آیه اکمال

از ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
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آیه اکمال نام قسمتی از آیه سوم سوره مائده پنجمین سوره قرآن، کتاب مقدس مسلمانان است که از یک وقف مستحب شروع و تا یک وقف جائز در بین همین آیه ادامه می‌یابد.

مفاد آیه اکمال[ویرایش]

قسمت مورد نظر در زیر با حروف بزرگ نوشته شده است:

« حُرِّمَتْ عَلَیْکُمُ الْمَیْتَةُ وَ الدَّمُ وَ لَحْمُ الْخِنْزیرِ وَ ما أُهِلَّ لِغَیْرِ اللَّهِ بِهِ وَ الْمُنْخَنِقَةُ وَ الْمَوْقُوذَةُ وَ الْمُتَرَدِّیَةُ وَ النَّطیحَةُ وَ ما أَکَلَ السَّبُعُ إِلاَّ ما ذَکَّیْتُمْ وَ ما ذُبِحَ عَلَی النُّصُبِ وَ أَنْ تَسْتَقْسِمُوا بِالْأَزْلامِ ذلِکُمْ فِسْقٌ قلی الْیَوْمَ یَئِسَ الَّذینَ کَفَرُوا مِنْ دینِکُمْ فَلا تَخْشَوْهُمْ وَ اخْشَوْنِ الْیَوْمَ أَکْمَلْتُ لَکُمْ دینَکُمْ وَ أَتْمَمْتُ عَلَیْکُمْ نِعْمَتی وَ رَضیتُ لَکُمُ الْإِسْلامَ دیناً ج فَمَنِ اضْطُرَّ فی مَخْمَصَةٍ غَیْرَ مُتَجانِفٍ لِإِثْمٍ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحیمٌ [۵–۳]»


ترجمه فارسی آیه:

«گوشت مردار، و خون، و گوشت خوک، و حیواناتی که به غیر نام خدا ذبح شوند، و حیوانات خفه شده، و به زجر کشته شده، و آنها که بر اثر پرت‌شدن از بلندی بمیرند، و آنها که به ضرب شاخ حیوان دیگری مرده باشند، و باقیمانده صید حیوان درنده- مگر آنکه (بموقع به آن حیوان برسید، و) آن را سر ببرید- و حیواناتی که روی بتها (یا در برابر آنها) ذبح می‌شوند، (همه) بر شما حرام شده است و (همچنین) قسمت کردن گوشت حیوان به وسیله چوبه‌های تیر مخصوص بخت آزمایی تمام این اعمال، فسق و گناه است - امروز، کافران از (زوال) آیین شما، مأیوس شدند بنا بر این، از آنها نترسید! و از (مخالفت) من بترسید! امروز، دین شما را کامل کردم و نعمت خود را بر شما تمام نمودم و اسلام را به عنوان آیین (جاودان) شما پذیرفتم- امّا آنها که در حال گرسنگی، دستشان به غذای دیگری نرسد، و متمایل به گناه نباشند، (مانعی ندارد که از گوشتهای ممنوع بخورند) خداوند، آمرزنده و مهربان است.»[۱]

زمان نزول آیه[ویرایش]

شیعه و سنی دربارهٔ زمان نزول این بخش از آیه تنها دو قول را مطرح کرده‌اند: نزول آن در حجةالوداع در روز عرفه و نزول آن در غدیرخم[۲]

کامل شدن دین[ویرایش]

درباره عبارت «أَکمَلْتُ لَکمْ دینَکمْ» (دین تان را برای تان کامل کردم)، مباحث بسیاری در کتاب‌های تفسیر آمده است. مفسران در این زمینه دیدگاه‌های متفاوتی دارند. برخی از مفسران به این دلیل که در ابتدا و انتهای آیه، احکام شرعی بیان شده است، مراد از کامل‌شدن دین را نزول همه احکام شرعی قلمداد می کنند.

گروهی دیگر از مفسران با توجه به آنکه در آیه از مأیوس‌ شدن کافران از اسلام سخن آمده است، این دیدگاه را نمی‌پذیرند؛ زیرا معتقدند احکام شرعی نمی‌ تواند به تنهایی موجب حفظ دین و مأیوس‌ شدن کافران از آن شود. آنها همچنین اشکال می‌کنند که با اعلام این احکام شرعی، احکام اسلام کامل نشد؛ چراکه پس از آنها آیات دیگری از همین سوره و دیگر سوره‌های قرآن نازل شد و در آنها احکام دیگری بیان شد.[۳]

این عده با استناد به روایات شأن نزول آیه از امامان شیعه، منظور از کامل‌شدن دین را اعلام ولایت و قایم شدن دین به قیم می‌دانند.[۴]

پانویس[ویرایش]

