibly born in the same year of Avempace's death, yet he preserved and studied the works of the deceased Andalusian. Maimonides admired Avempace for his achievements, stating that "[Ibn Bajja] was a great and wise philosopher, and all of his works are right and correct". Maimonides also valued Ibn Bajja's commentary on Aristotle's works on astronomy. In one of his three major works, The Guide for the Perplexed, Maimonides assesses Hebrew Bible theology with Aristotelian philosophy, directly drawing influence from Ibn Bajja philosophical and scientific ideas. Specifically incorporating Avempace's philosophies regarding the existence of a single intellect after death, the union of man with the Active Intellect, the division of man into three classes of increasing consciousness, and the proposal of the prophet as an ideal solitary man.
Avempace rejects that feeling ultimate pleasure comes from witnessing the divine world internally. For Avempace, the highest form of spiritual happiness comes from science and the truth. Science allows for the truth to be discovered. As a result, in order to be spiritually healthy and, therefore, happy, we must obtain knowledge and search for the truth.
Despite all the ideas that have been presented by Avempace, a central theory was never actually developed. He attributed this to being a very busy man and having his hands in a variety of a fields.
In his commentary on Aristotle's Meteorology, Avempace presented his own theory on the Milky Way galaxy. Aristotle believed the Milky Way to be caused by "the ignition of the fiery exhalation of some stars which were large, numerous and close together" and that the "ignition takes place in the upper part of the atmosphere, in the region of the world which is continuous with the heavenly motions." On the other hand, Aristotle's Arabic commentator Ibn al-Bitriq considered "the Milky Way to be a phenomenon exclusively of the heavenly spheres, not of the upper part of the atmosphere" and that the "light of those stars makes a visible patch because they are so close." Avempace's view differed from both, as he considered "the Milky Way to be a phenomenon both of the spheres above the moon and of the sublunar region." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy describes his theory and observation on the Milky Way as follows:
Avempace also reported observing "two planets as black spots on the face of the Sun." In the 13th century, the Maragha astronomer Qotb al-Din Shirazi identified this observation as the transit of Venus and Mercury. However, Avempace cannot have observed a Venus transit, as there were no Venus transits in his lifetime.
Avempace worked under the mathematician Ibn al-Sayyid. He was given the privileged to add a commentary to Ibn al-Sayyid's work on geometry and Euclid's Elements. Furthermore, he viewed astronomy as part of mathematics. Avempace's model of the cosmos consists of concentric circles, but no epicycles.
Averroes was another important philosopher, and while he was born shortly before Avempace's death, Averroes later in life would be in opposition to Avempace's theories the majority of the time. Avempace starts with a good kinematic definition of motion and construes it as a force. According to Avempace regarding freely falling objects, what is moved the a heavy body falls, is the heavy body and what moves it downward is its 'gravity' or its 'form' or 'nature'.
Text 71 of Averroes' commentary on Aristotle's Physics contains a discussion on Avempace's theory of motion, as well as the following quotation from the seventh book of Avempace's lost work on physics:
Averroes writes the following comments on Avempace's theory of motion:
What follows is also found in Text 71:
In relation to the example of the stone falling through the mediums air and water, Avempace also brings up an example of dust particles to explain his ideas on natural movements. Dust particles are suspended in the air and naturally fall slowly. Despite having enough power to go down, it is still insufficient to displace the air underneath it From Text 71; Ernest A. Moody who is a notable philosopher, medievalist, and logician, offered four main reasons in favor of the view that Avempace was at least a major thinker within the paradigm of the "Theory of an 'impressed force' ". The following points are cited from his argument:
Despite diverging from Aristotle's theory of motion, it appears that Avempace largely agrees with Aristotle's ideas on projectile motion. While there is no known account that lay's out Avempace's ideas over this topic, Avempace gives a short explanation in his commentary of Aristotelian Physics book 8. An interesting piece by Avempace on the theory of projectile motion comes from his example involving a magnet and iron filaments. Magnets present a problem with Aristotle's theory on projectile motion because nothing can be seen physically moving the iron. Avempace, however, believes that a magnet is more complicated than one might think. He presents the idea that the magnet actually moves the air which, in return, moves the iron.
The central theory of the mover and the moved can be seen not only in his work in physics, but also in his work in Philosophy.
Ibn Bajjah proposed that for every force there is always a reaction force. While he did not specify that these forces be equal, it is considered an early version of the third law of motion which states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Avempace was a critic of Ptolemy and he worked on creating a new theory of velocity to replace the one theorized by Aristotle. Two future philosophers supported the theories Avempace created, known as the Avempacean dynamics. These philosophers were Thomas Aquinas, a Catholic priest, and John Duns Scotus. Galileo went on and adopted Avempace's formula and talked about "that the velocity of a given object is the difference of the motive power of that object and the resistance of the medium of motion" in the Pisan dialogue.
Avempace is known to have made contributions to the field of botany in addition to philosophy and the physical sciences. His work titled Kitab al-nabat (The Book of Plants) is a commentary influenced by the work De Plantis. In this commentary, Avempace discusses the morphology of various plants and attempts to classify them based on their similarities. He also writes about the reproductive nature of plants and their supposed genders based on his observations of palm and fig trees. Kitab al-nabat was written in Arabic and has most recently been translated into Spanish.
Avempace's book Kitāb al-Tajribatayn ‘alā Adwiyah Ibn Wāfid (Book of Experiences on Drugs of Ibn Wafid) is an attempt to classify plants from a pharmacological perspective. It is based the work of Ibn al-Wafid, a physician and Avempace's predecessor, and is said to have influenced the later work of Ibn al-Baitar, a prominent Arab pharmacologist and botanist.
Avempace's work in botany is evident in his political works.
Recently, the web page Webislam created by Spanish converts to Islam reported that the score of the Nuba al-Istihlál of Avempace (11th century), arranged by Omar Metiou and Eduardo Paniagua, is very similar to Marcha Granadera (18th century), which is now the official anthem of Spain. That makes it the world's oldest song (about a thousand years old) used for the official anthem of a country.