مفاد آیه اکمال[ویرایش]
قسمت مورد نظر در زیر با حروف بزرگ نوشته شده است:
زمان نزول آیه[ویرایش]
کامل شدن دین[ویرایش]
درباره عبارت «أَکمَلْتُ لَکمْ دینَکمْ» (دین تان را برای تان کامل کردم)، مباحث بسیاری در کتابهای تفسیر آمده است. مفسران در این زمینه دیدگاههای متفاوتی دارند. برخی از مفسران به این دلیل که در ابتدا و انتهای آیه، احکام شرعی بیان شده است، مراد از کاملشدن دین را نزول همه احکام شرعی قلمداد می کنند.
گروهی دیگر از مفسران با توجه به آنکه در آیه از مأیوس شدن کافران از اسلام سخن آمده است، این دیدگاه را نمیپذیرند؛ زیرا معتقدند احکام شرعی نمی تواند به تنهایی موجب حفظ دین و مأیوس شدن کافران از آن شود. آنها همچنین اشکال میکنند که با اعلام این احکام شرعی، احکام اسلام کامل نشد؛ چراکه پس از آنها آیات دیگری از همین سوره و دیگر سورههای قرآن نازل شد و در آنها احکام دیگری بیان شد.
این عده با استناد به روایات شأن نزول آیه از امامان شیعه، منظور از کاملشدن دین را اعلام ولایت و قایم شدن دین به قیم میدانند.
The Āyat Ikmāl ad-Dīn (Arabic: آیَة إِکْمَال الدِّيْن, Verse of the Perfection of the Religion) is the third verse of Surah Al-Ma'idah in the Quran. In this verse God (Allah) says that he had perfected the religion and completed the blessing. According to Sunni Muslims, the verse was revealed on the day of Arafah during the Farewell Pilgrimage. Shia Muslims meanwhile believe that it was revealed during the Event of Ghadir Khumm.
According to some sources this verse is the final verse that was revealed to Muhammad. Sa ibn 'Abdullah on the authority of his father on the authority of his grandfather narrated that Ali said: "Quranic texts used to be repealed by the newer ones; consequently, the Holy Prophet used to take up the latest. Sura al-Ma'ida repealed the other surah because it was the final." Also in Dur al-Manthur, Al-Muhalla, Majma al-Zawa'id, Al-Tibbyan Fi Tafsir al-Quran, and al-Ghadir, are mentioned that this verse is the final verse of Quran.
Place and day of revelation
All Shi'ite and Sunni scholars believe this verse is revealed in farewell pilgrimage but there is no consensus that which day of farewell pilgrimage is day of its revelation. There are three opinions:
Pond of Khumm
Some scholars such as Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, Hakim Haskani and Abu'l-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi hold the opinion that this verse was revealed at the pond of Khumm. Moreover, in Sahih hadiths that Shia sources have narrated this verse was revealed at Khumm or after soon. According to some Sunni sources this verse was revealed on that day but scholars hold the opinion that such narrations are weak and unreliable.
Day of Arafah
Cause of the Revelation
Shia Scholars say that the cause of revelation of this verse was announcing of Wilayah of Ali. For example, Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i in Tafsir al-Mizan has said that the cause of the revelation of this verse was the pond of Khumm event and Ali's Wilayah.
Perfection of the Religion
During the Farewell Hajj, which took place in the last days of the Holy Prophet (S)’s lifetime, Almighty Allah revealed to him saying, ‘This day have I perfected your religion, completed My favors to you and have chosen Islam as a religion. 6:3’  Imamate has been a part of the perfection of the religion. The Holy Prophet (S) did not depart this world before he had manifested to the Ummah the points of their religion, showed them the right courses that they should take, situated them on the right path and assigned Imam `Ali (a.s.) as leader and Imam for them. As a matter of fact, he did not leave anything without thorough manifestation.
There have been many discussions in the commentary books on the phrase "Perfection of Religion" (I have perfected your religion). Commentators have different views on this. Some commentators, because of the fact that at the beginning and at the end of the verse, religious law is stated, refer it to the fulfillment of completion of all religious laws. Another group of commentators disagree with the metioned view According to the verse that speaks about of despair of the disbelievers of Islam. because they believe that religious law alone cannot preserve the religion and make the disbelievers despair of it. They also complain that with declaration of these religious rulings, Islam's rules was not completed, because after that other verses of the same surah and other surahs of the Qur'an were revealed and other rules and sentences were stated. Based on the narrations of the Shia Imams, it is stated that the purpose of completing the religion is to proclaim the guardianship and to become the guardian of the religion.
Difference between Completion and Perfection
Completion is applied where various parts of something come in a sequence and it is not complete unless all parts are assembled. When the last part joins the other parts we can say it is complete. But in the case of perfection, it is not that there is an incomplete issue. An item may be complete but still not perfect. In fact, the difference between completion and perfection is the same as the difference between quantity and quality. Qur'an says, on the one hand, that I have completed your religion and says, on the other hand, that I have perfected my blessings.