  1. قرآن. ترجمه مکارم شیرازی، ناصر.
  2. پژوهشی دربارهٔ مفاد آیه اکمال از دیدگاه فریقین، فتح‌الله نجارزادگان، طلوع، زمستان 1384، شماره16
  3. تفسیر تسنیم، مرکز نشر اسرا، ۱۳۹۰، ص. ۶۰۰-۵۹۴، شابک ۹۷۸-۹۶۴-۷۸۳۹-۴۷-۳ مقدار |شابک= را بررسی کنید: checksum (کمک) از پارامتر ناشناخته |ترجمه و تدوین= صرف‌نظر شد (کمک)
  4. تفسیر تسنیم، مرکز نشر اسرا، ۱۳۹۰، ص. ۶۰۰-۵۹۷، شابک ۹۷۸-۹۶۴-۷۸۳۹-۴۷-۳ مقدار |شابک= را بررسی کنید: checksum (کمک) از پارامتر ناشناخته |ترجمه و تدوین= صرف‌نظر شد (کمک)


The Āyat Ikmāl ad-Dīn (Arabic: آیَة إِکْمَال الدِّيْن‎, Verse of the Perfection of the Religion) is the third verse of Surah Al-Ma'idah in the Quran. In this verse God (Allah) says that he had perfected the religion and completed the blessing. According to Sunni Muslims, the verse was revealed on the day of Arafah during the Farewell Pilgrimage.[1] Shia Muslims meanwhile believe that it was revealed during the Event of Ghadir Khumm.[2]

Context

حُرِّ‌مَتْ عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَيْتَةُ وَالدَّمُ وَلَحْمُ الْخِنزِيرِ‌ وَمَا أُهِلَّ لِغَيْرِ‌ اللهِ بِهِ وَالْمُنْخَنِقَةُ وَالْمَوْقُوذَةُ وَالْمُتَرَ‌دِّيَةُ وَالنَّطِيحَةُ وَمَا أَكَلَ السَّبُعُ إِلَّا مَا ذَكَّيْتُمْ وَمَا ذُبِحَ عَلَى النُّصُبِ وَأَن تَسْتَقْسِمُوا بِالْأَزْلَامِ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ فِسْقٌ ۗ الْيَوْمَ يَئِسَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُ‌وا مِن دِينِكُمْ فَلَا تَخْشَوْهُمْ وَاخْشَوْنِ ۚ الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَ‌ضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإِسْلَامَ دِينًا ۚ فَمَنِ اضْطُرَّ‌ فِي مَخْمَصَةٍ غَيْرَ‌ مُتَجَانِفٍ لِّإِثْمٍ ۙ فَإِنَّ اللهَ غَفُورٌ‌ رَّ‌حِيمٌ

...

Forbidden to you (for food) are: dead meat, blood, the flesh of swine, and that on which hath been invoked the name of other than Allah; that which hath been killed by strangling, or by a violent blow, or by a headlong fall, or by being gored to death; that which hath been (partly) eaten by a wild animal; unless ye are able to slaughter it (in due form); that which is sacrificed on stone (altars); (forbidden) also is the division (of meat) by raffling with arrows: that is impiety. This day have those who reject faith given up all hope of your religion: yet fear them not but fear Me. This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion. But if any is forced by hunger, with no inclination to transgression, Allah is indeed Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.

— Quran, 5:3[3]

Tafsir

According to some sources this verse is the final verse that was revealed to Muhammad.[4] Sa ibn 'Abdullah on the authority of his father on the authority of his grandfather narrated that Ali said: "Quranic texts used to be repealed by the newer ones; consequently, the Holy Prophet used to take up the latest. Sura al-Ma'ida repealed the other surah because it was the final."[5] Also in Dur al-Manthur, Al-Muhalla, Majma al-Zawa'id, Al-Tibbyan Fi Tafsir al-Quran, and al-Ghadir, are mentioned that this verse is the final verse of Quran.[6][7][8][9][10]

Place and day of revelation

All Shi'ite and Sunni scholars believe this verse is revealed in farewell pilgrimage but there is no consensus that which day of farewell pilgrimage is day of its revelation. There are three opinions:

Pond of Khumm

Some scholars such as Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, Hakim Haskani and Abu'l-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi hold the opinion that this verse was revealed at the pond of Khumm.[11] Moreover, in Sahih hadiths that Shia sources have narrated this verse was revealed at Khumm or after soon.[12][13][14] According to some Sunni sources this verse was revealed on that day but scholars hold the opinion that such narrations are weak and unreliable.[15][16]

Day of Arafah

According to some Narration this verse was revealed on the day of 'Arafah: Narrated 'Umar ibn Al-Khattab:

Once a Jew said to me, "O the chief of believers! There is a verse in your Holy Book Which is read by all of you (Muslims), and had it been revealed to us, we would have taken that day on which it was revealed as a day of celebration." 'Umar bin Al-Khattab asked, "Which is that verse?" The Jew replied, "This day I have perfected your religion For you, completed My favor upon you, And have chosen for you Islam as your religion." (5:3) 'Umar replied, "No doubt, we know when and where this verse was revealed to the Prophet. It was Friday and the Prophet was standing at 'Arafa."

— Umar ibn Al-Khattab[1][17]

There are a few narrations in Shi'ite sources that are said this verse is revealed in day of Arafah but the cause of revelation is the Wilayah of Ali.[18]

Both days

Some scholars hold the view that this verse was revealed twice, once on the day of Arafah and once on the day of pond of Khumm.[19][20]

Cause of the Revelation

Shia Scholars say that the cause of revelation of this verse was announcing of Wilayah of Ali.[21][22] For example, Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i in Tafsir al-Mizan has said that the cause of the revelation of this verse was the pond of Khumm event and Ali's Wilayah.[2]

Perfection of the Religion

During the Farewell Hajj, which took place in the last days of the Holy Prophet (S)’s lifetime, Almighty Allah revealed to him saying, ‘This day have I perfected your religion, completed My favors to you and have chosen Islam as a religion. 6:3’ [23] Imamate has been a part of the perfection of the religion. The Holy Prophet (S) did not depart this world before he had manifested to the Ummah the points of their religion, showed them the right courses that they should take, situated them on the right path and assigned Imam `Ali (a.s.) as leader and Imam for them. As a matter of fact, he did not leave anything without thorough manifestation.[24]

There have been many discussions in the commentary books on the phrase "Perfection of Religion" (I have perfected your religion). Commentators have different views on this. Some commentators, because of the fact that at the beginning and at the end of the verse, religious law is stated, refer it to the fulfillment of completion of all religious laws. Another group of commentators disagree with the metioned view According to the verse that speaks about of despair of the disbelievers of Islam. because they believe that religious law alone cannot preserve the religion and make the disbelievers despair of it. They also complain that with declaration of these religious rulings, Islam's rules was not completed, because after that other verses of the same surah and other surahs of the Qur'an were revealed and other rules and sentences were stated.[25] Based on the narrations of the Shia Imams, it is stated that the purpose of completing the religion is to proclaim the guardianship and to become the guardian of the religion.[26]

Difference between Completion and Perfection

Completion is applied where various parts of something come in a sequence and it is not complete unless all parts are assembled. When the last part joins the other parts we can say it is complete. But in the case of perfection, it is not that there is an incomplete issue. An item may be complete but still not perfect. In fact, the difference between completion and perfection is the same as the difference between quantity and quality. Qur'an says, on the one hand, that I have completed your religion and says, on the other hand, that I have perfected my blessings.[27]


See also

References

  1. ^ a b al-Bukhari, Muhammad. Sahih al-Bukhari. 5. p. 89.
  2. ^ a b Tabataba'i, Muhammad Husayn. Tafsir al-Mizan. 5.
  3. ^ "Al-Ma'ida (5:3)".
  4. ^ Ya'qubi. Tarikh al-Yaqubi. 2. p. 35.
  5. ^ Al-Mustafa center for Islamic Researchers. Verses of Ghadir. Ansarian Paplications-Qom.
  6. ^ al-Suyuti, Jalal al-Din. Dur al-Manthur. 2. p. 252.
  7. ^ Ibn Hazm. Al-Muhalla. 9. p. 407.
  8. ^ al-Haythami, Ali ibn Abu Bakr. Majma al-Zawa'id. 1. p. 256.
  9. ^ Shaykh Tusi. Al-Tibbyan Fi Tafsir al-Quran. 3. p. 413.
  10. ^ Amini, Abd Al Husayn. al-Ghadir. 1. p. 228.
  11. ^ Answering to religious questions, Nasir Makarem Shirazi, Ja'far Sobhani, publication: the school of al-Imam al-Ali ibn abi Talib, p.187
  12. ^ al-Bahrani, Seyyed Hashim. Al-Burhan Fi Tafsir al-Quran. 1. pp. 434–437.
  13. ^ Makarem Shirazi, Naser. Tafsir Nemooneh. 4. pp. 263–271.
  14. ^ Sobhani, Ja'far. Al-Iman va al-Kofr fi al-Ketab va al-Sunnah. 1. p. 244.
  15. ^ Ibn Kathir. Tafsir al-Quran al-Azim. 2. p. 14.
  16. ^ Suyuti, Jalaluddin. Dur al-Manthur. 3. p. 19.
  17. ^ Ibn Kathir. "Tafsir al-Quran al-Azim".
  18. ^ al-Kulayni, Muhammad ibn Ya'qub. Kitab al-Kafi. 1. p. 291.
  19. ^ Suyuti, Jalaluddin. Al-Itqan fi Ulum al-Qur'an. 1. p. 75.
  20. ^ al-Bukhari, Muhammad. Sahih al-Bukhari. 31. p. 311.
  21. ^ al-Bahrani, Syyed Hashim. Al-Burhan Fi Tafsir al-Quran. 1. p. 421.
  22. ^ Howayzi, Abdul Ali Aroussi. Tafsir Noor al-Thaqalayn. 1. p. 590.
  23. ^ The Verse of Ikmal al-Din (The Final Verse) : Verses of Ghadir : Al-Islam.org Al-Islam.org
  24. ^ The Verse of Ikmal al-Din (The Final Verse) : Verses of Ghadir : Al-Islam.org Al-Islam.org
  25. ^ Tasneem Tafsir, 22. p. 594-600
  26. ^ Tasneem Tafsir, 22. p. 597-600
  27. ^ Motahari, Imāmat wa rahbarī, p. 88-89.